Abstract:
We report the first detailed and quantitative study of the Josephson coupling energy in the vortex liquid, Bragg glass and vortex glass phases of Bi_2Sr_2CaCu_2O_{8+\delta} by the Josephson plasma resonance. The measurements revealed distinct features in the T- and H-dependencies of the plasma frequency $\omega_{pl}$ for each of these three vortex phases. When going across either the Bragg-to-vortex glass or the Bragg-to-liquid transition line, $\omega_{pl}$ shows a dramatic change. We provide a quantitative discussion on the properties of these phase transitions, including the first order nature of the Bragg-to-vortex glass transition.

Abstract:
We studied Josephson flux-flow (JFF) in Bi-2212 stacks fabricated from single crystal whiskers by focused ion beam technique. For long junctions with the in-plane sizes 30 x 2 (mu)m^2, we found considerable contribution of the in-plane dissipation to the JFF resistivity, (rho)_(Jff), at low temperatures. According to recent theory [A. Koshelev, Phys. Rev. B62, R3616 (2000)] that results in quadratic type dependence of (rho)_(Jff)(B) with the following saturation. The I-V characteristics in JFF regime also can be described consistently by that theory. In JFF regime we found Shapiro-step response to the external mm-wave radiation. The step position is proportional to the frequency of applied microwaves and corresponds to the Josephson emission from all the 60 intrinsic junctions of the stack being synchronized. That implies the coherence of the JFF over the whole thickness of the stack and demonstrates possibility of synchronization of intrinsic junctions by magnetic field. We also found a threshold character of an appearance of the JFF branch on the I-V characteristic with the increase of magnetic field, the threshold field B_t being scaled with the junction size perpendicular to the field L (L = 30-1.4 (mu)m), as B_t = (Phi)_0/Ls, where (Phi)_0 is flux quantum, s is the interlayer spacing. On the I-V characteristics of small stacks in the JFF regime we found Fiske-step features associated with resonance of Josephson radiation with the main resonance cavity mode in transmission line formed by stack.

Abstract:
In the end of the 19th century Bricard discovered a phenomenon of flexible polyhedra, that is, polyhedra with rigid faces and hinges at edges that admit non-trivial flexes. One of the most important results in this field is a theorem of Sabitov asserting that the volume of a flexible polyhedron is constant during the flexion. In this paper we study flexible polyhedral surfaces in the 3-space two-periodic with respect to translations by two non-colinear vectors that can vary continuously during the flexion. The main result is that the period lattice of a flexible two-periodic surface homeomorphic to a plane cannot have two degrees of freedom.

Abstract:
By p(|K|) denote the characteristic class of a combinatorial manifold K given by the polynomial p in Pontrjagin classes of K. We prove that for any polynomial p there exists a function taking each combinatorial manifold K to a rational simplicial cycle z(K) such that: (1) the Poincare dual of z(K) represents the cohomology class p(|K|); (2) a coefficient of each simplex in the cycle z(K) is determined only by the combinatorial type of the link of this simplex. We also prove that if a function z satisfies the condition (2), then this function automatically satisfies the condition (1) for some polynomial p. We describe explicitly all such functions z for the first Pontrjagin class. We obtain estimates for denominators of coefficients of simplices in the cycles z(K).

Abstract:
We consider a classical N. Steenrod's problem on realization of homology classes by images of the fundamental classes of manifolds. It is well-known that each integral homology class can be realized with some multiplicity as an image of the fundamental class of a manifold. Our main result is an explicit purely combinatorial construction that for a given integral cycle provides a combinatorial manifold realizing a multiple of the homology class of this cycle. The construction is based on a local procedure for resolving singularities of a pseudo-manifold. We give an application of our result to the problem of constructing a combinatorial manifold with the prescribed set of links of vertices.

Abstract:
In 1973 V.L.Popov classified affine SL(2)-embeddings. He proved that a locally transitive SL(2)-action on a normal affine three-dimensional variety X is uniquely determined by a pair (p/q, r), where 0

X is a dense open equivariant embedding. Then X is toric if and only if there exist a quasitorus T and a $(G\times T)$-module V such that $X\stackrel{G}{\cong} V//T$. The key role in the proof plays D. Cox's construction.

