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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 542379 matches for " M. C. Facchini "
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Coastal and open ocean aerosol characteristics: investigating the representativeness of coastal aerosol sampling over the North-East Atlantic Ocean
M. Rinaldi,M. C. Facchini,S. Decesari,C. Carbone
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2008,
Abstract: In order to achieve a better understanding of the modifications of the physical and chemical properties of marine aerosol particles during transport from offshore to the coast, size distribution and chemical composition were measured concurrently in clean air masses over the open North Atlantic Ocean and at an Irish coastal site. Open ocean sampling was performed on board the oceanographic vessel Celtic Explorer sailing 100–300 km off the Irish west coast, while coastal measurements were performed at the Mace Head GAW station. The experiment took place between 11 June and 6 July 2006, during the period of phytoplankton bloom. The number size distribution and size-resolved chemical composition of coastal and open ocean samples were very similar, indicating homogeneous physical and chemical aerosol properties over a wide region in the marine boundary layer. The results also show that submicron chemical and physical aerosol properties measured at the coastal Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station were not unduly influenced by coastal artefacts and are thus representative of open water properties. Greater differences between the coastal site and the open ocean were observed for the aerosol supermicron sea spray components; this could be due to a variety of reasons, ranging from higher local wind speeds at the coastal site over the comparison period, to differences in sampling heights and increased local surf-zone production. Evidence of ageing processes was observed: at the costal site the ratio between non-sea-salt sulphate and methanesulphonic acid was higher, and the aerosol water soluble organic compounds were more oxidized than in the open ocean.
On the representativeness of coastal aerosol studies to open ocean studies: Mace Head – a case study
M. Rinaldi,M. C. Facchini,S. Decesari,C. Carbone
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2009,
Abstract: A unique opportunity arose during the MAP project to compare open ocean aerosol measurements with those undertaken at the Mace Head Global Atmosphere Watch Station, a station used for decades for aerosol process research and long-term monitoring. The objective of the present study is to demonstrate that the key aerosol features and processes observed at Mace Head are characteristic of the open ocean, while acknowledging and allowing for spatial and temporal gradients. Measurements were conducted for a 5-week period at Mace Head and offshore, on the Research Vessel Celtic Explorer, in generally similar marine air masses, albeit not in connected-flow scenarios. The results of the study indicate, in terms of aerosol number size distribution, higher nucleation mode particle concentrations at Mace Head than offshore, pointing to a strong coastal source of new particles that is not representative of the open ocean. The Aitken mode exhibited a large degree of similarity, with no systematic differences between Mace Head and the open ocean, while the accumulation mode showed averagely 35% higher concentrations at Mace Head. The higher accumulation mode concentration can be attributed equally to cloud processing and to a coastal enhancement in concentration. Chemical analysis showed similar or even higher offshore concentrations for dominant species, such as nss-SO4-2, WSOC, WIOC and MSA. Sea salt concentration differences determined a 40% higher supermicron mass at Mace Head, although this difference can be attributed to a higher wind speed at Mace Head during the comparison period. Moreover, the relative chemical composition as a function of size illustrated remarkable similarity. While differences to varying degrees were observed between offshore and coastal measurements, no convincing evidence was found of local coastal effects, apart from nucleation mode aerosol, thus confirming the integrity of previously reported marine aerosol characterisation studies at Mace Head.
Chemical composition of PM10 and PM1 at the high-altitude Himalayan station Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid (NCO-P) (5079 m a.s.l.)
