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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 402239 matches for " M. Hughes "
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Hughes M. Terry
Profile Issues in Teachers` Professional Development , 2002,
Abstract: The theory of Multiple Intelligences by Howard Gardner is enlightening and extremely useful in the EFL (English as a Foreign Language) classroom. For starters it helps the teacher in understanding the individual differences found in the classroom and to comprehend how students go about learning. Multiple intelligences are not always taken into account even though they are very observable in children, since they are still so innocent and honest in their learning process. The purpose of this article is to discuss the importance of approaching the individuals encountered in our classroom, giving them the equal opportunity of learning another language and above all making our classes fun and resourceful so that these young learners are motivated for a lifetime.
Self-Steem and changes in heart rate during laboratory-based stress.
Hughes B. M.
Psicológica , 2003,
Self-Steem and changes in heart rate during laboratory-based stress
Brian M. Hughes
Psicológica , 2003,
Abstract: The relationship between self-esteem (SE), type of stressor, and fluctuations in heart rate was assessed in a sample of 59 college students (40 females, 19 males; with a mean age of 23.98 years (SEM = 1.0)). SE was measured using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The study assessed whether SE buffers the cardiovascular response to stress by comparing responses to two types of stressor: mental arithmetic and verbal memory. As predicted, an SE x stressor interaction was found (p = 0.039). High-SE participants found both stressors moderately stressful but low-SE participants found the mental arithmetic task particularly stressful. This is consistent with the view that mental arithmetic elicits a specific fear that exceeds that associated with other domains of performance. The present study suggests that such fear affects low-SE participants more strongly than high-SE participants. The interaction was statistically independent of potential physiological contaminants such as gender, age, smoking, and caffeine consumption.
Librarian and LIS Faculty Participation in Self-Archiving Practice Needs Improvement. A Review of: Xia, J., Wilhoite, S. K., & Myers, R. L. (2011). A “librarian-LIS faculty” divide in open access practice. Journal of Documentation, 67(5), 791-805. doi:10.1108/00220411111164673
Annie M. Hughes
Evidence Based Library and Information Practice , 2012,
Abstract: Objective – To compare librarian and LISfaculty open access (OA) self-archivingbehavior. Design – Logistical Regression Analysis. Setting – Twenty top-ranked library andinformation science journals published in 2006. Subjects – A total of 812 research articles inLIS journals. Methods – For the purpose of data collection,the researchers first compiled a list of libraryand information science journals utilizingJournal Citation Reports (JCR) from 2006.Twenty journals were selected by consideringimpact factor and the list compiled waschecked against Ulrich’s Periodicals Directoryfollowing a similar methodology utilized in a2007 article by Anita Coleman. The sampleincluded was representative of both libraryand information science journals, and therewere exclusions of 3 types of journals: freeonline journals where OA participation couldnot be measured; subscription based journalsthat do not supply free articles; and annualreview journals. Here, OA participation or OApractice is considered to be author selfarchivingof articles that are not freelyavailable online. Research articles wereincluded in the sample; however, editorialsand book reviews were excluded. Theresearchers also collected information aboutthe article itself, including the title, name of thejournal and name of the author. Only firstauthor’s status as librarian or LIS faculty wasconsidered in data collection. One difficulty in collecting data about the authors was that their professional status was not always clear. The researchers collected information on whether the author’s status was librarian or faculty; when an author’s status was unclear, researchers searched online to determine it. If the author’s status still could not be determined via online searching, the authors chose to exclude those articles.After the articles were collected, Google Scholar was searched in order to determine OA status. The articles that were deemed OA were opened and if the article was downloadable, it was included; otherwise, it was not included. Researchers also avoided linking to articles through their own library portal which would have allowed for access to articles through their own library’s subscription. Other data was collected using Web of Science and included citation information; length of articles; and number of references, authors, and self-citations.Analysis of data was performed utilizing logistic regression. The researchers selected the professional status (librarian or faculty) as the dependent variable, assigning 1 to librarian status and 0 to faculty status. The independent variables included the
Adherence to RUSA’s Guidelines for Virtual Reference Services is Below Expected in Academic Libraries. A Review of: Platt, J. & Benson, P. (2010). Improving the virtual reference experience: How closely do academic libraries adhere to RUSA guidelines? Journal of Library and Information Services in Distance Learning, 4(1-2), 30-42.
