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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 401970 matches for " M. Carlota Monroy "
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A mass collection of Triatoma ryckmani (Hemiptera:Reduviidae)from Stenocereus eichlamii (Cactaceae)in the semiarid region of Guatemala
Marroquín M,Ricardo; Bor A,Silvia; Monroy E,M.Carlota;
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2004,
Abstract: a population of 216 specimens of stenocereus eichlamii (cactaceae,subfamily cereoideae) was surveyed for triatoma ryckmani (vector of chagas disease)in a one hectare plot of semiarid habitat in guatemala. out of 44 plants that had dead and dry sections,24 plants had a total of 103 specimens of t.ryckmani .in comparison with other areas of guatemala,t.ryckmani is well established in the semiarid ecosystem (infestation index 54.5,density =2.3 and crowding index 4.3).the insects were mainly found (52.4%)in the dead portions of s.eichlamii 2.0 to 3.2 m above the ground (x2 =26.0,p<0.00001),followed by dry cactus sections between 3.2 and 5.0 m (35.9%).they were less frequent 0.2 to 2.0 m above the ground.a considerable proportion (75.7%)had no aparent blood in their digestive systems.to determine the presence of flagellates,43 of the bugs were dissected,but none were found.this is the first report on t.ryckmani population dynamics in this habitat. rev. biol. trop. 52(4):931-936.epub 2005 jun 24.
A mass collection of Triatoma ryckmani (Hemiptera:Reduviidae)from Stenocereus eichlamii (Cactaceae)in the semiarid region of Guatemala
Ricardo Marroquín M,Silvia Bor A,M.Carlota Monroy E
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2004,
Abstract: A population of 216 specimens of Stenocereus eichlamii (Cactaceae,Subfamily Cereoideae) was surveyed for Triatoma ryckmani (vector of Chagas disease)in a one hectare plot of semiarid habitat in Guatemala. Out of 44 plants that had dead and dry sections,24 plants had a total of 103 specimens of T.ryckmani .In comparison with other areas of Guatemala,T.ryckmani is well established in the semiarid ecosystem (Infestation index 54.5,density =2.3 and crowding index 4.3).The insects were mainly found (52.4%)in the dead portions of S.eichlamii 2.0 to 3.2 m above the ground (X2 =26.0,P<0.00001),followed by dry cactus sections between 3.2 and 5.0 m (35.9%).They were less frequent 0.2 to 2.0 m above the ground.A considerable proportion (75.7%)had no aparent blood in their digestive systems.To determine the presence of flagellates,43 of the bugs were dissected,but none were found.This is the first report on T.ryckmani population dynamics in this habitat. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52(4):931-936.Epub 2005 Jun 24. En Guatemala,en una hectárea de la región semiárida,se encontraron 216 cactus de Stenocereus eichlamii (Cactaceae),44 de ellos tenían alguna parte del tallo en condiciones secas.103 Triatoma ryckmani fueron halladas en 24 de esos 44 S.eichlamii .Una comparación de los índices entomológicos con otros vectores domiciliares de la enfermedad de Chagas en Guatemala,da la idea que T. ryckmani está bien establecida en el ecosistema semiárido (índice de infestación de 54.5,índice de densidad de 2.3 e índice de hacinamiento de 4.3).Los triatominos fueron hallados preferentemente en las partes muertas de S.eichlamii entre 2.0 a 3.2 m sobre el nivel del suelo (52.4%de triatominos colectados,X 2=26.0,p<0.00001),el siguiente entre 3.2 a 5.0 m (35.9%)y finalmente 0.2 a 2.0 m (11.6%). El 75.7 %estaba en condiciones de ayuno y 24.3 %estaban llenas de sangre.Para determinar la presencia de flagelados,43 T.ryckmani fueron disectadas, (primera evaluación de parasitemia en esta especie).Ningún flagelado fue hallado en estos triatominos.Este es el primer reporte de la dinámica poblacional de T.ryckmani en su hábitat silvestre.