S. Decesari,M. C. Facchini,C. Carbone,L. Giulianelli
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2009,
Abstract: We report chemical composition data for PM10 and PM1 from the Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid (NCO-P), the world's highest aerosol observatory, located at 5079 m a.s.l. at the foothills of Mt. Everest. Despite its high altitude, the average PM10 mass apportioned by the chemical analyses is of the order of 6 μg m 3 (i.e., 10 μg/scm), with almost a half of this mass accounted for by organic matter, elemental carbon (EC) and inorganic ions, the rest being mineral dust. Organic matter, in particular, accounted for by 2.0 μg m 3 (i.e., 3.6 μg/scm) on a yearly basis, and it is by far the major PM10 component beside mineral oxides. Non-negligible concentrations of EC were also observed (0.36 μg/scm), confirming that optically-active aerosol produced from combustion sources can be efficiently transported up the altitudes of Himalayan glaciers. The concentrations of carbonaceous and ionic aerosols follow a common time trend with a maximum in the premonsoon season, a minimum during the monsoon and a slow "ramp-up" period in the postmonsoon and dry seasons, which is the same phenomenology observed for other Nepalese Himalayan sites in previous studies. Such seasonal cycle can be explained by the seasonal variations of dry and moist convection and of wet scavenging processes characterizing the climate of north Indian subcontinent. We document the effect of orographic transport of carbonaceous and sulphate particles upslope the Himalayas, showing that the valley breeze circulation, which is almost permanently active during the out-of-monsoon season, greatly impacts the chemical composition of PM10 and PM1 in the high Himalayas and provides an efficient mechanism for bringing anthropogenic optically-active aerosols into the Asian upper troposphere (>5000 m a.s.l.). The concentrations of mineral dust are impacted to a smaller extent by valley breezes and follow a unique seasonal cycle which suggest multiple source areas in central and south-west Asia. Our findings, based on two years of observations of the aerosol chemical composition, provide clear evidence that the southern side of the high Himalayas are impacted by transport of anthropogenic aerosols which constitute the Asian brown cloud.
Chemical mass balance of size-segregated atmospheric aerosol in an urban area of the Po Valley, Italy
E. Matta,M. C. Facchini,S. Decesari,M. Mircea
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2002,
Abstract: A complete size segregated chemical characterisation was carried out for aerosol samples collected in the urban area of Bologna over a period of one year, using five-stage low pressure Berner impactors. An original dual-substrate technique was adopted to obtain samples suitable for a complete chemical characterisation. Total mass, inorganic, and organic components were analysed as a function of size, and a detailed characterisation of the water soluble organic compounds was also performed by means of a previously developed methodology, based on HPLC separation of organic compounds according to their acid character and functional group analysis by Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. Chemical mass closure of the collected samples was reached to within a few percent on average in the submicron aerosol range, while a higher unknown fraction in the coarse aerosol range was attributed to soil-derived species not analysed in this experiment. Comparison of the functional group analysis results with model results simulating water soluble organic compound production by gas-to-particle conversion of anthropogenic VOCs showed that this pathway provides a minor contribution to the organic composition of the aerosol samples in the urban area of Bologna.
Relation of air mass history to nucleation events in Po Valley, Italy, using back trajectories analysis
L. Sogacheva,A. Hamed,M. C. Facchini,M. Kulmala
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2006,
Abstract: In this paper, we study the transport of air mass to San Pietro Capofiume (SPC) in Po Valley, Italy, by means of back trajectory analysis. Our main aim is to investigate whether air masses originate from different regions on nucleation event days and on nonevent days, during three years when nucleation events have been continuously recorded at SPC. The results indicate that nucleation events occur frequently in air masses arriving form Central Europe, whereas event frequency is much lower in air transported from southern directions and from the Atlantic Ocean. We also analyzed the behaviour of meteorological parameters during 96 h transport to SPC, and found that on average, event trajectories undergo stronger subsidence during the last 12 h before the arrival at SPC than nonevent trajectories. This causes a reversal in the temperature and relative humidity (RH) differences between event and nonevent trajectories: between 96 and 12 h back time, temperatures are lower and RH's higher for event than nonevent trajectories and between 12 and 0 h vice versa. Boundary layer mixing is stronger along the event trajectories compared to nonevent trajectories. The absolute humidity (AH) is similar for the event and nonevent trajectories between about 96 h and about 60 h back time, but after that, the event trajectories AH becomes lower due to stronger rain. We also studied transport of SO2 to SPC, and conclude that although sources in Po Valley most probably dominate the measured concentrations, certain Central and Eastern European sources can also have a non-negligible contribution.