Annie M. Hughes
Evidence Based Library and Information Practice , 2010,
Abstract: Objective – To evaluate the quality of academic libraries’ virtual reference services and measure compliance to the Reference & User Services Association’s (RUSA’s) Guidelines for Virtual Reference & User Services. Design – Qualitative research study evaluating virtual reference chat sessions using RUSA’s Guidelines for Virtual Reference & User Services. Setting – Virtual reference environments in public academic libraries in the United States. Subjects – Twenty virtual reference providers from public academic libraries. Methods – Initially researchers selected 1 academic library out of each of the 50 states to evaluate for quality virtual chat reference services, however because of factors including time and availability of virtual chat services to unaffiliated institutions; the sample included only 20 academic libraries.After selecting the 20 academic libraries for evaluation, researchers posed as virtual chat reference patrons using emails and aliases that had no affiliation to any particular institution. Researchers then asked the librarian or librarystaff a two-part question making sure to leave out any library jargon or anything that would lead the virtual chat reference operator to recognize that they are also affiliated with a library or library school.Using the RUSA Guidelines for Virtual Reference & User Services, researchers then evaluated their virtual chat reference experience for the following: Approachability; Interest; Listening/Inquiring; Searching; Follow-Up; Suggests patron call or visit the library. Main Results – When evaluated for jargon-free websites and overall usability in finding all types of reference services, 80% of the library’s websites were easy to use and jargon free, reflecting overall high usability. Evaluation of library staff’s ability to maintain “word contact” by writing prompts to convey interest in the patron’s question left some room for improvement. Sixty percent of researchers coding their virtual reference experience thought the level of contact was below expected. Information regarding question and answering procedures, question scope, types of answers provided and expected turnaround time for questions was only available in 30% of examined websites. Thirty-five percent of researchers felt that library staff members gathered enough information to answer the question without compromising privacy, however, 25% thought that staff members gathered a very small amount of information on the patron’s need, although privacy never felt compromised. When researchers evaluated the library staff member on their ability t
There is a Relationship between Resource Expenditures and Reference Transactions in Academic Libraries. A Review of: Dubnjakovic, A. (2012). Electronic resource expenditure and the decline in reference transaction statistics in academic libraries. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 38(2), 94-100. doi:10.1016/j.acalib.2012.01.001
Annie M. Hughes
Evidence Based Library and Information Practice , 2013,
Abstract: Objective – To provide an analysis of the impact of expenditures on electronic resourcesand gate counts on the increase or decrease in reference transactions. Design – Analysis of results of existing survey data from the National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) 2006 Academic Library Survey(ALS). Setting – Academic libraries in the United States. Subjects – 3925 academic library respondents. Methods – The author chose to use survey data collected from the 2006 ALS conducted bythe NCES. The survey included data on various topics related to academic libraries, but in the case of this study, the author chose to analyze three of the 193 variables included. The three variables: electronic books expenditure, computer hardware and software, and expenditures on bibliographic utilities, were combined into one variable called electronic resource expenditure. Gate counts were also considered as a variable. Electronic resource expenditure was also split as a variable into three groups: low, medium, and high. Multiple regression analysis and general linear modeling, along with tests of reliability, were employed. Main Results – The author determined that low, medium, and high spenders with regard to electronic resources exhibited differences in gate counts, and gate counts have an effect on reference transactions in any given week. Gate counts tend to not have much of an effect on reference transactions for the higher spenders, and higher spenders tend to have a higher number of reference transactions overall. Low spenders have lower gate counts and also a lower amount of reference transactions. Conclusion – The findings from this study show that academic libraries spending more on electronic resources also tend to have an increase with regard to reference transactions. The author also concludes that library spaces are no longer the determining factor with regard to number of reference transactions. Spending more on electronic resources is also important to increase both in-person and electronic reference transactions.
The Library as a Preferred Place for Studying: Observation of Students’ Use of Physical Spaces. A Review of: Applegate, R. (2009). The library is for studying: Student preferences for study space. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 35(4), 341-346.