Abstract:
To each oriented closed combinatorial manifold we assign the set (with repetitions) of isomorphism classes of links of its vertices. The obtained transformation L is the main object of study of the present paper. We pose a problem on the inversion of the transformation L. We shall show that this problem is closely related to N.Steenrod's problem on realization of cycles and to the Rokhlin-Schwartz-Thom construction of combinatorial Pontryagin classes. It is easy to obtain a condition of balancing that is a necessary condition for a set of isomorphism classes of combinatorial spheres to belong to the image of the transformation L. In the present paper we give an explicit construction providing that each balanced set of isomorphism classes of combinatorial spheres gets into the image of L after passing to a multiple set and adding several pairs of the form (Z,-Z), where -Z is the sphere Z with the orientation reversed. This construction enables us, for a given singular simplicial cycle of a space R, to construct explicitly a combinatorial manifold M and a mapping $\phi:M\to R$ such that $\phi_*[M]=r[\xi]$ for some positive integer r. The construction is based on resolving singularities of the cycle $\xi$. We give applications of our main construction to cobordisms of manifolds with singularities and cobordisms of simple cells. In particular, we prove that every rational additive invariant of cobordisms of manifolds with singularities admits a local formula. Another application is the construction of explicit (though inefficient) local combinatorial formulae for polynomials in the rational Pontryagin classes of combinatorial manifolds.

Abstract:
The paper is devoted to the problem of finding explicit combinatorial formulae for the Pontryagin classes. We discuss two formulae, the classical Gabrielov-Gelfand-Losik formula based on investigation of configuration spaces and the local combinatorial formula obtained by the author in 2004. The latter formula is based on the notion of a universal local formula introduced by the author and on the usage of bistellar moves. We give a brief sketch for the first formula and a rather detailed exposition for the second one. For the second formula, we also succeed to simplify it by providing a new simpler algorithm for decomposing a cycle in the graph of bistellar moves of two-dimensional combinatorial spheres into a linear combination of elementary cycles.

Abstract:
In 1996 I.Kh. Sabitov proved that the volume of a simplicial polyhedron in a 3-dimensional Euclidean space is a root of certain polynomial with coefficients depending on the combinatorial type and on edge lengths of the polyhedron only. Moreover, the coefficients of this polynomial are polynomials in edge lengths of the polyhedron. This result implies that the volume of a simplicial polyhedron with fixed combinatorial type and edge lengths can take only finitely many values. In particular, this yields that the volume of a flexible polyhedron in a 3-dimensional Euclidean space is constant. Until now it has been unknown whether these results can be obtained in dimensions greater than 3. In this paper we prove that all these results hold for polyhedra in a 4-dimensional Euclidean space.

Abstract:
In 1996 Sabitov proved that the volume of an arbitrary simplicial polyhedron P in the 3-dimensional Euclidean space $\R^3$ satisfies a monic (with respect to V) polynomial relation F(V,l)=0, where l denotes the set of the squares of edge lengths of P. In 2011 the author proved the same assertion for polyhedra in $\R^4$. In this paper, we prove that the same result is true in arbitrary dimension $n\ge 3$. Moreover, we show that this is true not only for simplicial polyhedra, but for all polyhedra with triangular 2-faces. As a corollary, we obtain the proof in arbitrary dimension of the well-known Bellows Conjecture posed by Connelly in 1978. This conjecture claims that the volume of any flexible polyhedron is constant. Moreover, we obtain the following stronger result. If $P_t$, $t\in [0,1]$, is a continuous deformation of a polyhedron such that the combinatorial type of $P_t$ does not change and every 2-face of $P_t$ remains congruent to the corresponding face of $P_0$, then the volume of $P_t$ is constant. We also obtain non-trivial estimates for the oriented volumes of complex simplicial polyhedra in $\C^n$ from their orthogonal edge lengths.