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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 402246 matches for " M. Hofmann "
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Der Einfluss und die Stellung des V lkerrechts in den Verfassungssystemen einiger ost- und Mitteleurop erfassungssystemen Einiger Ost- und Mitteleurop ischer Transformationsstaaten
M Hofmann, M Faix
Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad , 2008,
Abstract: Some twenty years ago, the importance of international law, particularly for practical purposes, could be described as marginal in national legal orders in the socialist Central and Eastern European (CEE) Countries. The main reason for this was the dualist approach in regard to international law. Fundamental political and economic changes, such as the Velvet Revolution in Czechoslovakia, marked the end of the cold war and the beginning of a transition process. The changes in national legal orders have been accompanied by substantial modifications in the area of constitutional law, mostly resulting in the adoption of entirely new or radically modified constitutions. This is true also for the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland and the Russian Federation. One of the most remarkable common characteristics of the new constitutions of the CEE countries is the shift from a dualistic approach to a broad openness to international law. Despite this common feature the manifestation of this openness cannot be regarded as uniform – the methods used by states to deal with international law and to ensure the conformity of the domestic legal order with their international obligations vary. The common denominator of the constitutional orders under review is the fact that the rules of international law are considered to be a part of their national legal orders. General provisions concerning the relationship between national law and international law can be found in the Czech, Russian and Polish constitutions, but not in the Slovak constitution. The common feature of all four constitutional texts is that they take a clear position on the status of treaties, stipulating conditions (approval by parliament, promulgation, etc) under which a treaty or certain categories of treaties (eg as listed by Article 49 of the Czech Constitution) will be considered to be part of the national legal order, as well as the hierarchical status of treaties in the case of a conflict with national law. In all four countries under consideration, the rank of treaties lies between the level of the Constitution and that of ordinary parliamentary statutes. The situation is considerably different in regard to the role of customary international law: only the Russian Constitution includes not only treaties but also customary international law in the legal order. Nevertheless, Slovak, Czech and Polish constitutional provisions stipulate the commitment of the states to fulfil their obligations under international law, including customary international law. Even though legally binding, these provisions are not identical with general provisions incorporating certain categories of international law as stated above. The openness to international law is demonstrated also by the inclusion of provisions pursuant to which states can transfer certain powers to international organizations. (Such provisions were included in the constitutions of e.g. Slovakia, Poland and the Czech Republic in the context of the
Der Einfluss und die Stellung des V lkerrechts in den Verfassungssystemen einiger ost- und Mitteleurop erfassungssystemen Einiger Ost- und Mitteleurop ischer Transformationsstaaten
M Hofmann,M Faix
Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad , 2008,
Abstract: Some twenty years ago, the importance of international law, particularly for practical purposes, could be described as marginal in national legal orders in the socialist Central and Eastern European (CEE) Countries. The main reason for this was the dualist approach in regard to international law. Fundamental political and economic changes, such as the Velvet Revolution in Czechoslovakia, marked the end of the cold war and the beginning of a transition process. The changes in national legal orders have been accompanied by substantial modifications in the area of constitutional law, mostly resulting in the adoption of entirely new or radically modified constitutions. This is true also for the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland and the Russian Federation. One of the most remarkable common characteristics of the new constitutions of the CEE countries is the shift from a dualistic approach to a broad openness to international law. Despite this common feature the manifestation of this openness cannot be regarded as uniform – the methods used by states to deal with international law and to ensure the conformity of the domestic legal order with their international obligations vary. The common denominator of the constitutional orders under review is the fact that the rules of international law are considered to be a part of their national legal orders. General provisions concerning the relationship between national law and international law can be found in the Czech, Russian and Polish constitutions, but not in the Slovak constitution. The common feature of all four constitutional texts is that they take a clear position on the status of treaties, stipulating conditions (approval by parliament, promulgation, etc) under which a treaty or certain categories of treaties (eg as listed by Article 49 of the Czech Constitution) will be considered to be part of the national legal order, as well as the hierarchical status of treaties in the case of a conflict with national law. In all four countries under consideration, the rank of treaties lies between the level of the Constitution and that of ordinary parliamentary statutes.The situation is considerably different in regard to the role of customary international law: only the Russian Constitution includes not only treaties but also customary international law in the legal order. Nevertheless, Slovak, Czech and Polish constitutional provisions stipulate the commitment of the states to fulfil their obligations under international law, including customary international law. Even though legally binding, these provisions are no
Determination of bound state wave functions by a genetic algorithm
Christian Winkler,Hartmut M. Hofmann
Physics , 1994, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevC.55.684
Abstract: We apply a stochastic method of minimizing the ground state energy in variational calculations of light nuclei using the Refined Resonating Group Model (RRGM). The method utilizes a bit representation of the width parameters to be varied. To find the best possible set of width parameters we use strategies familiar from biological evolution. Very complicated problems can be solved in this way because the method is intrinsically parallel. The algorithm can be used on parallel computers with any number of processors without any change.
