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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 542665 matches for " M. C. Goodman "
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Interpretation of the Underground Muon Charge Ratio
P. A. Schreiner,J. Reichenbacher,M. C. Goodman
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2009.06.002
Abstract: The MINOS experiment has observed a rise in the underground muon charge ratio $r_\mu$ = ${\mu^+/\mu^-}$. This ratio can be related to the atmospheric production ratios of ${\pi^+/\pi^-}$ and ${K^+/K^-}$. Our analysis indicates that the relevant variable for studying the charge ratio+ $\ecos$, rather than $\emu$. We compare a simple energy dependent parameterization of the rise in the charge ratio with more detailed previously published Monte Carlo simulations and an analytical calculation. We also estimate the size of two previously neglected effects in this context: the charge sign dependency of the dE/dx in rock, and the energy dependence of heavy primaries on the derived ${K^+/K^-}$ ratio.
Parallel Germline Infiltration of a Lentivirus in Two Malagasy Lemurs
Clément Gilbert,David G. Maxfield,Steven M. Goodman,Cédric Feschotte
PLOS Genetics , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000425
Abstract: Retroviruses normally infect the somatic cells of their host and are transmitted horizontally, i.e., in an exogenous way. Occasionally, however, some retroviruses can also infect and integrate into the genome of germ cells, which may allow for their vertical inheritance and fixation in a given species; a process known as endogenization. Lentiviruses, a group of mammalian retroviruses that includes HIV, are known to infect primates, ruminants, horses, and cats. Unlike many other retroviruses, these viruses have not been demonstrably successful at germline infiltration. Here, we report on the discovery of endogenous lentiviral insertions in seven species of Malagasy lemurs from two different genera—Cheirogaleus and Microcebus. Combining molecular clock analyses and cross-species screening of orthologous insertions, we show that the presence of this endogenous lentivirus in six species of Microcebus is the result of one endogenization event that occurred about 4.2 million years ago. In addition, we demonstrate that this lentivirus independently infiltrated the germline of Cheirogaleus and that the two endogenization events occurred quasi-simultaneously. Using multiple proviral copies, we derive and characterize an apparently full length and intact consensus for this lentivirus. These results provide evidence that lentiviruses have repeatedly infiltrated the germline of prosimian species and that primates have been exposed to lentiviruses for a much longer time than what can be inferred based on sequence comparison of circulating lentiviruses. The study sets the stage for an unprecedented opportunity to reconstruct an ancestral primate lentivirus and thereby advance our knowledge of host–virus interactions.
The Role of Canine Distemper Virus and Persistent Organic Pollutants in Mortality Patterns of Caspian Seals (Pusa caspica)
Susan C. Wilson, Tariel M. Eybatov, Masao Amano, Paul D. Jepson, Simon J. Goodman
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0099265
Abstract: Persistent organic pollutants are a concern for species occupying high trophic levels since they can cause immunosuppression and impair reproduction. Mass mortalities due to canine distemper virus (CDV) occurred in Caspian seals (Pusa caspica), in spring of 1997, 2000 and 2001, but the potential role of organochlorine exposure in these epizootics remains undetermined. Here we integrate Caspian seal mortality data spanning 1971–2008, with data on age, body condition, pathology and blubber organochlorine concentration for carcases stranded between 1997 and 2002. We test the hypothesis that summed PCB and DDT concentrations contributed to CDV associated mortality during epizootics. We show that age is the primary factor explaining variation in blubber organochlorine concentrations, and that organochlorine burden, age, sex, and body condition do not account for CDV infection status (positive/negative) of animals dying in epizootics. Most animals (57%, n = 67) had PCB concentrations below proposed thresholds for toxic effects in marine mammals (17 μg/g lipid weight), and only 3 of 67 animals had predicted TEQ values exceeding levels seen to be associated with immune suppression in harbour seals (200 pg/g lipid weight). Mean organonchlorine levels were higher in CDV-negative animals indicating that organochlorines did not contribute significantly to CDV mortality in epizootics. Mortality monitoring in Azerbaijan 1971–2008 revealed bi-annual stranding peaks in late spring, following the annual moult and during autumn migrations northwards. Mortality peaks comparable to epizootic years were also recorded in the 1970s–1980s, consistent with previous undocumented CDV outbreaks. Gompertz growth curves show that Caspian seals achieve an asymptotic standard body length of 126–129 cm (n = 111). Males may continue to grow slowly throughout life. Mortality during epizootics may exceed the potential biological removal level (PBR) for the population, but the low frequency of epizootics suggest they are of secondary importance compared to anthropogenic sources of mortality such as fishing by-catch.
