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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 507982 matches for " M. E. Hawley "
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Images of metallic and insulating domains on the surface of a (La0.4Pr0.6)0.67Ca0.33MnO3 film
Surendra Singh,M. R. Fitzsimmons,H. Jeen,A. Biswas,M. E. Hawley
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1063/1.4733666
Abstract: Using conductive atomic force microscopy, we observed non-uniform distributions of metallic and insulating domains on the surface of a single crystalline (La0.4Pr0.6)0.67Ca0.33MnO3 film grown on a (110) NdGaO3 substrate. The electronic properties of the surface exhibit thermal hysteresis. The hysteresis is similar to that of the transport and magnetism of the film bulk.
Implementation of quantum logic operations and creation of entanglement in a silicon-based quantum computer with constant interaction
G. P. Berman,G. W. Brown,M. E. Hawley,D. I. Kamenev,V. I. Tsifrinovich
Physics , 2005,
Abstract: We describe how to implement quantum logic operations in a silicon-based quantum computer with phosphorus atoms serving as qubits. The information is stored in the states of nuclear spins and the conditional logic operations are implemented through the electron spins using nuclear-electron hyperfine and electron-electron exchange interactions. The electrons in our computer should stay coherent only during implementation of one Control-Not gate. The exchange interaction is constant and selective excitations are provided by a magnetic field gradient. The quantum logic operations are implemented by rectangular radio-frequency pulses. This architecture is scalable and does not require manufacturing nanoscale electronic gates. As shown in this paper parameters of a quantum protocol can be derived analytically even for a computer with a large number of qubits using our perturbation approach. We present the protocol for initialization of the nuclear spins and the protocol for creation of entanglement. All analytical results are tested numerically using a two-qubit system.
Solid-State Quantum Computer Based on Scanning Tunneling Microscopy
G. P. Berman,G. W. Brown,M. E. Hawley,V. I. Tsifrinovich
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.87.097902
Abstract: We propose a solid-state nuclear spin quantum computer based on application of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and well-developed silicon technology. It requires the measurement of tunneling current modulation caused by the Larmor precession of a single electron spin. Our envisioned STM quantum computer would operate at the high magnetic field ($\sim 10$T) and at low temperature $\sim 1$K.
Parallel Patterns of Increased Virulence in a Recently Emerged Wildlife Pathogen
Dana M. Hawley ,Erik E. Osnas,Andrew P. Dobson,Wesley M. Hochachka,David H. Ley,André A. Dhondt
PLOS Biology , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001570
Abstract: The evolution of higher virulence during disease emergence has been predicted by theoretical models, but empirical studies of short-term virulence evolution following pathogen emergence remain rare. Here we examine patterns of short-term virulence evolution using archived isolates of the bacterium Mycoplasma gallisepticum collected during sequential emergence events in two geographically distinct populations of the host, the North American house finch (Haemorhous [formerly Carpodacus] mexicanus). We present results from two complementary experiments, one that examines the trend in pathogen virulence in eastern North American isolates over the course of the eastern epidemic (1994–2008), and the other a parallel experiment on Pacific coast isolates of the pathogen collected after M. gallisepticum established itself in western North American house finch populations (2006–2010). Consistent with theoretical expectations regarding short-term or dynamic evolution of virulence, we show rapid increases in pathogen virulence on both coasts following the pathogen's establishment in each host population. We also find evidence for positive genetic covariation between virulence and pathogen load, a proxy for transmission potential, among isolates of M. gallisepticum. As predicted by theory, indirect selection for increased transmission likely drove the evolutionary increase in virulence in both geographic locations. Our results provide one of the first empirical examples of rapid changes in virulence following pathogen emergence, and both the detected pattern and mechanism of positive genetic covariation between virulence and pathogen load are consistent with theoretical expectations. Our study provides unique empirical insight into the dynamics of short-term virulence evolution that are likely to operate in other emerging pathogens of wildlife and humans.