Convolution Model for the Structure Functions of the Nucleon
J. Keppler,H. M. Hofmann
Physics , 1994,
Abstract: We start from an MIT-bag model calculation which provides information about the constituent quark distributions in the nucleon. The constituent quarks, however, are themselves considered as complex objects whose partonic substructure is resolved in deep inelastic scattering. This gives rise to structure functions of the constituent quarks which, in the unpolarized case, are fitted to data at a fixed scale employing three model parameters. Using $Q^{2}$--evolution equations the data are also well described at other scales. For the spin\-dependent struc\-ture func\-tions $g_{1}^{p,n}$ we additionally have to introduce polar\-izat\-ion functions for valence and sea quarks which are determined by exploiting the $x$--dependence of the available proton data only. A negatively polarized sea in the range $x\geq 0.01$ is suggested. We are then capable of predicting the shape of the neutron structure function $g_{1}^{n}$ which turns out to be in good agreement with experiment. Finally we present an estimate for the trans\-versely polarized structure function $g_{2}$, offering the possibility of extrac\-ting the twist--3 con\-tri\-bution and rating its importance.
The Spin Structure of the Proton in a Non-relativistic Quark Model
J. Keppler,H. M. Hofmann
Physics , 1994, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.51.3936
Abstract: The spin structure of the proton is investigated in the framework of an extended quark potential model which in addition to the conventional $3q$--structure also takes into account $(3q)(q\bar q)$--admixtures in the proton wave function. For reasons of parity such admixtures contain an odd orbital angular momentum thus allowing the proton spin to be shared among quark spins and orbital angular momenta. We show that only certain admixtures are suited for a significant reduction of the quark spin content of the proton as suggested by the EMC--result. Within a Hamiltonian model quark spin contributions to the proton spin down to $0.5$ can be reproduced easily.
The $A_y$-Problem in Refined Resonating Group Model calculations for ($p-^3{\rm He}$) Scattering
C. Reiss,H. M. Hofmann
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1016/S0375-9474(02)01587-7
Abstract: We report on a microscopic Refined Resonating Group Model (RRGM) calculation of scattering of $p$ off ${}^3{\rm He}$ employing the Argonne-$v_{14}$ and the Bonn nucleon-nucleon potentials without three-nucleon forces at low energies up to 30 MeV. The calculated phase-shifts verify the well-known proton analyzing power $A_y$-problem. We demonstrate that with corrected ${}^3P_2$ phase-shifts experimental differential cross-section and analyzing power data can be explained.
Momentum Distributions in Halo Nuclei
J. Wurzer,H. M. Hofmann
Physics , 1997,
Abstract: The halo nuclei $^6$He and $^8$He are described in a consistent way in a microscopic multiconfiguration model, the refined resonating group method. The ground state properties have been calculated, and momentum distributions of fragments and neutrons have been determined in a simple reaction scenario, taking into account final-state interactions. The correlation of neutrons and fragments are investigated.
Uniform Rectifiability and harmonic measure IV: Ahlfors regularity plus Poisson kernels in $L^p$ implies uniform rectifiability
Steve Hofmann,J. M. Martell
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: Let $E\subset \mathbb{R}^{n+1}$, $n\ge 2$, be an Ahlfors-David regular set of dimension $n$. We show that the weak-$A_\infty$ property of harmonic measure, for the open set $\Omega:= \mathbb{R}^{n+1}\setminus E$, implies uniform rectifiability of $E$.
Quantitative Models and Implicit Complexity
U. Dal Lago,M. Hofmann
Computer Science , 2005,
Abstract: We give new proofs of soundness (all representable functions on base types lies in certain complexity classes) for Elementary Affine Logic, LFPL (a language for polytime computation close to realistic functional programming introduced by one of us), Light Affine Logic and Soft Affine Logic. The proofs are based on a common semantical framework which is merely instantiated in four different ways. The framework consists of an innovative modification of realizability which allows us to use resource-bounded computations as realisers as opposed to including all Turing computable functions as is usually the case in realizability constructions. For example, all realisers in the model for LFPL are polynomially bounded computations whence soundness holds by construction of the model. The work then lies in being able to interpret all the required constructs in the model. While being the first entirely semantical proof of polytime soundness for light logi cs, our proof also provides a notable simplification of the original already semantical proof of polytime soundness for LFPL. A new result made possible by the semantic framework is the addition of polymorphism and a modality to LFPL thus allowing for an internal definition of inductive datatypes.
Microscopic calculation of the spin-dependent neutron scattering lengths on 3He
H. M. Hofmann,G. M. Hale
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevC.68.021002
Abstract: We report on the spin.dependent neutron scattering length on 3He from a microscopic calculation of p-3H, n-3He, and d-2H scattering employing the Argonne v18 nucleon-nucleon potential with and without additional three-nucleon force. The results and that of a comprehensive R-matrix analysis are compared to a recent measurement. The overall agreement for the scattering lengths is quite good. The imaginary parts of the scattering lengths are very sensitive to the inclusion of three-nucleon forces, whereas the real parts are almost insensitive.
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