Dust SEDs in the era of Herschel and Planck: a Hierarchical Bayesian fitting technique
Brandon C. Kelly,Rahul Shetty,Amelia M. Stutz,Jens Kauffmann,Alyssa A. Goodman,Ralf Launhardt
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/752/1/55
Abstract: We present a hierarchical Bayesian method for fitting infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of dust emission to observed fluxes. Under the standard assumption of optically thin single temperature (T) sources the dust SED as represented by a power--law modified black body is subject to a strong degeneracy between T and the spectral index beta. The traditional non-hierarchical approaches, typically based on chi-square minimization, are severely limited by this degeneracy, as it produces an artificial anti-correlation between T and beta even with modest levels of observational noise. The hierarchical Bayesian method rigorously and self-consistently treats measurement uncertainties, including calibration and noise, resulting in more precise SED fits. As a result, the Bayesian fits do not produce any spurious anti-correlations between the SED parameters due to measurement uncertainty. We demonstrate that the Bayesian method is substantially more accurate than the chi-square fit in recovering the SED parameters, as well as the correlations between them. As an illustration, we apply our method to Herschel and sub millimeter ground-based observations of the star-forming Bok globule CB244. This source is a small, nearby molecular cloud containing a single low-mass protostar and a starless core. We find that T and beta are weakly positively correlated -- in contradiction with the chi-square fits, which indicate a T-beta anti-correlation from the same data-set. Additionally, in comparison to the chi-square fits the Bayesian SED parameter estimates exhibit a reduced range in values.
In Bangla There Is No Word for Vagina
—Reflections on Language, Sexual Health, and Women’s Access to Healthcare in Resource-Limited Countries

Annekathryn Goodman, Mithila Faruque, Rachel M. Clark
Health (Health) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/health.2016.812127
Abstract: Language plays a central role in how gender and sexuality are described. In Bangla or Bengali, physicians, when educating and counseling women patients, do not have a socially acceptable word for “vagina”. If language is missing for female genitalia or important female sexual functions, could this absence reflect on the position of women in society, reproductive rights, and access to healthcare? Is there a relationship between language and the high rates of the gender-based cervical and breast cancers in some low and middle-income countries? This commentary examines scholarship on the topic of language, the female body, gender-based violence, disparities of healthcare for women, and the consequences of language on sexual attitudes and health.
Should Any Workplace Be Exempt from Smoke-Free Law: The Irish Experience
M. McCaffrey,P. Goodman,A. Gavigan,C. Kenny,C. Hogg,L. Byrne,J. McLaughlin,K. Young,L. Clancy
Journal of Environmental and Public Health , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/545483
Abstract: Background. In 2004, the Irish Government introduced national legislation banning smoking in workplaces; with exemptions for “a place of residence”. This paper summarises three Irish studies of exempted premises; prisons, psychiatric hospitals and nursing homes. Methods. PM2.5 and nicotine were measured in nursing homes and psychiatric hospitals, in addition to ultrafine particles in the hospitals. In the prisons, officers (=30) completed exhaled breath Carbon Monoxide (CO) measurements. Questionnaires determined officers’ opinion on introducing smoking prohibitions in prisons. Nursing home smoking policies were examined and questionnaires completed by staff regarding workplace secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. Findings. Ultrafine particle concentrations in psychiatric hospitals averaged 130,000 per cm3, approximately 45% higher than Dublin pub levels (85,000 per cm3) pre ban. PM2.5 levels in psychiatric hospitals (39.5 μg/m3) were similar to Dublin pubs (35.5 μg/m3) pre ban. In nursing homes permitting smoking, similar PM2.5 levels (33 μg/m3) were measured, with nicotine levels (0.57 μg/m3) four times higher than “non-smoking” nursing homes (0.13 μg/m3). In prisons, 44% of non-smoking officers exhibited exhaled breath CO criteria for light to heavy smokers. Conclusions. With SHS exposure levels in some exempted workplaces similar to Dublin pubs levels pre ban, policies ensuring full protection must be developed and implemented as a right for workers, inmates and patients.
