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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 401135 matches for " M. Cribier "
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Neutrinos and Non-proliferation in Europe
M. Cribier
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1007/s11038-006-9105-7
Abstract: Triggered by the demand of the IAEA, neutrino physicists in Europe involved with the Double Chooz experiment are studying the potential of neutrino detection to monitor nuclear reactors. In particular a new set of experiments at the ILL is planned to improve the knowledge of the neutrino spectrum emitted in the fission of 235U and 239Pu.
Reactor Monitoring with Neutrinos
M. Cribier
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1016/j.nuclphysbps.2011.03.094
Abstract: The fundamental knowledge on neutrinos acquired in the recent years open the possibility of applied neutrino physics. Among it the automatic and non intrusive monitoring of nuclear reactor by its antineutrino signal could be very valuable to IAEA in charge of the control of nuclear power plants. Several efforts worldwide have already started.
The Reactor Antineutrino Anomaly
G. Mention,M. Fechner,Th. Lasserre,Th. A. Mueller,D. Lhuillier,M. Cribier,A. Letourneau
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.83.073006
Abstract: Recently new reactor antineutrino spectra have been provided for 235U, 239Pu, 241Pu and 238U, increasing the mean flux by about 3 percent. To good approximation, this reevaluation applies to all reactor neutrino experiments. The synthesis of published experiments at reactor-detector distances <100 m leads to a ratio of observed event rate to predicted rate of 0.976(0.024). With our new flux evaluation, this ratio shifts to 0.943(0.023), leading to a deviation from unity at 98.6% C.L. which we call the reactor antineutrino anomaly. The compatibility of our results with the existence of a fourth non-standard neutrino state driving neutrino oscillations at short distances is discussed. The combined analysis of reactor data, gallium solar neutrino calibration experiments, and MiniBooNE-neutrino data disfavors the no-oscillation hypothesis at 99.8% C.L. The oscillation parameters are such that |Delta m_{new}^2|>1.5 eV^2 (95%) and sin^2(2\theta_{new})=0.14(0.08) (95%). Constraints on the theta13 neutrino mixing angle are revised.
Die Bedeutung qualitativer Daten und ihre Archivierung: die franz sische Situation The Value of Qualitative Data and their Archiving: the French Situation El valor de los datos cualitativos y su archivo: la situación francesa
Fran?oise Cribier
Forum : Qualitative Social Research , 2005,
Abstract: Seit den 1960er Jahren wurden in Frankreich gro e Mengen qualitativer Daten erhoben, die helfen, den Lebensalltag und die soziale Dichte von Kulturen, Bindungen und Strategien zu verstehen. In ihnen finden Empfindungen und Werte ihren Ausdruck, die nicht-vereinfachende Bilder sozialer Wirklichkeit vermitteln und erzeugen. Zwar existieren oft enge, auch pers nliche Bezüge zwischen den meisten Erzeugern dieser Daten und den jeweiligen Datensammlungen, dies allerdings, ohne dass für die Datenarchivierung hinreichend Sorge getragen wurde. Das Ergebnis ist, dass die Datensammlungen nicht dauerhaft verfügbar, schwer auffindbar, noch schwerer zug nglich und teilweise sogar verloren sind oder zerst rt wurden. CRIBIER analysiert zun chst die Arten von qualitativen Daten, die in verschiedenen Wissenschaftsdisziplinen seit den 1960er Jahren erhoben wurden, deren Kritik sowie die Gründe, die für ihren Erhalt sprechen – hierzu geh rt neben anderem die Komplementarit t von qualitativen und quantitativen Daten. Diese kostbaren Best nde zu sammeln und zu erhalten ist und war wesentlich für das Verstehen der Gesellschaft, in der wir leben. Es ist deshalb unbedingt erforderlich, qualitative Datenbest nde auf nationaler Ebene zu dokumentieren, zu erhalten und zu inventarisieren, und es ist erforderlich, Forschende bei der nachhaltigen Aufbereitung ihrer Daten zu unterstützen und ihnen Archive zu vermitteln, in denen ihre Daten sicher sind und weiteren Forschungen zugute kommen k nnen. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0502357 Much qualitative data has been collected in France since the 1960s, helping to understand real lives lived by real people. They help to grasp the social density of cultures, social bonds, social strategies. They allow feelings and values to be expressed and produce a "not-simplistic" picture of social reality. Most "producers" had strong personal links with the data they created, but they were never encouraged nor helped to archive them with the result that they are poorly preserved, hard to locate, harder to access, and often lost or even destroyed. CRIBIER analyzes the types of data collected in various disciplinary fields since the 1960s, their criticisms, and the many reasons to preserve them—among others their complementarity with quantitative data. Collecting this rare and precious material is and will remain useful for several disciplines for understanding our societies. It is necessary to document, preserve, and take stock of these data, creating a national site, but also helping researchers to prepare their data and find the right archives in which the