Rare recombination events generate sequence diversity among balancer chromosomes in Drosophila melanogaster
Danny E. Miller,Kevin R. Cook,Nazanin Yeganehkazemi,Clarissa B. Smith,Alexandria J. Cockrell,R. Scott Hawley,Casey M. Bergman
Quantitative Biology , 2015,
Abstract: Multiply inverted balancer chromosomes that suppress exchange with their homologs are an essential part of the genetic toolkit in Drosophila melanogaster. Despite their widespread use, the organization of balancer chromosomes has not been characterized at the molecular level, and the degree of sequence variation among copies of any given balancer chromosome is unknown. To map inversion breakpoints and study potential sequence diversity in the descendants of a structurally identical balancer chromosome, we sequenced a panel of laboratory stocks containing the most widely used X-chromosome balancer, First Multiple 7 (FM7). We mapped the locations of FM7 breakpoints to precise euchromatic coordinates and identified the flanking sequence of breakpoints in heterochromatic regions. Analysis of SNP variation revealed megabase-scale blocks of sequence divergence among currently used FM7 stocks. We present evidence that this divergence arose by rare double crossover events that replaced a female-sterile allele of the singed gene (sn[X2]) on FM7c with wild type sequence from balanced chromosomes, and propose that many FM7c chromosomes in the Bloomington Drosophila Stock Center have lost sn[X2] by this mechanism. Finally, we characterize the original allele of the Bar gene (B[1]) that is carried on FM7 and validate the hypothesis that the origin and subsequent reversion of the B1 duplication is mediated by unequal exchange. Our results reject a simple non-recombining, clonal mode for the laboratory evolution of balancer chromosomes and have implications for how balancer chromosomes should be used in the design and interpretation of genetic experiments in Drosophila.
Strongly Enhanced Current Densities in Superconducting Coated Conductors of YBa2Cu3O7-x + BaZrO3
J. L. MacManus-Driscoll,S. R. Foltyn,Q. X. Jia,H. Wang,A. Serquis,L. Civale,B. Maiorov,M. E. Hawley,M. P. Maley,D. E. Peterson
Physics , 2004, DOI: 10.1038/nmat1156
Abstract: There are numerous potential applications for superconducting tapes, based on YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) films coated onto metallic substrates. A long established goal of more than 15 years has been to understand the magnetic flux pinning mechanisms which allow films to maintain high current densities out to high magnetic fields. In fact, films carry 1-2 orders of magnitude higher current densities than any other form of the material. For this reason, the idea of further improving pinning has received little attention. Now that commercialisation of conductors is much closer, for both better performance and lower fabrication costs, an important goal is to achieve enhanced pinning in a practical way. In this work, we demonstrate a simple and industrially scaleable route which yields a 1.5 to 5-fold improvement in the in-field current densities of already-high-quality conductors.
Microwave performance of high-density bulk MgB2
A. T. Findikoglu,A. Serquis,L. Civale,X. Z. Liao,Y. T. Zhu,M. E. Hawley,F. M. Mueller,V. F. Nesterenko,Y. Gu
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1063/1.1590739
Abstract: We have performed microwave measurements on superconducting hot-isostatically- pressed (HIPed) bulk MgB2 using a parallel-plate resonator technique. The high density and strength of the HIPed material allowed preparation of samples with mirror-like surfaces for microwave measurements. The microwave surface resistance decreased by about 40% at 20 K when the root-mean-square surface roughness was reduced from 220 nm to 110 nm through surface-polishing and ion-milling. The surface resistance was independent of surface microwave magnetic field at least up to 4 Oe and below 30 K. We attribute this behavior, and the overall low surface resistance (~0.8 mOhms at 10 GHz and 20 K), to the high density of our samples and the absence of weak links between grains.