Importance of the organic aerosol fraction for modeling aerosol hygroscopic growth and activation: a case study in the Amazon Basin
M. Mircea,M. C. Facchini,S. Decesari,F. Cavalli
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2005,
Abstract: The aerosol in the Amazon basin is dominated throughout the year by organic matter, for the most part soluble in water. In this modeling study, we show how the knowledge of water-soluble organic compounds (WSOC) and the associated physical and chemical properties (e.g. solubility, surface tension, dissociation into ions) affect the hygroscopic growth and activation of the aerosol in this area. The study is based on data obtained during the SMOCC field experiment carried out in Rond nia, Brazil, over a period encompassing the dry (biomass burning) season to the onset of the wet season (September to mid-November, 2002). The comparison of predicted and measured cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentration shows that the knowledge of aerosol WSOC composition in terms of classes of compounds and of their relative molecular weights and acidic properties may be sufficient to predict aerosol activation, without any information on solubility. Conversely, the lack of knowledge on WSOC solubility leads to a high overestimation of the observed diameter growth factors (DGF) by the theory. Moreover, the aerosol water soluble inorganic species fail to predict both DGFs and CCN number concentration. In fact, this study shows that a good reproduction of the measured DGF and CCN concentration is obtained if the chemical composition of aerosol, especially that of WSOC, is appropriately taken into account in the calculations. New parameterizations for the computed CCN spectra are also derived which take into account the variability caused by chemical effects (surface tension, molecular composition, solubility, degree of dissociation of WSOC).
Wind speed dependent size-resolved parameterization for the organic mass fraction of sea spray aerosol
B. Gantt,N. Meskhidze,M. C. Facchini,M. Rinaldi
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2011, DOI: 10.5194/acp-11-8777-2011
Abstract: For oceans to be a significant source of primary organic aerosol (POA), sea spray aerosol (SSA) must be highly enriched with organics relative to the bulk seawater. We propose that organic enrichment at the air-sea interface, chemical composition of seawater, and the aerosol size are three main parameters controlling the organic mass fraction of sea spray aerosol (OMSSA). To test this hypothesis, we developed a new marine POA emission function based on a conceptual relationship between the organic enrichment at the air-sea interface and surface wind speed. The resulting parameterization is explored using aerosol chemical composition and surface wind speed from Atlantic and Pacific coastal stations, and satellite-derived ocean concentrations of chlorophyll-a, dissolved organic carbon, and particulate organic carbon. Of all the parameters examined, a multi-variable logistic regression revealed that the combination of 10 m wind speed and surface chlorophyll-a concentration ([Chl-a]) are the most consistent predictors of OMSSA. This relationship, combined with the published aerosol size dependence of OMSSA, resulted in a new parameterization for the organic mass fraction of SSA. Global emissions of marine POA are investigated here by applying this newly-developed relationship to existing sea spray emission functions, satellite-derived [Chl-a], and modeled 10 m winds. Analysis of model simulations shows that global annual submicron marine organic emission associated with sea spray is estimated to be from 2.8 to 5.6 Tg C yr 1. This study provides additional evidence that marine primary organic aerosols are a globally significant source of organics in the atmosphere.
Relation of air mass history to nucleation events in Po Valley, Italy, using back trajectories analysis
L. Sogacheva, A. Hamed, M. C. Facchini, M. Kulmala,A. Laaksonen
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2007,
Abstract: In this paper, we study the transport of air masses to San Pietro Capofiume (SPC) in Po Valley, Italy, by means of back trajectories analysis. Our main aim is to investigate whether air masses originate over different regions on nucleation event days and on nonevent days, during three years when nucleation events have been continuously recorded at SPC. The results indicate that nucleation events occur frequently in air masses arriving from Central Europe, whereas event frequency is much lower in the air transported from southern directions and from the Atlantic Ocean. We also analyzed the behaviour of meteorological parameters during 96 h transport to SPC, and found that, on average, event trajectories undergo stronger subsidence during the last 12 h before the arrival at SPC than nonevent trajectories. This causes a reversal in the temperature and relative humidity (RH) differences between event and nonevent trajectories: between 96 and 12 h back time, temperature is lower and RH is higher for event than nonevent trajectories and between 12 and 0 h vice versa. Boundary layer mixing is stronger along the event trajectories compared to nonevent trajectories. The absolute humidity (AH) is similar for the event and nonevent trajectories between about 96 h and about 60 h back time, but after that, the event trajectories AH becomes lower due to stronger rain. We also studied transport of SO2 to SPC, and conclude that although sources in Po Valley most probably dominate the measured concentrations, certain Central and Eastern European sources also make a substantial contribution.