Hunting, Swimming, and Worshiping: Human Cultural Practices Illuminate the Blood Meal Sources of Cave Dwelling Chagas Vectors (Triatoma dimidiata) in Guatemala and Belize
Lori Stevens ,M. Carlota Monroy,Antonieta Guadalupe Rodas,Patricia L. Dorn
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003047
Abstract: Background Triatoma dimidiata, currently the major Central American vector of Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite that causes Chagas disease, inhabits caves throughout the region. This research investigates the possibility that cave dwelling T. dimidiata might transmit the parasite to humans and links the blood meal sources of cave vectors to cultural practices that differ among locations. Methodology/Principal Findings We determined the blood meal sources of twenty-four T. dimidiata collected from two locations in Guatemala and one in Belize where human interactions with the caves differ. Blood meal sources were determined by cloning and sequencing PCR products amplified from DNA extracted from the vector abdomen using primers specific for the vertebrate 12S mitochondrial gene. The blood meal sources were inferred by ≥99% identity with published sequences. We found 70% of cave-collected T. dimidiata positive for human DNA. The vectors had fed on 10 additional vertebrates with a variety of relationships to humans, including companion animal (dog), food animals (pig, sheep/goat), wild animals (duck, two bat, two opossum species) and commensal animals (mouse, rat). Vectors from all locations fed on humans and commensal animals. The blood meal sources differ among locations, as well as the likelihood of feeding on dog and food animals. Vectors from one location were tested for T. cruzi infection, and 30% (3/10) tested positive, including two positive for human blood meals. Conclusions/Significance Cave dwelling Chagas disease vectors feed on humans and commensal animals as well as dog, food animals and wild animals. Blood meal sources were related to human uses of the caves. We caution that just as T. dimidiata in caves may pose an epidemiological risk, there may be other situations where risk is thought to be minimal, but is not.
Geographic distribution and morphometric differentiation of Triatoma nitida usinger 1939 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) in Guatemala
Monroy Carlota,Bustamante Dulce María,Rodas Antonieta,Rosales Regina
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2003,
Abstract: Triatoma nitida was found in 14 (0.4%) out of 3,726 houses located in six departments across Guatemala, which were surveyed from 1994 to 1998 by the man-hour collection method. Compared to previous information, the distribution of T. nitida in Guatemala has increased from five to nine departments; the species is present in mild climates at altitudes from 960 to 1,500 m. Fourteen percent of the intradomestic T. nitida were infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. The species was often found in conjunction with other triatomines (T. dimidiata and Rhodnius prolixus). The domestic and peridomestic presence of T. nitida in Guatemala was rare, but occasionally this species was colonizing human-made constructions. T. nitida appears to have a low importance as Chagas disease vector in Guatemala, as indicated by its scarce presence in the domestic habitats and defecation patterns. However, it clearly has potential to become a Chagas vector so we recommend an on-going study of the intradomestic presence of T. nitida following the control programs in Guatemala. Morphometric analysis of 47 T. nitida males from three localities showed quantitative differences between the populations, which indicates that geographic distance is an important factor in the structuring of T. nitida populations.
Epidemiology of Chagas disease in Guatemala: infection rate of Triatoma dimidiata, Triatoma nitida and Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) with Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae)
Monroy Carlota,Rodas Antonieta,Mejía Mildred,Rosales Regina
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2003,
Abstract: A five-year domiciliary collection in the 22 departments of Guatemala showed that out of 4,128 triatomines collected, 1,675 were Triatoma dimidiata (Latreille, 1811), 2,344 were Rhodnius prolixus Stal 1859, and only 109 were T. nitida Usinger 1939. The Chagas disease parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, was found in all three species. Their natural infection rates were similar in the first two species (20.6%; 19.1%) and slightly lower in T. nitida(13.8%). However there was no significant difference in the infection rates in the three species (p = 0.131). T. dimidiata males have higher infection rates than females (p = 0.030), whereas for R. prolixus there is no difference in infection rates between males and females (p = 0.114). The sex ratios for all three species were significantly skewed. More males than females were found inside houses for T. dimidiata (p < 0.0001) and T. nitida (p = 0.011); a different pattern was seen for R. prolixus (p = 0.037) where more females were found. Sex ratio is proposed as an index to show the mobility of T. dimidiata in different populations. T. dimidiata is widely distributed in the country, and is also the main vector in at least ten departments, but R. prolixus with higher vectorial capacity is an important vector in at least two departments.
