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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 401451 matches for " M. Geha "
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Measuring Sizes of Ultra-Faint Dwarf Galaxies
R. R. Munoz,N. Padmanabhan,M. Geha
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/745/2/127
Abstract: The discovery of Ultra-Faint Dwarf (UFD) galaxies in the halo of the Milky Way extends the faint end of the galaxy luminosity function to a few hundred solar luminosities. This extremely low luminosity regime poses a significant challenge for the photometric characterization of these systems. We present a suite of simulations aimed at understanding how different observational choices related to the properties of a low luminosity system impact our ability to determine its true structural parameters such as half-light radius and central surface brightness. We focus on estimating half-light radii (on which mass estimates depend linearly) and find that these numbers can have up to 100% uncertainties when relatively shallow photometric surveys, such as SDSS, are used. Our simulations suggest that to recover structural parameters within 10% or better of their true values: (a) the ratio of the field-of-view to the half-light radius of the satellite must be greater than three, (b) the total number of stars, including background objects should be larger than 1000, and (c) the central to background stellar density ratio must be higher than 20. If one or more of these criteria are not met, the accuracy of the resulting structural parameters can be significantly compromised. In the context of future surveys such as LSST, the latter condition will be closely tied to our ability to remove unresolved background galaxies. Assessing the reliability of measured structural parameters will become increasingly critical as the next generation of deep wide-field surveys detects UFDs beyond the reach of current spectroscopic limits.
A Stellar Mass Threshold for Quenching of Field Galaxies
M. Geha,M. Blanton,R. Yan,J. Tinker
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/757/1/85
Abstract: We demonstrate that dwarf galaxies (10^7 < M_stellar < 10^9 Msun) with no active star formation are extremely rare (<0.06%) in the field. Our sample is based on the NASA-Sloan Atlas which is a re-analysis of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 8. We examine the relative number of quenched versus star forming dwarf galaxies, defining quenched galaxies as having no Halpha emission (EW_Halpha < 2 AA) and a strong 4000AA-break. The fraction of quenched dwarf galaxies decreases rapidly with increasing distance from a massive host, leveling off for distances beyond 1.5 Mpc. We define galaxies beyond 1.5 Mpc of a massive host galaxy to be in the field. We demonstrate that there is a stellar mass threshold of M_stellar < 1.0x10^9 Msun below which quenched galaxies do not exist in the field. Below this threshold, we find that none of the 2951 field dwarf galaxies are quenched; all field dwarf galaxies show evidence for recent star formation. Correcting for volume effects, this corresponds to a 1-sigma upper limit on the quenched fraction of 0.06%. In more dense environments, quenched galaxies account for 23% of the dwarf population over the same stellar mass range. The majority of quenched dwarf galaxies (often classified as dwarf elliptical galaxies) are within 2 virial radii of a massive galaxy, and only a few percent of quenched dwarf galaxies exist beyond 4 virial radii. Thus, for galaxies with stellar mass less than 1.0x10^9 Msun, ending star-formation requires the presence of a more massive neighbor, providing a stringent constraint on models of star formation feedback.
Internal Dynamics, Structure and Formation of Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies: II. Rotating Versus Non-Rotating Dwarfs
M. Geha,P. Guhathakurta,R. van der Marel
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1086/377624
Abstract: We present spatially-resolved internal kinematics and stellar chemical abundances for a sample of dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxies in the Virgo Cluster observed with Keck/ESI. We find that 4 out of 17 dEs have major axis rotation velocities consistent with rotational flattening, while the remaining dEs have no detectable major axis rotation. Despite this difference in internal kinematics, rotating and non-rotating dEs are remarkably similar in terms of their position in the Fundamental Plane, morphological structure, stellar populations, and local environment. We present evidence for faint underlying disks and/or weak substructure in a fraction of both rotating and non-rotating dEs, but a comparable number of counter-examples exist for both types which show no evidence of such structure. Absorption-line strengths were determined based on the Lick/IDS system (Hbeta, Mgb, Fe5270, Fe5335) for the central region of each galaxy. We find no difference in the line-strength indices, and hence stellar populations, between rotating and non-rotating dE galaxies. The best-fitting mean age and metallicity for our 17 dE sample are 5 Gyr and Fe/H = -0.3 dex, respectively, with rms spreads of 3 Gyr and 0.1 dex. The majority of dEs are consistent with solar alpha/Fe abundance ratios. By contrast, the stellar populations of classical elliptical galaxies are, on average, older, more metal rich, and alpha-enhanced relative to our dE sample. The local environments of both dEs types appear to be diverse in terms of their proximity to larger galaxies in real or velocity space within the Virgo Cluster. Thus, rotating and non-rotating dEs are remarkably similar in terms of their structure, stellar content, and local environments, presenting a significant challenge to theoretical models of their formation. (abridged)
