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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 525406 matches for " M. G. Fowler "
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Clinical and arthroscopic findings in recreationally active patients
Elizabeth M Fowler, Ian G Horsley, Christer G Rolf
Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy & Technology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1758-2555-2-2
Abstract: Cohort study with index test of clinical examination and reference standard of arthroscopy.Sports Medicine clinic in Sheffield, U.K.101 recreational athletes (82 male, 19 female; mean age 40.8 ± 14.6 years) over a six year period.Bilateral evaluation of movements of the shoulder followed by standardized shoulder tests, formulation of clinical diagnosis and shoulder arthroscopy conducted by the same surgeon.Sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratio for a positive test and over-all accuracy of clinical examination was examined retrospectively and compared with arthroscopy.Isolated pathology was rare, most patients (72%) having more than one injury recorded. O'Brien's clinical test had a mediocre sensitivity (64%) and over-all accuracy (54%) for diagnosing SLAP lesions. Hawkins test and Jobe's test had the highest but still not impressive over-all accuracy (67%) and sensitivity (67%) for rotator cuff pathology respectively. External and internal impingement tests showed similar levels of accuracy. When a positive test was observed in one of a combination of shoulder tests used for diagnosing SLAP lesions or rotator cuff disease, sensitivity increased substantially whilst specificity decreased.The diagnostic accuracy of isolated standard shoulder tests in recreational athletes was over-all very poor, potentially due to the majority of athletes (71%) having concomitant shoulder injuries. Most likely, this means that many of these injuries are missed in general practice and treatment is therefore delayed. Clinical examination of the shoulder should involve a combination of clinical tests in order to identify likely intra articular pathology which may warrant referral to specialist for surgery.Athletic injuries to the shoulder are both common and unique, being both difficult to diagnose and manage [1]. The majority of shoulder injuries occur from direct or indirect trauma or as a result of repetitive use [1] with the most frequently presenting shoulder conditions at prima
Modes and Frequencies of Colonization and its Relationto extinctions, Habitat and Seasonality in the Social SpiderAnelosimus Eximius in the Amazon (Araneidae: Theridiidae)
Eduardo M. Venticinque,Harold G. Fowler,Carlos A. Silva
Psyche , 1993, DOI: 10.1155/1993/82186
Abstract:
Universal fault tolerant quantum computation on bilinear nearest neighbor arrays
A. M. Stephens,A. G. Fowler,L. C. L. Hollenberg
Physics , 2007,
Abstract: Assuming an array that consists of two parallel lines of qubits and that permits only nearest neighbor interactions, we construct physical and logical circuitry to enable universal fault tolerant quantum computation under the [[7,1,3]] quantum code. A rigorous lower bound to the fault tolerant threshold for this array is determined in a number of physical settings. Adversarial memory errors, two-qubit gate errors, and readout errors are included in our analysis. In the setting where the physical memory failure rate is equal to one-tenth of the physical gate error rate, the physical readout error rate is equal to the physical gate error rate, and the duration of physical readout is ten times the duration of a physical gate, we obtain a lower bound to the asymptotic threshold of 1.96x10^-6.
High threshold universal quantum computation on the surface code
Austin G. Fowler,Ashley M. Stephens,Peter Groszkowski
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.80.052312
Abstract: We present a comprehensive and self-contained simplified review of the quantum computing scheme of Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 190504 (2007), which features a 2-D nearest neighbor coupled lattice of qubits, a threshold error rate approaching 1%, natural asymmetric and adjustable strength error correction and low overhead arbitrarily long-range logical gates. These features make it by far the best and most practical quantum computing scheme devised to date. We restrict the discussion to direct manipulation of the surface code using the stabilizer formalism, both of which we also briefly review, to make the scheme accessible to a broad audience.
Context and Aims
M. Ekstr m, P. D. Jones, H. J. Fowler, G. Lenderink, T. A. Buishand,D. Conway
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS) & Discussions (HESSD) , 2007,
Abstract: Climate data for studies within the SWURVE (Sustainable Water: Uncertainty, Risk and Vulnerability in Europe) project, assessing the risk posed by future climatic change to various hydrological and hydraulic systems were obtained from the regional climate model HadRM3H, developed at the Hadley Centre of the UK Met Office. This paper gives some background to HadRM3H; it also presents anomaly maps of the projected future changes in European temperature, rainfall and potential evapotranspiration (PET, estimated using a variant of the Penman formula). The future simulations of temperature and rainfall, following the SRES A2 emissions scenario, suggest that most of Europe will experience warming in all seasons, with heavier precipitation in winter in much of western Europe (except for central and northern parts of the Scandinavian mountains) and drier summers in most parts of western and central Europe (except for the north-west and the eastern part of the Baltic Sea). Particularly large temperature anomalies (>6°C) are projected for north-east Europe in winter and for southern Europe, Asia Minor and parts of Russia in summer. The projected PET displayed very large increases in summer for a region extending from southern France to Russia. The unrealistically large values could be the result of an enhanced hydrological cycle in HadRM3H, affecting several of the input parameters to the PET calculation. To avoid problems with hydrological modelling schemes, PET was re-calculated, using empirical relationships derived from observational values of temperature and PET.
