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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 401286 matches for " M. Edelman "
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Biology of Consciousness
Gerald M. Edelman
Frontiers in Psychology , 2011, DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00004
Abstract: The Dynamic Core and Global Workspace hypotheses were independently put forward to provide mechanistic and biologically plausible accounts of how brains generate conscious mental content. The Dynamic Core proposes that reentrant neural activity in the thalamocortical system gives rise to conscious experience. Global Workspace reconciles the limited capacity of momentary conscious content with the vast repertoire of long-term memory. In this paper we show the close relationship between the two hypotheses. This relationship allows for a strictly biological account of phenomenal experience and subjectivity that is consistent with mounting experimental evidence. We examine the constraints on causal analyses of consciousness and suggest that there is now sufficient evidence to consider the design and construction of a conscious artifact.
Superdiffusion in the Dissipative Standard Map
G. M. Zaslavsky,M. Edelman
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1063/1.2967851
Abstract: We consider transport properties of the chaotic (strange) attractor along unfolded trajectories of the dissipative standard map. It is shown that the diffusion process is normal except of the cases when a control parameter is close to some special values that correspond to the ballistic mode dynamics. Diffusion near the related crisises is anomalous and non-uniform in time: there are large time intervals during which the transport is normal or ballistic, or even superballistic. The anomalous superdiffusion seems to be caused by stickiness of trajectories to a non-chaotic and nowhere dense invariant Cantor set that plays a similar role as cantori in Hamiltonian chaos. We provide a numerical example of such a sticky set. Distribution function on the sticky set almost coincides with the distribution function (SRB measure) of the chaotic attractor.
Pseudochaos
G. M. Zaslavsky,M. Edelman
Physics , 2001,
Abstract: A family of the billiard-type systems with zero Lyapunov exponent is considered as an example of dynamics which is between the regular one and chaotic mixing. This type of dynamics is called ``pseudochaos''. We demonstrate how the fractional kinetic equation can be introduced for the pseudochaos and how the main critical exponents of the fractional kinetics can be evaluated from the dynamics. Problems related to pseudochaos are discussed: Poincare recurrences, continued fractions, log-periodicity, rhombic billiards, and others. Pseudochaotic dynamics and fractional kinetics can be applied to streamlines or magnetic field lines behavior.
Stickiness of Trajectories in a Perturbed Anosov System
G. M. Zaslavsky,M. Edelman
Physics , 2005,
Abstract: We consider a perturbation of the Anosov-type system, which leads to the appearance of a hierarchical set of islands-around-islands. We demonstrate by simulation that the boundaries of the islands are sticky to trajectories. This phenomenon leads to the distribution of Poincare recurrences with power-like tails in contrast to the exponential distribution in the Anosov-type systems.
Reentry: a key mechanism for integration of brain function
Gerald M. Edelman,Joseph A. Gally
Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fnint.2013.00063
Abstract: Reentry in nervous systems is the ongoing bidirectional exchange of signals along reciprocal axonal fibers linking two or more brain areas. The hypothesis that reentrant signaling serves as a general mechanism to couple the functioning of multiple areas of the cerebral cortex and thalamus was first proposed in 1977 and 1978 (Edelman, 1978). A review of the amount and diversity of supporting experimental evidence accumulated since then suggests that reentry is among the most important integrative mechanisms in vertebrate brains (Edelman, 1993). Moreover, these data prompt testable hypotheses regarding mechanisms that favor the development and evolution of reentrant neural architectures.
Temporal sequence learning in winner-take-all networks of spiking neurons demonstrated in a brain-based device
Jeffrey L. McKinstry,Gerald M. Edelman
Frontiers in Neurorobotics , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fnbot.2013.00010
Abstract: Animal behavior often involves a temporally ordered sequence of actions learned from experience. Here we describe simulations of interconnected networks of spiking neurons that learn to generate patterns of activity in correct temporal order. The simulation consists of large-scale networks of thousands of excitatory and inhibitory neurons that exhibit short-term synaptic plasticity and spike-timing dependent synaptic plasticity. The neural architecture within each area is arranged to evoke winner-take-all (WTA) patterns of neural activity that persist for tens of milliseconds. In order to generate and switch between consecutive firing patterns in correct temporal order, a reentrant exchange of signals between these areas was necessary. To demonstrate the capacity of this arrangement, we used the simulation to train a brain-based device responding to visual input by autonomously generating temporal sequences of motor actions.