Internal Dynamics, Structure and Formation of Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies: I. A Keck/HST Study of Six Virgo Cluster Dwarfs
M. Geha,P. Guhathakurta,R. van der Marel
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1086/344764
Abstract: Keck/ESI spectroscopy is presented for six Virgo Cluster dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxies. The mean line-of-sight velocity and velocity dispersion are resolved as a function of radius along the major axis of each galaxy, nearly doubling the total number of dEs with spatially-resolved stellar kinematics. None of the observed objects shows evidence of strong rotation: upper limits on v_rot/sigma are well below those expected for rotationally-flattened objects. Such limits place strong constraints on dE galaxy formation models. Although these galaxies continue the trend of low rotation velocities observed in Local Group dEs, they are in contrast to recent observations of large rotation velocities in slightly brighter cluster dEs. Using WFPC2 surface photometry and spherically-symmetric dynamical models, we determine global mass-to-light ratios 3 < M/L_V < 6. These ratios are comparable to those expected for an intermediate-age stellar population and are broadly consistent with the (V-I) colors of the galaxies. This implies that these dEs do not have a significant dark matter component inside an effective radius. Central black holes more massive than 10^7 M_sun can be ruled out. For the 5 nucleated dEs in our sample, we determine kinematic and photometric properties for the central nucleus separately from the underlying host dE galaxy. These nuclei are as bright or brighter than the most luminous Galactic globular clusters and lie near the region of Fundamental Plane space occupied by globular clusters. In this space, the Virgo dE galaxies lie in the same general region as Local Group and other nearby dEs, although non-rotating dEs appear to have a slightly higher mean mass and mass-to-light ratio than their rotating counterparts.
Keck Spectroscopy of Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies in the Virgo Cluster
M. Geha,P. Guhathakurta,R. van der Marel
Physics , 2001,
Abstract: Keck spectroscopy is presented for four dwarf elliptical galaxies in the Virgo Cluster. At this distance, the mean velocity and velocity dispersion are well resolved as a function of radius between 100 to 1000 pc, allowing a clear separation between nuclear and surrounding galaxy light. We find a variety of dispersion profiles for the inner regions of these objects, and show that none of these galaxies is rotationally flattened.
Blue Variable Stars from the MACHO database I: Photometry and Spectroscopy of the LMC sample
Stefan C. Keller,M. S. Bessell,K. H. Cook,M. Geha,D. Syphers
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1086/342548
Abstract: We present the photometric properties of 1279 blue variable stars within the LMC. Photometry is derived from the MACHO database. The lightcurves of the sample exhibit a variety of quasi-periodic and aperiodic outburst behavior. A characteristic feature of the photometric variation is that the objects are reddest when at maximum outburst. A subset of 102 objects were examined spectroscopically. Within this subset, 91% exhibited Balmer emission in at least one epoch, in some cases with spectacular spectral variability. The variability observed in the sample is consistent with the establishment and maintenance of the Be phenomenon.
HST/ACS Direct Ages of the Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies NGC 147 and NGC 185
M. Geha,D. Weisz,A. Grocholski,A. Dolphin,R. P. van der Marel,P. Guhathakurta
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/811/2/114
Abstract: We present the deepest optical photometry for any dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxy based on Hubble Space Telescope ACS observations of the Local Group dE galaxies NGC 147 and NGC 185. The resulting F606W and F814W color-magnitude diagrams are the first to reach below the main sequence turnoff in a dE galaxy, allowing us to determine full star formation histories in these systems. The ACS fields are located ~1.5 effective radii from the galaxy center to avoid photometric crowding. While our ACS pointings in both dEs show unambiguous evidence for old and intermediate age stars, the mean age in NGC 147 is ~ 4 Gyr younger as compared to NGC 185. In NGC 147, only 40% of stars were in place 12.5 Gyrs ago (z~5), with the bulk of the remaining stellar population forming between 5 to 7 Gyr. In contrast, 70% of stars were formed in NGC 185 field more than12.5 Gyr ago with the majority of the remaining population forming between 8 to 10 Gyr. Star formation ceased in both ACS fields at least 3 Gyr ago. Previous observations in the central regions of NGC 185 show evidence for star formation as recent as 100 Myr ago and a strong metallicity gradient with radius. We suggest that the orbit of NGC 185 has a larger pericenter as compared to NGC 147, allowing it to preserve radial gradients and maintain a small central reservoir of recycled gas. We interpret the inferred differences in star formation histories to imply an earlier infall time into the M31 environment for NGC 185 as compared to NGC 147.