Prompt directional detection of galactic supernova by combining large liquid scintillator neutrino detectors
V. Fischer,T. Chirac,T. Lasserre,C. Volpe,M. Cribier,M. Durero,J. Gaffiot,T. Houdy,A. Letourneau,G. Mention,M. Pequignot,V. Sibille,M. Vivier
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2015/08/032
Abstract: Core-collapse supernovae produce an intense burst of electron antineutrinos in the few-tens-of-MeV range. Several Large Liquid Scintillator-based Detectors (LLSD) are currently operated worldwide, being very effective for low energy antineutrino detection through the Inverse Beta Decay (IBD) process. In this article, we develop a procedure for the prompt extraction of the supernova location by revisiting the details of IBD kinematics over the broad energy range of supernova neutrinos. Combining all current scintillator-based detector, we show that one can locate a canonical supernova at 10 kpc with an accuracy of 45 degrees (68% C.L.). After the addition of the next generation of scintillator-based detectors, the accuracy could reach 12 degrees (68% C.L.), therefore reaching the performances of the large water Cerenkov neutrino detectors. We also discuss a possible improvement of the SuperNova Early Warning System (SNEWS) inter-experiment network with the implementation of a directionality information in each experiment. Finally, we discuss the possibility to constrain the neutrino energy spectrum as well as the mass of the newly born neutron star with the LLSD data
Experimental Parameters for a Cerium 144 Based Intense Electron Antineutrino Generator Experiment at Very Short Baselines
J. Gaffiot,T. Lasserre,G. Mention,M. Vivier,M. Cribier,M. Durero,V. Fischer,A. Letourneau,E. Dumonteil,I. S. Saldikov,G. V. Tikhomirov
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.91.072005
Abstract: The standard three-neutrino oscillation paradigm, associated with small squared mass splittings $\ll 0.1\ \mathrm{eV^2}$, has been successfully built up over the last 15 years using solar, atmospheric, long baseline accelerator and reactor neutrino experiments. However, this well-established picture might suffer from anomalous results reported at very short baselines in some of these experiments. If not experimental artifacts, such results could possibly be interpreted as the existence of at least an additional fourth sterile neutrino species, mixing with the known active flavors with an associated mass splitting $\ll 0.1\ \mathrm{eV^2}$, and being insensitive to standard weak interactions. Precision measurements at very short baselines (5 to 15 m) with intense MeV electronic antineutrino emitters can be used to probe these anomalies. In this article, the expected antineutrino signal and backgrounds of a generic experiment which consists of deploying an intense beta minus radioactive source inside or in the vicinity of a large liquid scintillator detector are studied. The technical challenges to perform such an experiment are identified, along with quantifying the possible source and detector induced systematics, and their impact on the sensitivity to the observation of neutrino oscillations at short baselines.
A repeti??o da valvuloplastia aórtica por bal?o é uma boa estratégia para alívio dos sintomas e sele??o de pacientes para substitui??o percutanea da valva aórtica
Agatiello, Carla;Nercolini, Deborah;Eltchaninoff, Helene;Tron, Christophe;Fernandez, Alejandro D.;Gabay, José M.;Rojas Matas, Carlos;Berrocal, Daniel;Grinfeld, Liliana;Cribier, Alain;
Revista Brasileira de Cardiologia Invasiva , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S2179-83972009000400008
Abstract: background: balloon aortic valvuloplasty (bav) has regained interest since the onset of percutaneous aortic valve replacement (pavr) as it can be repeated as a bridge to transcatheter aortic valve implantation (tavi) and is also a good strategy for patient selection. method: from january 2001 to january 2009, 174 consecutive patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis (as) and high surgical risk calculated by euroscore/sts underwent bav in france and argentina using the same technique. twenty one (12.1%) of these patients underwent repeat bav for restenosis and the results were compared with those of the 153 patients undergoing the primary procedure. the most used technique was retrograde access by femoral approach, using 10, 12 or 14 f introducers, with balloons sizes ranging from 20 to 23 mm. results: patients' mean age was 80.4 ± 9.7 years and euroscore was 