Using acoustic waves to induce high-frequency current oscillations in superlattices
M. T. Greenaway,A. G. Balanov,D. Fowler,A. J. Kent,T. M. Fromhold
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.81.235313
Abstract: We show that GHz acoustic waves in semiconductor superlattices can induce THz electron dynamics that depend critically on the wave amplitude. Below a threshold amplitude, the acoustic wave drags electrons through the superlattice with a peak drift velocity overshooting that produced by a static electric field. In this regime, single electrons perform drifting orbits with THz frequency components. When the wave amplitude exceeds the critical threshold, an abrupt onset of Bloch-like oscillations causes negative differential velocity. The acoustic wave also affects the collective behavior of the electrons by causing the formation of localised electron accumulation and depletion regions, which propagate through the superlattice, thereby producing self-sustained current oscillations even for very small wave amplitudes. We show that the underlying single-electron dynamics, in particular the transition between the acoustic wave dragging and Bloch oscillation regimes, strongly influence the spatial distribution of the electrons and the form of the current oscillations. In particular, the amplitude of the current oscillations depends non-monotonically on the strength of the acoustic wave, reflecting the variation of the single-electron drift velocity.
Parasitismo em lagarta-do-cartucho, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith), na regi?o do Triangulo Mineiro, MG
Silva, Fábio M. A.;Fowler, Harold G.;Lemos, Raimunda N. S.;
Anais da Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil , 1997, DOI: 10.1590/S0301-80591997000200004
Abstract: the frequency and distribution of parasitoids associated with fall armyworm larvae, spodoptera frugiperda (smith), was observed in commercial maize (zea mays) fields, in the 1991/92 and 1992/93 seasons in the triangulo mineiro region, mg, brazil. two regions in the 1991/92 season and five regions in the 1992/93 season were chosen. in each farm 100 larvae were collected in plants with 20 to 40 days after emergence. larvae were reared in the laboratory at 25 ± 2oc, 50 - 60% rh, 14 h - photoperiod and observed daily. the parasitoids more frequently observed were: chelonus texanus (cresson) (hymenoptera: braconidae), diadegma sp. (hymenoptera: ichneumonidae), and archytas incertus (macquart) (diptera: tachinidae). the total parasitism ranged from 10,3% in 1991/92 to 13,8% in 1992/93. dipteran parasitoids were more prevalent on fall armyworm pupae (76,5%), in 1991/92 and 1992/93. in 1991/92 season the hymenopteran parasitoids were more prevalent on the 3rd and 4th instars larvae (41,9 and 45,2%, respectively), and in 1992/93 on the 2nd and 3rd instars larvae (39,1 and 43,5%, respectively).
Body size and flight distance in stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Meliponini): inference of flight range and possible ecological implications
Araújo, E. D.;Costa, M.;Chaud-Netto, J.;Fowler, H. G.;
Brazilian Journal of Biology , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S1519-69842004000400003
Abstract: we examined the spatial implications of maximum flight distance for several species of stingless bees. data suggested that maximum flight distance in meliponini is a function of body size, especially generalized wing size, which can be estimated through principal component analysis. for six species of stingless bees, flight distances and generalized wing sizes were highly correlated (r = 0.938). this indicates that species of meliponini occupy an effectively larger area as body size increases, which has important implications in the spatial dynamics of local populations restricted to forest fragments. we also used the fitted linear regression model to estimate the maximum flight distance for 12 other species of meliponini. the results of this research may provide insights for future studies of biological conservation.
The regulation of the air: a hypothesis
E. G. Nisbet, C. M. R. Fowler,R. E. R. Nisbet
Solid Earth (SE) & Discussions (SED) , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/se-3-87-2012
Abstract: We propose the hypothesis that natural selection, acting on the specificity or preference for CO2 over O2 of the enzyme rubisco (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase), has controlled the CO2:O2 ratio of the atmosphere since the evolution of photosynthesis and has also sustained the Earth's greenhouse-set surface temperature. Rubisco works in partnership with the nitrogen-fixing enzyme nitrogenase to control atmospheric pressure. Together, these two enzymes control global surface temperature and indirectly the pH and oxygenation of the ocean. Thus, the co-evolution of these two enzymes may have produced clement conditions on the Earth's surface, allowing life to be sustained.
The regulation of the air: a hypothesis
E. G. Nisbet,C. M. R. Fowler,R. E. R. Nisbet
Solid Earth Discussions , 2011, DOI: 10.5194/sed-3-769-2011
Abstract: We propose the hypothesis that natural selection, acting on the specificity of rubisco (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) for carbon dioxide over oxygen, has controlled the CO2:O2 ratio of the atmosphere since the evolution of photosynthesis and has also sustained the Earth's greenhouse-set surface temperature. Rubisco works in partnership with the nitrogen-fixing enzyme nitrogenase to control atmospheric pressure. Together, these two enzymes control global surface temperature and indirectly the pH and oxygenation of the ocean. Thus, the co-evolution of these two enzymes may have produced clement conditions on the Earth's surface, allowing life to be sustained.
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