Investigating the genetic and environmental bases of biases in threat recognition and avoidance in children with anxiety problems
Jennifer YF Lau, Kevin Hilbert, Robert Goodman, Alice M Gregory, Daniel S Pine, Essi M Viding, Thalia C Eley
Biology of Mood & Anxiety Disorders , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/2045-5380-2-12
Abstract: Two-hundred and fifty 10-year old MZ and DZ twin pairs (500 individuals) completed tasks assessing accuracy in the labelling of threatening facial expressions and in the acquisition of avoidant responses to a card associated with a masked threatening face. To assess whether participants met criteria for an anxiety disorder, parents of twins completed a self-guided computerized version of the Development and Well-being Assessment (DAWBA). Comparison of MZ and DZ twin correlations using model-fitting were used to compute estimates of genetic, shared and non-shared environmental effects.Of the 500 twins assessed, 25 (5%) met diagnostic criteria for a current anxiety disorder. Children with anxiety disorders were more accurate in their ability to recognize disgust faces than those without anxiety disorders, but were commensurate on identifying other threatening face emotions (angry, fearful, sad). Children with anxiety disorders but also more strongly avoided selecting a conditioned stimulus than non-anxious children. While recognition of socially threatening faces was moderately heritable, avoidant responses were heavily influenced by the non-shared environment.These data add to other findings on threat biases in anxious children. Specifically, we found biases in the labelling of some negative-valence faces and in the acquisition of avoidant responses. While non-shared environmental effects explained all of the variance on threat avoidance, some of this may be due to measurement error.
Policy interventions that attract nurses to rural areas: a multicountry discrete choice experiment
Blaauw,D; Erasmus,E; Pagaiya,N; Tangcharoensathein,V; Mullei,K; Mudhune,S; Goodman,C; English,M; Lagarde,M;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862010000500012
Abstract: objective: to evaluate the relative effectiveness of different policies in attracting nurses to rural areas in kenya, south africa and thailand using data from a discrete choice experiment (dce). methods: a labelled dce was designed to model the relative effectiveness of both financial and non-financial strategies designed to attract nurses to rural areas. data were collected from over 300 graduating nursing students in each country. mixed logit models were used for analysis and to predict the uptake of rural posts under different incentive combinations. findings: nurses' preferences for different human resource policy interventions varied significantly between the three countries. in kenya and south africa, better educational opportunities or rural allowances would be most effective in increasing the uptake of rural posts, while in thailand better health insurance coverage would have the greatest impact. conclusion: dces can be designed to help policy-makers choose more effective interventions to address staff shortages in rural areas. intervention packages tailored to local conditions are more likely to be effective than standardized global approaches.
A Measurement of Gamow-Teller Strength for 176Yb -> 176Lu and the Efficiency of a Solar Neutrino Detector
M. Bhattacharya,C. D. Goodman,R. S. Raghavan,M. Palarczyk,A. Garcia,J. Rapaport,I. J. van Heerden,P. Zupranski
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.85.4446
Abstract: We report a 0-degree 176Yb(p,n)176Lu measurement at IUCF where we used 120 and 160 MeV protons and the energy dependence method to determine GT matrix elements relative to the Fermi matrix element which can be calculated model independently. The data show that there is an isolated concentration of GT strength in the low lying 1+ states making the proposed Low Energy Neutrino Spectroscopy (LENS) detector (based on neutrino captures on 176Yb) sensitive to 7Be and pp neutrinos and a promising detector to resolve the solar neutrino problem.
Identification and characteristics of vaccine refusers
Feifei Wei, John P Mullooly, Mike Goodman, Maribet C McCarty, Ann M Hanson, Bradley Crane, James D Nordin
BMC Pediatrics , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-9-18
Abstract: Medical records were reviewed to validate refusal status in the immunization registries of two health plans. Racial, education, and income characteristics of children claiming refusal were collected based on the census tract of each child. Health care utilization was identified using both electronic medical record and insurance claims. Within the immunization registries of two HMOs in the study, some providers use refusal and medical contraindication interchangeably, and some providers tend to always use "ever refusal." Therefore, we combined medical contraindication and refusal together and treated them all as "refusal" in this study.The immunization registry, compared to chart review, had negative predictive values of 85–92% and 90–97% for 2- and 6-year olds, and positive predictive values of only 52–74% and 59–62% to identify vaccine refusals. Refusers were more likely to reside in well-educated, higher income areas than non-refusers. Refusers had not opted out of health care system and continued, although less frequently for the age 2 and under group, to use services.Without enhancements to immunization registries, identifying children with immunization refusal would be time consuming. Since communities where refusers live are well educated, interventions should target these communities to communicate vaccine adverse events and consequences of vaccine preventable diseases.The decision to voluntarily forgo immunization exposes both the children whose parents refused vaccination and others in the community to the risks of vaccine-preventable disease.[1]Mandatory vaccination for school entry, as required in all states, is one effective way the United States has chosen to control vaccine preventable diseases. Although this policy exists in all states, exemptions are still allowed. The reasons for parents to refuse to have their children vaccinated ranged from religious beliefs to, increasingly, a fear of adverse reactions to certain vaccinations. A recent study show
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