21 ± 2%. the retrograde femoral approach was used in 95% of the cases. results of the primary procedure were as follows: aortic valve area (ava) increased from 0.9 ± 19 cm2 to 1.02 ± 0.20 cm2 and mean gradient decreased from 50 ± 21 mmhg to 22 ± 11 mmhg. the results were similar after repeat bav in terms of ava, with an improvement of 0.60 ± 0.1 cm2 to 1.01 ± 0.25 cm2 in a period of 13 ± 9 months between the two procedures. the rates of complications were: death, 3.3% vs. 9.5% (p = 0.20); embolic stroke, 1.3% vs. 0 (p = 0.20); massive aortic regurgitation, 3.3% vs. 9.5% (p = 0.20); balloon burst, 1.3% vs. 0 (p = 0.20); pericardial tamponade, 0 vs. 5% (p = 0.12); and vascular complications, 3.9% vs. 0.5% (p = 0.25). forty eight patients (27.5%) were selected as good candidates for pavr during the follow up period in both countries. thirty six patients underwent pavr in france and four patients in argentina. conclusions: repeat bav is a useful strategy in nonsurgical elderly patients with severe symptomatic as to relieve symptoms after restenosis and as a bridge to transcatheter aortic valve implantation. t
SAMHD1 restricts HIV-1 reverse transcription in quiescent CD4+ T-cells
Descours Benjamin,Cribier Alexandra,Chable-Bessia Christine,Ayinde Diana
Retrovirology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1742-4690-9-87
Abstract: Background Quiescent CD4+ T lymphocytes are highly refractory to HIV-1 infection due to a block at reverse transcription. Results Examination of SAMHD1 expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes shows that SAMHD1 is expressed in both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells at levels comparable to those found in myeloid cells. Treatment of CD4+ T cells with Virus-Like Particles (VLP) containing Vpx results in the loss of SAMHD1 expression that correlates with an increased permissiveness to HIV-1 infection and accumulation of reverse transcribed viral DNA without promoting transcription from the viral LTR. Importantly, CD4+ T-cells from patients with Aicardi-Goutières Syndrome harboring mutation in the SAMHD1 gene display an increased susceptibility to HIV-1 infection that is not further enhanced by VLP-Vpx-treatment. Conclusion Here, we identified SAMHD1 as the restriction factor preventing efficient viral DNA synthesis in non-cycling resting CD4+ T-cells. These results highlight the crucial role of SAMHD1 in mediating restriction of HIV-1 infection in quiescent CD4+ T-cells and could impact our understanding of HIV-1 mediated CD4+ T-cell depletion and establishment of the viral reservoir, two of the HIV/AIDS hallmarks.
Gamow-Teller Strengths of the Inverse-Beta Transition 176Yb --> 176Lu for Spectroscopy of Proton-Proton and other sub-MeV Solar Neutrinos
M. Fujiwara,H. Akimune,A. M. van den Berg,M. Cribier,I. Daito,H. Ejiri,H. Fujimura,Y. Fujita,C. D. Goodman,K. Hara,M. N. Harakeh,F. Ihara,T. Ishikawa,J. Janecke,T. Kawabata,R. S. Raghavan,K. Schwarz,M. Tanaka,T. Yamanaka,M. Yosoi,R. G. T. Zegers
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.85.4442
Abstract: Discrete Gamow-Teller (GT) transitions, 176Yb-->176Lu at low excitation energies have been measured via the (3He,t) reaction at 450 MeV and at 0 degrees. For 176Yb, two low-lying states are observed, setting low thresholds Q(neutrino)=301 and 445 keV for neutrino capture. Capture rates estimated from the measured GT strengths, the simple two-state excitation structure, and the low Q(neutrino) in Yb--Lu indicate that Yb-based neutrino-detectors are well suited for a direct measurement of the complete sub-MeV solar electron-neutrino spectrum (including pp neutrinos) where definitive effects of flavor conversion are expected.
GNO Solar Neutrino Observations: Results for GNOI
GNO Collaboration,M. Altmann,M. Balata,P. Belli,E. Bellotti,R. Bernabei,E. Burkert,C. Cattadori,G. Cerichelli,M. Chiarini,M. Cribier,S. d'Angelo,G. Del Re,K. H. Ebert,F. v. Feilitzsch,N. Ferrari,W. Hampel,J. Handt,E. Henrich,G. Heusser,J. Kiko,T. Kirsten,T. Lachenmaier,J. Lanfranchi,M. Laubenstein,D. Motta,W. Rau,H. Richter,S. Waenninger,M. Wojcik,L. Zanotti
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1016/S0370-2693(00)00915-1
Abstract: We report the first GNO solar neutrino results for the measuring period GNOI, solar exposure time May 20, 1998 till January 12, 2000. In the present analysis, counting results for solar runs SR1 - SR19 were used till April 4, 2000. With counting completed for all but the last 3 runs (SR17 - SR19), the GNO I result is [65.8 +10.2 -9.6 (stat.) +3.4 -3.6 (syst.)]SNU (1sigma) or [65.8 + 10.7 -10.2 (incl. syst.)]SNU (1sigma) with errors combined. This may be compared to the result for Gallex(I-IV), which is [77.5 +7.6 -7.8 (incl. syst.)] SNU (1sigma). A combined result from both GNOI and Gallex(I-IV) together is [74.1 + 6.7 -6.8 (incl. syst.)] SNU (1sigma).
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