Size-segregated aerosol chemical composition at a boreal site in southern Finland, during the QUEST project
F. Cavalli, M. C. Facchini, S. Decesari, L. Emblico, M. Mircea, N. R. Jensen,S. Fuzzi
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2006,
Abstract: Size-segregated aerosol samples were collected during the QUEST field campaign at Hyyti l , a boreal forest site in Southern Finland, during spring 2003. Aerosol samples were selectively collected during both particle formation events and periods in which no particle formation occurred. A comprehensive characterisation of the aerosol chemical properties (water-soluble inorganic and organic fraction) and an analysis of the relevant meteorological parameters revealed how aerosol chemistry and meteorology combine to determine a favorable "environment" for new particle formation. The results indicated that all events, typically favored during northerly air mass advection, were background aerosols (total mass concentrations range between 1.97 and 4.31 μg m-3), with an increasingly pronounced marine character as the northerly air flow arrived progressively from the west and, in contrast, with a moderate SO2-pollution influence as the air arrived from more easterly directions. Conversely, the non-event aerosol, transported from the south, exhibited the chemical features of European continental sites, with a marked increase in the concentrations of all major anthropogenic aerosol constituents. The higher non-event mass concentration (total mass concentrations range between 6.88 and 16.30 μg m-3) and, thus, a larger surface area, tended to suppress new particle formation, more efficiently depleting potential gaseous precursors for nucleation. The analysis of water-soluble organic compounds showed that clean nucleation episodes were dominated by aliphatic biogenic species, while non-events were characterised by a large abundance of anthropogenic oxygenated species. Interestingly, a significant content of α-pinene photo-oxidation products was observed in the events aerosol, accounting for, on average, 72% of their WSOC; while only moderate amounts of these species were found in the non-event aerosol. If the organic vapors condensing onto accumulation mode particles are responsible also for the growth of newly formed thermodynamically stable clusters, our finding allows one to postulate that, at the site, α-pinene photo-oxidation products (and probably also photo-oxidation products from other terpenes) are the most likely species to contribute to the growth of nanometer-sized particles. Final Revised Paper (PDF, 312 KB) Discussion Paper (ACPD) Special Issue Citation: Cavalli, F., Facchini, M. C., Decesari, S., Emblico, L., Mircea, M., Jensen, N. R., and Fuzzi, S.: Size-segregated aerosol chemical composition at a boreal site in southern Finland, during the QUEST project, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 993-1002, doi:10.5194/acp-6-993-2006, 2006. Bibtex EndNote Reference Manager XML
Lidar and in situ observations of continental and Saharan aerosol: closure analysis of particles optical and physical properties
G. P. Gobbi, F. Barnaba, R. Van Dingenen, J. P. Putaud, M. Mircea,M. C. Facchini
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2003,
Abstract: Single wavelength polarization lidar observations collected at Mt.\ Cimone (44.2o N, 10.7o E, 1870 m a.s.l.) during the June 2000 MINATROC campaign are analyzed to derive tropospheric profiles of aerosol extinction, depolarization, surface area and volume. Lidar retrievals for the 2170-2245 m level are compared to the same variables as computed from in situ measurements of particles size distributions, performed at the mountain top Station (2165 m a.s.l.) by a differential mobility analyzer (DMA) and an optical particle counter (OPC). A sensitivity analysis of this closure experiment shows that mean relative differences between the backscatter coefficients obtained by the two techniques undergo a sharp decrease when hygroscopic growth to ambient humidity is considered for the DMA dataset, otherwise representative of dry aerosols. Minimization of differences between lidar and size distribution-derived backscatter coefficients allowed to find values of the "best" refractive index, specific to each measurement. These results show the refractive index to increase for air masses proceeding from Africa and Western Europe. Lidar depolarization was observed to minimize mainly in airmasses proceeding from Western Europe, thus indicating a spherical, i.e. liquid nature for such aerosols. Conversely, African, Mediterranean and East Europe aerosol showed a larger depolarizing fraction, mainly due to coexisting refractory and soluble fractions. The analysis shows average relative differences between lidar and in-situ observations of 5% for backscatter, 36% for extinction 41% for surface area and 37% for volume. These values are well within the expected combined uncertainties of the lidar and in situ retrievals. Average differences further decrease during the Saharan dust transport event, when a lidar signal inversion model considering non-spherical scatterers is employed. The quality of the closure obtained between particle counter and lidar-derived aerosol surface area and volume observations constitutes a validation of the technique adopted to retrieve such aerosol properties on the basis of single-wavelength lidar observations.
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