Abstract:
The abelian projection of lattice gluodynamics is reviewed. The main topics are: abelian and monopole dominance, monopole condensate as the disorder parameter, effective abelian Lagrangian, monopoles in the instanton field, Aharonov -- Bohm effect on the lattice.

Abstract:
't~Hooft's abelian projection of $SU(N)$ gauge theory yields $N$ mutually constrained, compact abelian fields which are permutationally equivalent. We formulate the notion of ``species permutation'' symmetry of the $N$ abelian projection fields and discuss its consequences for cross-species correlators. We show that at large $N$ cross-species interactions are ${1\over N}$ suppressed relative to same-species interactions. Numerical simulations at $N=3$ support our symmetry arguments and reveal the existence of inter-species interactions of size ${\cal O\/}\bigl({1\over N-1}\bigr)$ as analytically predicted.

Abstract:
The fractal dimension $D_f$ of sites resisting Landau or maximal Abelian(MA) gauge fixing in lattice $SU(3)$ gluodynamics is defined and computed. In Landau gauge such sites clump into $D_f\sim 1$ clusters in the confining phase. In the finite temperature phase their dimensionality drops to $D_f < 1$, that is, clustering seems to dissipate. In contrast, MA gauge resistant sites fail to exhibit a notable tendency to cluster at any temperature.

Abstract:
We study a field--theoretical analogue of the Aharonov--Bohm effect in the Abelian Higgs Model: the corresponding topological interaction is proportional to the linking number of the Abrikosov--Nielsen--Olesen string world sheets and the particle world trajectory. The creation operators of the strings are explicitly constructed in the path integral and in the Hamiltonian formulation of the theory. We show that the Aharonov--Bohm effect gives rise to several nontrivial commutation relations. We also study the Aharonov--Bohm effect in the lattice formulation of the Abelian Higgs Model. It occurs that this effect gives rise to a nontrivial interaction of tested charged particles.

Abstract:
The monopole confinement mechanism in the abelian projection of lattice gluodynamics is reviewed. The main topics are: the abelian projection on the lattice and in the continuum, a numerical study of the abelian monopoles in the lattice gauge theory. Additionally, we briefly review the notation of differential forms, duality, and the BKT transformation in the lattice gauge theories.

Abstract:
We investigate lattice Weinberg - Salam model without fermions for the value of the Weinberg angle $\theta_W \sim 30^o$, and bare fine structure constant around $\alpha \sim 1/150$. We consider the value of the scalar self coupling corresponding to bare Higgs mass around 150 GeV. The effective constraint potential for the zero momentum scalar field is used in order to investigate phenomena existing in the vicinity of the phase transition between the physical Higgs phase and the unphysical symmetric phase of the lattice model. This is the region of the phase diagram, where the continuum physics is to be approached. We compare the above mentioned effective potential (calculated in selected gauges) with the effective potential for the value of the scalar field at a fixed space - time point. We also calculate the renormalized fine structure constant using the correlator of Polyakov lines and compare it with the one - loop perturbative estimate.

Abstract:
Dynamics of Wilson loops in pure Yang-Mills theories is analyzed in terms of random walks of the holonomies of the gauge field on the gauge group manifold. It is shown that such random walks should necessarily be free. The distribution of steps of these random walks is related to the spectrum of string tensions of the theory and to certain cumulants of Yang-Mills curvature tensor. It turns out that when colour charges are completely screened, the holonomies of the gauge field can change only by the elements of the group center, which indicates that in the screening regime confinement persists due to thin center vortices. Thick center vortices are also considered and the emergence of such stepwise changes in the limits of infinitely thin vortices and infinitely large loops is demonstrated.

Abstract:
It is shown that the action associated with center vortices in SU(2) lattice gauge theory is strongly correlated with extrinsic and internal curvatures of the vortex surface and that this correlation persists in the continuum limit. Thus a good approximation for the effective vortex action is the action of rigid strings, which can reproduce some of the observed geometric properties of center vortices. It is conjectured that rigidity may be induced by some fields localized on vortices, and a model-independent test of localization is performed. Monopoles detected in the Abelian projection are discussed as natural candidates for such two-dimensional fields.

Abstract:
We study the representations of SU(2) lattice gauge theory in terms of sums over the worldsheets of center vortices and Z2 electric strings, i.e. surfaces which open on the Wilson loop. It is shown that in contrast to center vortices the density of electric Z2 strings diverges in the continuum limit of the theory independently of the gauge fixing, however, their contribution to the Wilson loop yields physical string tension due to non-positivity of their statistical weight in the path integral, which is in turn related to the presence of Z2 topological monopoles in the theory.

Abstract:
We report on the recent progress in theoretical and numerical studies of entanglement entropy in lattice gauge theories. It is shown that the concept of quantum entanglement between gauge fields in two complementary regions of space can only be introduced if the Hilbert space of physical states is extended in a certain way. In the extended Hilbert space, the entanglement entropy can be partially interpreted as the classical Shannon entropy of the flux of the gauge fields through the boundary between the two regions. Such an extension leads to a reduction procedure which can be easily implemented in lattice simulations by constructing lattices with special topology. This enables us to measure the entanglement entropy in lattice Monte-Carlo simulations. On the simplest example of Z2 lattice gauge theory in (2 + 1) dimensions we demonstrate the relation between entanglement entropy and the classical entropy of the field flux. For SU(2) lattice gauge theory in four dimensions, we find a signature of non-analytic dependence of the entanglement entropy on the size of the region. We also comment on the holographic interpretation of the entanglement entropy.