Metallicity Evolution of the Six Most Luminous M31 Dwarf Satellites
N. Ho,M. Geha,E. Tollerud,R. Zinn,P. Guhathakurta,L. Vargas
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/798/2/77
Abstract: We present global metallicity properties, metallicity distribution functions (MDFs) and radial metallicity profiles for the six most luminous M31 dwarf galaxy satellites: M32, NGC 205, NGC 185, NGC 147, Andromeda VII, and Andromeda II. The results presented are the first spectroscopic MDFs for dwarf systems surrounding a host galaxy other than the Milky Way. Our sample consists of individual metallicity measurements for 1243 red giant branch (RGB) member stars spread across these six systems. We determine metallicities based on the strength of the Ca II triplet lines using the empirical calibration of Carrera et al.(2013) which is calibrated over the metallicity range -4 < [Fe/H] <+0.5. We find that these M31 satellites lie on the same luminosity-metallicity relationship as the Milky Way dwarf satellites. We do not find a trend between the internal metallicity spread and galaxy luminosity, contrary to previous studies. The MDF widths of And II and And VII are similar to the MW dwarfs of comparable luminosity, however, our four brightest M31 dwarf are more luminous than any of the MW dwarf spheroidals and have broader MDFs. The MDFs of our six M31 dwarfs are consistent with the leaky box model of chemical evolution, although our metallicity errors allow a wide range of evolution models. We find a significant radial gradient in metallicity in only two of our six systems, NGC 185 and Andromeda II, and flat radial metallicity gradients in the rest of our sample with no observed correlation between rotational support and radial metallicity gradients. While the average properties and radial trends of the M31 dwarf galaxies agree with MW counterparts at similar luminosity, the detailed MDFs are different, particularly at the metal-rich end.
Local Group Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies: II. Stellar Kinematics to Large Radii in NGC 147 and NGC 185
M. Geha,R. P. van der Marel,P. Guhathakurta,K. M. Gilbert,J. Kalirai,E. N. Kirby
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/711/1/361
Abstract: We present kinematic and metallicity profiles for the M31 dwarf elliptical (dE) satellite galaxies NGC 147 and NGC 185. The profiles represent the most extensive spectroscopic radial coverage for any dE galaxy, extending to a projected distance of eight half-light radii (8 r_eff = 14'). We achieve this coverage via Keck/DEIMOS multislit spectroscopic observations of 520 and 442 member red giant branch stars in NGC 147 and NGC 185, respectively. In contrast to previous studies, we find that both dEs have significant internal rotation. We measure a maximum rotational velocity of 17+/-2 km/s for NGC 147 and 15+/-5 km/s for NGC 185. The velocity dispersions decrease gently with radius with an average dispersion of 16+/-1 km/s for NGC 147 and 24+/-1 km/s for NGC 185. Both dEs have internal metallicity dispersions of 0.5 dex, but show no evidence for a radial metallicity gradient. We construct two-integral axisymmetric dynamical models and find that the observed kinematical profiles cannot be explained without modest amounts of non-baryonic dark matter. We measure central mass-to-light ratios of ML_V = 4.2+/-0.6 and ML_V = 4.6+/-0.6 for NGC 147 and NGC 185, respectively. Both dE galaxies are consistent with being primarily flattened by their rotational motions, although some anisotropic velocity dispersion is needed to fully explain their observed shapes. The velocity profiles of all three Local Group dEs (NGC 147, NGC 185 and NGC 205) suggest that rotation is more prevalent in the dE galaxy class than previously assumed, but is often manifest only at several times the effective radius. Since all dEs outside the Local Group have been probed to only inside the effective radius, this opens the door for formation mechanisms in which dEs are transformed or stripped versions of gas-rich rotating progenitor galaxies.
[$α$/Fe] Abundances of Four Outer M 31 Halo Stars
Luis C. Vargas,Karoline M. Gilbert,Marla C. Geha,Erik J. Tollerud,Evan N. Kirby,Puragra Guhathakurta
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/797/1/L2
Abstract: We present alpha element to iron abundance ratios, [$\alpha$/Fe], for four stars in the outer stellar halo of the Andromeda Galaxy (M 31). The stars were identified as high-likelihood field halo stars by Gilbert et al. (2012) and lie at projected distances between 70 and 140 kpc from M 31's center. These are the first alpha abundances measured for a halo star in a galaxy beyond the Milky Way. The stars range in metallicity between [Fe/H]= -2.2 and [Fe/H]= -1.4. The sample's average [$\alpha$/Fe] ratio is +0.20+/-0.20. The best-fit average value is elevated above solar which is consistent with rapid chemical enrichment from Type II supernovae. The mean [$\alpha$/Fe] ratio of our M31 outer halo sample agrees (within the uncertainties) with that of Milky Way inner/outer halo stars that have a comparable range of [Fe/H].
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