Leisure among the Retired Indos of the Hague  [PDF]
Henny N. Edelman, David J. Edelman
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2011.11003
Abstract: The ethnic mixture in Europe has been changing rapidly since the end of World War II, and many of these immigrant groups are now reaching retirement. The Netherlands is one of the countries affected in this way. This study focuses on mixed race people (Indos) originating in the former Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia) and residing in The Hague and its surrounding area. Their situation is relevant to other immigrant groups in other European countries. There are several important issues that are studied here with regard to their leisure from which a typology of Indo leisure lifestyles is developed. These issues include :1) how this group is able to avail itself of leisure activities with which its members feel comfortable during retirement and old age; 2) whether this group has integrated itself completely into the host society and feels happy in its social life; 3) whether the leisure activities of retired Indos are a way for them to keep healthy mentally and physically, thereby leading to satisfaction with life; and 4) how this particular group of people feels about its unique identity and culture after many years of living in the Netherlands.
A Spatial Analysis of the Recreation Potential of Cirebon, Indonesia’s Kratons  [PDF]
Henny N. Edelman, David J. Edelman
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2013.38042
Abstract: Cirebon is an important port city located on the provincial, as well as cultural, border of West and Central Java. Historically, an important Indonesian melting pot, it is an expanding center of commerce and industry. There remain, however, a number of special artistic and cultural features of the city revealed by motifs reflecting the traditions of the Kratons, or former palaces of the Sultanate of Cirebon, which reached its height in the fifteenth century. This paper presents an analysis of the Kratons of Cirebon as a recreational and tourism resource within the concept of the spatial analysis of recreational behavior. It is structured around various aspects of the relationship between human spatial behavior and leisure environments.
Review of the Book “Magnetooptical Spectroscopy of the Rare-Earth Compounds: Development and Application”  [PDF]
I. S. Edelman
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications (JEMAA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jemaa.2012.45030
Abstract: This book reviews and provides numerous theoretical calculations for the first time relevant to the optics and magneto-optics of the trivalent rare earth ions (RE3+) and their compounds. The RE3+ have unique spectroscopic properties that make them exceptionally attractive to both scientists, who probe the fundamental properties of these systems, and engineers, who develop these systems into photonic devices eagerly marketed in expanded technologies. Magneto-optical effects in compounds doped with RE3+ have been studied since the dawn of modern physics and have had a profound impact on their development in terms of practical opto-electronic devices. The authors of this new, exciting, and fresh text are world famous in this field, with over 150 years of experience in developing important theoretical and experimental contributions and over fifty years of more than 500 refereed publications in this field in the Soviet Union and the United States. They offer both a conceptual description of magneto-optical phenomena, as well as clear, detailed theoretical development published for the first time of many of the phenomena only briefly addressed in the literature. The book is based on the author’s original work in theoretical and experimental investigations in magneto-optics. Numerous graphs and simple examples model the phenomena described in the text, making it a highly desirable treatise for scientists beginning their studies in the field of magneto-optics.
Managing the Urban Environment of Manila  [PDF]
David J. Edelman
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2016.63010
Abstract: This article brings the contemporary thinking and practice of Urban Environmental Management (UEM) to the solution of real problems in a major city of a developing country in Southeast Asia. Such cities confront more pressing problems than those in the developed world and have fewer resources to deal with them. The study first considers urban issues, poverty alleviation, industry, transportation, energy, water, sewage and sanitation, and finance, and then proposes a 5-year plan to help solve the urban environmental problems of Metro Manila, the Philippines, an environmentally complex, sprawling metropolitan region with over 24 million inhabitants.
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