Phylogeographic Pattern and Extensive Mitochondrial DNA Divergence Disclose a Species Complex within the Chagas Disease Vector Triatoma dimidiata
Fernando A. Monteiro, Tatiana Peretolchina, Cristiano Lazoski, Kecia Harris, Ellen M. Dotson, Fernando Abad-Franch, Elsa Tamayo, Pamela M. Pennington, Carlota Monroy, Celia Cordon-Rosales, Paz Maria Salazar-Schettino, Andrés Gómez-Palacio, Mario J. Grijalva, Charles B. Beard, Paula L. Marcet
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070974
Abstract: Background Triatoma dimidiata is among the main vectors of Chagas disease in Latin America. However, and despite important advances, there is no consensus about the taxonomic status of phenotypically divergent T. dimidiata populations, which in most recent papers are regarded as subspecies. Methodology and Findings A total of 126 cyt b sequences (621 bp long) were produced for specimens from across the species range. Forty-seven selected specimens representing the main cyt b clades observed (after a preliminary phylogenetic analysis) were also sequenced for an ND4 fragment (554 bp long) and concatenated with their respective cyt b sequences to produce a combined data set totalling 1175 bp/individual. Bayesian and Maximum-Likelihood phylogenetic analyses of both data sets (cyt b, and cyt b+ND4) disclosed four strongly divergent (all pairwise Kimura 2-parameter distances >0.08), monophyletic groups: Group I occurs from Southern Mexico through Central America into Colombia, with Ecuadorian specimens resembling Nicaraguan material; Group II includes samples from Western-Southwestern Mexico; Group III comprises specimens from the Yucatán peninsula; and Group IV consists of sylvatic samples from Belize. The closely-related, yet formally recognized species T. hegneri from the island of Cozumel falls within the divergence range of the T. dimidiata populations studied. Conclusions We propose that Groups I–IV, as well as T. hegneri, should be regarded as separate species. In the Petén of Guatemala, representatives of Groups I, II, and III occur in sympatry; the absence of haplotypes with intermediate genetic distances, as shown by multimodal mismatch distribution plots, clearly indicates that reproductive barriers actively promote within-group cohesion. Some sylvatic specimens from Belize belong to a different species – likely the basal lineage of the T. dimidiata complex, originated ~8.25 Mya. The evidence presented here strongly supports the proposition that T. dimidiata is a complex of five cryptic species (Groups I–IV plus T. hegneri) that play different roles as vectors of Chagas disease in the region.
Phylogeography and Genetic Variation of Triatoma dimidiata, the Main Chagas Disease Vector in Central America, and Its Position within the Genus Triatoma
María Dolores Bargues ,Debora R. Klisiowicz,Fernando Gonzalez-Candelas,Janine M. Ramsey,Carlota Monroy,Carlos Ponce,Paz María Salazar-Schettino,Francisco Panzera,Fernando Abad-Franch,Octavio E. Sousa,Christopher J. Schofield,Jean Pierre Dujardin,Felipe Guhl,Santiago Mas-Coma
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000233
Abstract: Background Among Chagas disease triatomine vectors, the largest genus, Triatoma, includes species of high public health interest. Triatoma dimidiata, the main vector throughout Central America and up to Ecuador, presents extensive phenotypic, genotypic, and behavioral diversity in sylvatic, peridomestic and domestic habitats, and non-domiciliated populations acting as reinfestation sources. DNA sequence analyses, phylogenetic reconstruction methods, and genetic variation approaches are combined to investigate the haplotype profiling, genetic polymorphism, phylogeography, and evolutionary trends of T. dimidiata and its closest relatives within Triatoma. This is the largest interpopulational analysis performed on a triatomine species so far. Methodology and Findings Triatomines from Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Cuba, Colombia, Ecuador, and Brazil were used. Triatoma dimidiata populations follow different evolutionary divergences in which geographical isolation appears to have had an important influence. A southern Mexican–northern Guatemalan ancestral form gave rise to two main clades. One clade remained confined to the Yucatan peninsula and northern parts of Chiapas State, Guatemala, and Honduras, with extant descendants deserving specific status. Within the second clade, extant subspecies diversity was shaped by adaptive radiation derived from Guatemalan ancestral populations. Central American populations correspond to subspecies T. d. dimidiata. A southern spread into Panama and Colombia gave the T. d. capitata forms, and a northwestern spread rising from Guatemala into Mexico gave the T. d. maculipennis forms. Triatoma hegneri appears as a subspecific insular form. Conclusions The comparison with very numerous Triatoma species allows us to reach highly supported conclusions not only about T. dimidiata, but also on different, important Triatoma species groupings and their evolution. The very large intraspecific genetic variability found in T. dimidiata sensu lato has never been detected in a triatomine species before. The distinction between the five different taxa furnishes a new frame for future analyses of the different vector transmission capacities and epidemiological characteristics of Chagas disease. Results indicate that T. dimidiata will offer problems for control, although dwelling insecticide spraying might be successful against introduced populations in Ecuador.