Annie M. Hughes
Evidence Based Library and Information Practice , 2011,
Abstract: Objective – To determine students’ utilization of physical spaces in the library, excluding computer labs or stacks. Design – Observational research, unobtrusive method. Setting – Areas of space in the University Library, as well as within adjoining areas at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, such as carrels, tables, soft chairs, and study rooms. Subjects – Students using the library’s space. Methods – The researcher chose to collect data via observation of individuals and groups in a particular space in the library, noting the gender of the individuals using the space and whether or not they were using laptops. Areas of space examined were carrels, group study rooms, chairs and sofas, tables and chairs in the Academic Commons, and benches and chairs within corridors. The unit of analysis used was equal to an individual seat. The research excluded stack space as well as any space with fixed computer stations. The time periods chosen to study the spaces were selected based on the author’s previous research. Due to higher daytime usage than evening, data was collected at two time periods during the day: 12-1 p.m. and 3-4 p.m., Monday through Friday. The researcher recorded the time of the semester as well, choosing weeks 14-17 in Fall 2007 and weeks 10-17 in Spring 2008. Space diagrams for collecting data were created, and each area had different collection times. All data was entered into a database in which each area was recorded with the number and type of users. Each area had a different capacity as to how many individuals it could hold. If the percentage of capacity was higher than 50%, the usage was considered to be notable. Main Results – The researchers observed a few patterns from their data collection. Gender analysis provided information regarding the use of laptops; men were more likely to use them than women. While men were a smaller part of the overall university demographic while this research took place, they utilized the library spaces most.As expected, library usage increased as the end of each semester neared, suggesting that the spaces are used mainly for study purposes. The author also chose to collect data regarding library usage by semester, which is questionable because the student population declined from fall to spring and a Campus Center opened, providing another study space.The most attractive spaces in the library were study rooms, and for the most part, groups, as opposed to individual students, utilized these rooms. The chair and sofa areas of the library were the next most popular areas, but the study carrel
Theory of disorder-induced multiple coherent scattering in photonic crystal waveguides
M. Patterson,S. Hughes
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1088/2040-8978/12/10/104013
Abstract: We introduce a theoretical formalism to describe disorder-induced extrinsic scattering in slow-light photonic crystal waveguides. This work details and extends the optical scattering theory used in a recent \emph{Physical Review Letter} [M. Patterson \emph{et al.}, \emph{Phys. Rev. Lett.} \textbf{102}, 103901 (2009)] to describe coherent scattering phenomena and successfully explain complex experimental measurements. Our presented theory, that combines Green function and coupled mode methods, allows one to self-consistently account for arbitrary multiple scattering for the propagating electric field and recover experimental features such as resonances near the band edge. The technique is fully three-dimensional and can calculate the effects of disorder on the propagating field over thousands of unit cells. As an application of this theory, we explore various sample lengths and disordered instances, and demonstrate the profound effect of multiple scattering in the waveguide transmission. The spectra yield rich features associated with disorder-induced localization and multiple scattering, which are shown to be exasperated in the slow light propagation regime.
Interplay between disorder and local field effects in photonic crystal waveguides
M Patterson,S. Hughes
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.81.245321
Abstract: We introduce a theory to describe disorder-induced scattering in photonic crystal waveguides, specifically addressing the influence of local field effects and scattering within high-index-contrast perturbations. Local field effects are shown to increase the predicted disorder-induced scattering loss and result in significant resonance shifts of the waveguide mode. We demonstrate that two types of frequency shifts can be expected, a mean frequency shift and a RMS frequency shift, both acting in concert to blueshift and broaden the nominal band structure. For a representative waveguide, we predict substantial meV frequency shifts and band structure broadening for a telecommunications operating frequency, even for state of the art fabrication. The disorder-induced broadening is found to increase as the propagation frequency approaches the slow light regime (mode edge) due to restructuring of the electric field distribution. These findings have a dramatic impact on high-index-contrast nanoscale waveguides, and, for photonic crystal waveguides, suggest that the nominal slow-light mode edge may not even exist. Furthermore, our results shed new light on why it has hitherto been impossible to observe the very slow light regime for photonic crystal waveguides.
Muscular expressions: profiling genes in complex tissues
Richard Hampson, Simon M Hughes
Genome Biology , 2001, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2001-2-12-reviews1033
Abstract: Skeletal muscle is a good complex tissue to study using expression profiling, because muscles are biochemically and functionally similar and yet have clear anatomical and physiological differences, the molecular bases for which are as yet mysterious. Major features that distinguish between muscles are their distinct metabolic and contractile properties, and during the past century many differences in protein and cognate mRNA levels were characterized that underlie these distinctions (reviewed in [1]). These studies provided reagents with which to dissect muscle development and function but, in general, other types of work were required to find underlying control mechanisms. A hope with expression profiling is that, by obtaining a complete mRNA picture, quantitatively minor components with important control functions may be elucidated and can then be analyzed. Alternatively, correlated changes in several mRNAs may highlight the involvement of a previously unsuspected regulatory 'system'. How far do the four recent reports [2,3,4,5] on gene-expression profiling on mammalian skeletal muscles take us?In one analysis on mice [2], the traditional classification of muscles into 'red' and 'white', composed of slower- and faster-contracting fibers, respectively, was confirmed at the level of RNA profile. Around 20% of the approximately 6,000 genes on the Affymetrix Mu6500 oligonucleotide microarray were significantly expressed in the tissues examined, and around 12% of expressed genes (or about 150 genes in total) were found to be differentially expressed between the two tissue types. A number of these are genes already known to be differentially expressed between red and white muscle (such as myosin isoforms), but some (such as the gene for the homeodomain transcription factor LIM1) were not. In their discussion [2], the authors speculate on several expression-level differences that they find striking. Perhaps the most interesting is the observation that the calcium-activat
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