Abstract:
It is shown, theoretically and experimentally, that at any type-II spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) phase matching, the decoherence-free singlet Bell state is always present within the natural bandwidth and can be filtered out by a proper spectral selection. Instead of the frequency selection, one can perform time selection of the two-photon time amplitude at the output of a dispersive fibre. Applications to quantum communication are outlined.

Abstract:
We study the interference structure of the second-order intensity correlation function for polarization-entangled two-photon light obtained from type-II collinear frequency-degenerate spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC). The structure is visualised due to the spreading of the two-photon amplitude as two-photon light propagates through optical fibre with group-velocity dispersion (GVD). Because of the spreading, polarization-entangled Bell states can be obtained without any birefringence compensation at the output of the nonlinear crystal; instead, proper time selection of the intensity correlation function is required. A birefringent material inserted at the output of the nonlinear crystal (either reducing the initial o-e delay between the oppositely polarized twin photons or increasing this delay) leads to a more complicated interference structure of the correlation function.

Abstract:
We experimentally measured higher order normalized correlation functions (nCF) of pulsed light with a time-multiplexing-detector. We demonstrate excellent performance of our device by verifying unity valued nCF up to the eighth order for coherent light, and factorial dependence of the nCF for pseudothermal light. We applied our measurement technique to a type-II parametric downconversion source to investigate mutual two-mode correlation properties and ascertain nonclassicality.

Abstract:
We study the frequency-angular lineshape for a phase-matched nonlinear process producing entangled states and show that there is a continuous variety of maximally-entangled states generated for different mismatch values within the natural bandwidth. Detailed considerations are made for two specific methods of polarization entanglement preparation, based on type-II spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) and on SPDC in two subsequent type-I crystals producing orthogonally polarized photon pairs. It turns out that different Bell states are produced at the center of the SPDC line and on its slopes, corresponding to about half-maximum intensity level. These Bell states can be filtered out by either frequency selection or angular selection, or both. Our theoretical calculations are confirmed by a series of experiments, performed for the two above-mentioned schemes of producing polarization-entangled photon pairs and with two kinds of measurements: frequency-selective and angular-selective.

Abstract:
One of the possible types of n-th order ghost imaging is experimentally performed using multi-photon (higher-order) intensity correlations of pseudothermal light. It is shown that although increasing the order of intensity correlations leads to the growth of ghost imaging visibility, it at the same time reduces the signal-to-noise ratio. Therefore, ghost imaging with thermal light is optimal in the second order in the intensity.

Abstract:
Using a traveling-wave OPA with two orthogonally oriented type-I BBO crystals pumped by picosecond pulses, we generate vertically and horizontally polarized squeezed vacuum states within a broad range of wavelengths and angles. Depending on the phase between these states, fluctuations in one or another Stokes parameters are suppressed below the shot-noise limit. Due to the large number of photon pairs produced, no local oscillator is required, and 3dB squeezing is observed by means of direct detection.

Abstract:
An arbitrary polarization state of a single-mode biphoton is considered. The operationalistic criterion is formulated for the orthogonality og these states. It can be used to separate a biphoton with an arbitrary degree of polarization from a set of biphotons orthogonal to it. This is necessary fro the implementation of quantum cryptography protocol based on three-level systems. The experimental test of this criterion amounts to the observation of the anticorrelation effect for a biphoton with an arbitraty polarization state.

Abstract:
Our last experimental results on the realization of a measurement-conditional unitary operation at single photon level are presented. This gate operates by rotating by $90^o$ the polarization of a photon produced by means of Type-II Parametric Down Conversion conditional to a polarization measurement on the correlated photon. We then propose a new scheme for measuring the quantum efficiency of a single photon detection apparatus by using this set-up. We present experimental results obtained with this scheme compared with {\it traditional} biphoton calibration. Our results show the interesting potentiality of the suggested scheme.

Abstract:
We test two-dimensional TPSA of biphoton light emitted via ultrafast spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) using the effect of group-velocity dispersion in optical fibres. Further, we apply this technique to demonstrate the engineering of biphoton spectral properties by acting on the pump pulse shape.

Abstract:
Spontaneous parametric down conversion has been largely exploited as a tool for absolute calibration of photon counting detectors, photomultiplier tubes or avalanche photodiodes working in Geiger regime. In this work we investigate the extension of this technique from very low photon flux of photon counting regime to the absolute calibration of analog photodetectors at higher photon flux. Moving toward higher photon rate, i.e. at high gain regime, with the spontaneous parametric down conversion shows intrinsic limitations of the method, while the stimulated parametric down conversion process, where a seed beam properly injected into the crystal in order to increase the photon generation rate in the conjugate arm, allows us to work around this problem. A preliminary uncertainty budget is discussed.