Carbonyl compounds indoors in a changing climate
Peter Brimblecombe, Carlota M Grossi
Chemistry Central Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1752-153x-6-21
Abstract: Carbonyls are evolved more quickly at higher temperatures likely in the Cartoon Gallery at Knole, an important historic house near Sevenoaks in Kent, England where the study is focused. There is a potential for higher concentrations to accumulate. However, it may well be that in warmer climates they will be depleted more rapidly if ventilation increases.Carbonyls are likely to have a greater impact in the future.Air pollutants are harmful to objects on display. This has long been recognised and even Homer described the damage to metals indoors when Odysseus returned to his home on Ithaca and found his weapons damaged:(My son! we must remove and safe disposeAll these my well-forged implements of war;And should the suitors, missing them, enquireWhere are they? thou shalt answer smoothly thus--I have convey'd them from the reach of smoke,For they appear no more the same which erstUlysses, going hence to Ilium, left,So smirch'd and sullied by the breath of fire."Translator: William CowperThis classical example illustrates the impact that combustion derived pollutants have on indoor objects. There has been a long history of concern over these indoors. In coal burning London Michel Faraday helped advised on the problems that paintings in the new National Gallery might face through exposure to sulfur dioxide and coal smoke in the outdoor air.However, increasingly and especially as concentrations of the classical combustion derived pollutants decline it may not be these that are most critical for objects on display. Furthermore, the pollutants that are harmful to health are not necessarily the same as those that cause damage to art objects. Many indoor pollutants outgas from display materials or the objects themselves. Many objects are typically stored in cases, and some paintings in well-constructed frames, despite the contemporary interest in open display. Thus outgassing can be important as sources of exposure within tightly sealed museums cases.Of these indoor pollutant
Geographic distribution and morphometric differentiation of Triatoma nitida usinger 1939 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) in Guatemala
Monroy, Carlota;Bustamante, Dulce María;Rodas, Antonieta;Rosales, Regina;Mejía, Mildred;Tabaru, Yuichiro;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762003000100006
Abstract: triatoma nitida was found in 14 (0.4%) out of 3,726 houses located in six departments across guatemala, which were surveyed from 1994 to 1998 by the man-hour collection method. compared to previous information, the distribution of t. nitida in guatemala has increased from five to nine departments; the species is present in mild climates at altitudes from 960 to 1,500 m. fourteen percent of the intradomestic t. nitida were infected with trypanosoma cruzi. the species was often found in conjunction with other triatomines (t. dimidiata and rhodnius prolixus). the domestic and peridomestic presence of t. nitida in guatemala was rare, but occasionally this species was colonizing human-made constructions. t. nitida appears to have a low importance as chagas disease vector in guatemala, as indicated by its scarce presence in the domestic habitats and defecation patterns. however, it clearly has potential to become a chagas vector so we recommend an on-going study of the intradomestic presence of t. nitida following the control programs in guatemala. morphometric analysis of 47 t. nitida males from three localities showed quantitative differences between the populations, which indicates that geographic distance is an important factor in the structuring of t. nitida populations.
Epidemiology of Chagas disease in Guatemala: infection rate of Triatoma dimidiata, Triatoma nitida and Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) with Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae)
Monroy, Carlota;Rodas, Antonieta;Mejía, Mildred;Rosales, Regina;Tabaru, Yuichiro;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762003000300003
Abstract: a five-year domiciliary collection in the 22 departments of guatemala showed that out of 4,128 triatomines collected, 1,675 were triatoma dimidiata (latreille, 1811), 2,344 were rhodnius prolixus stal 1859, and only 109 were t. nitida usinger 1939. the chagas disease parasite, trypanosoma cruzi, was found in all three species. their natural infection rates were similar in the first two species (20.6%; 19.1%) and slightly lower in t. nitida(13.8%). however there was no significant difference in the infection rates in the three species (p = 0.131). t. dimidiata males have higher infection rates than females (p = 0.030), whereas for r. prolixus there is no difference in infection rates between males and females (p = 0.114). the sex ratios for all three species were significantly skewed. more males than females were found inside houses for t. dimidiata (p < 0.0001) and t. nitida (p = 0.011); a different pattern was seen for r. prolixus (p = 0.037) where more females were found. sex ratio is proposed as an index to show the mobility of t. dimidiata in different populations. t. dimidiata is widely distributed in the country, and is also the main vector in at least ten departments, but r. prolixus with higher vectorial capacity is an important vector in at least two departments.
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