Split-off dimer defects on the Si(001)2x1 surface
S. R. Schofield,N. A. Marks,N. J. Curson,J. L. O'Brien,G. W. Brown,M. Y. Simmons,R. G. Clark,M. E. Hawley,H. F. Wilson
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.69.085312
Abstract: Dimer vacancy (DV) defect complexes in the Si(001)2x1 surface were investigated using high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy and first principles calculations. We find that under low bias filled-state tunneling conditions, isolated 'split-off' dimers in these defect complexes are imaged as pairs of protrusions while the surrounding Si surface dimers appear as the usual 'bean-shaped' protrusions. We attribute this to the formation of pi-bonds between the two atoms of the split-off dimer and second layer atoms, and present charge density plots to support this assignment. We observe a local brightness enhancement due to strain for different DV complexes and provide the first experimental confirmation of an earlier prediction that the 1+2-DV induces less surface strain than other DV complexes. Finally, we present a previously unreported triangular shaped split-off dimer defect complex that exists at SB-type step edges, and propose a structure for this defect involving a bound Si monomer.
corona Is Required for Higher-Order Assembly of Transverse Filaments into Full-Length Synaptonemal Complex in Drosophila Oocytes
Scott L. Page ,Radhika S. Khetani,Cathleen M. Lake,Rachel J. Nielsen,Jennifer K. Jeffress,William D. Warren,Sharon E. Bickel,R. Scott Hawley
PLOS Genetics , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000194
Abstract: The synaptonemal complex (SC) is an intricate structure that forms between homologous chromosomes early during the meiotic prophase, where it mediates homolog pairing interactions and promotes the formation of genetic exchanges. In Drosophila melanogaster, C(3)G protein forms the transverse filaments (TFs) of the SC. The N termini of C(3)G homodimers localize to the Central Element (CE) of the SC, while the C-termini of C(3)G connect the TFs to the chromosomes via associations with the axial elements/lateral elements (AEs/LEs) of the SC. Here, we show that the Drosophila protein Corona (CONA) co-localizes with C(3)G in a mutually dependent fashion and is required for the polymerization of C(3)G into mature thread-like structures, in the context both of paired homologous chromosomes and of C(3)G polycomplexes that lack AEs/LEs. Although AEs assemble in cona oocytes, they exhibit defects that are characteristic of c(3)G mutant oocytes, including failure of AE alignment and synapsis. These results demonstrate that CONA, which does not contain a coiled coil domain, is required for the stable ‘zippering’ of TFs to form the central region of the Drosophila SC. We speculate that CONA's role in SC formation may be similar to that of the mammalian CE proteins SYCE2 and TEX12. However, the observation that AE alignment and pairing occurs in Tex12 and Syce2 mutant meiocytes but not in cona oocytes suggests that the SC plays a more critical role in the stable association of homologs in Drosophila than it does in mammalian cells.
Dynamics of Wolbachia pipientis gene expression across the Drosophila melanogaster life cycle
Florence Gutzwiller,Catarina R. Carmo,Danny E. Miller,Danny W. Rice,Irene L. Newton,R. Scott Hawley,Luis Teixeira,Casey M. Bergman
Quantitative Biology , 2015, DOI: 10.1534/g3.115.021931
Abstract: Symbiotic interactions between microbes and their multicellular hosts have manifold impacts on molecular, cellular and organismal biology. To identify candidate bacterial genes involved in maintaining endosymbiotic associations with insect hosts, we analyzed genome-wide patterns of gene expression in the alpha-proteobacteria Wolbachia pipientis across the life cycle of Drosophila melanogaster using public data from the modENCODE project that was generated in a Wolbachia-infected version of the ISO1 reference strain. We find that the majority of Wolbachia genes are expressed at detectable levels in D. melanogaster across the entire life cycle, but that only 7.8% of 1195 Wolbachia genes exhibit robust stage- or sex-specific expression differences when studied in the "holo-organism" context. Wolbachia genes that are differentially expressed during development are typically up-regulated after D. melanogaster embryogenesis, and include many bacterial membrane, secretion system and ankyrin-repeat containing proteins. Sex-biased genes are often organised as small operons of uncharacterised genes and are mainly up-regulated in adult males D. melanogaster in an age-dependent manner suggesting a potential role in cytoplasmic incompatibility. Our results indicate that large changes in Wolbachia gene expression across the Drosophila life-cycle are relatively rare when assayed across all host tissues, but that candidate genes to understand host-microbe interaction in facultative endosymbionts can be successfully identified using holo-organism expression profiling. Our work also shows that mining public gene expression data in D. melanogaster provides a rich set of resources to probe the functional basis of the Wolbachia-Drosophila symbiosis and annotate the transcriptional outputs of the Wolbachia genome.
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