Abstract:
Wireless multimedia sensor nodes sense areas that are uncorrelated to the areas covered by radio neighbouring sensors. Thus, node clustering for coordinating multimedia sensing and processing cannot be based on classical sensor clustering algorithms. This paper presents a clustering mechanism for Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSNs) based on overlapped Field of View (FoV) areas. Overlapping FoVs in dense networks cause the wasting of power due to redundant area sensing. The main aim of the proposed clustering method is energy conservation and network lifetime prolongation. This objective is achieved through coordination of nodes belonging to the same cluster to perform assigned tasks in a cooperative manner avoiding redundant sensing or processing. A paradigm in this concept, a cooperative scheduling scheme for object detection, is presented based on the proposed clustering method.

Abstract:
We study Little Higgs models based on a SU(3)_1 x SU(3)_2 global symmetry and with two scales (the two vacuum expectation values f_{1,2}) substantially different. We show that all the extra vector boson fields present in these models may be much heavier than the vectorlike T quark necessary to cancel top-quark quadratic corrections. In this case the models become an extension of the standard model with a light (500 GeV) T quark and a scalar Higgs field with a large singlet component. We obtain that the Yukawa and the gauge couplings of the Higgs are smaller than in the standard model, a fact that reduces significantly the Higgs production rate through glu-glu and WW fusion. The T-quark decay into Higgs boson becomes then a dominant Higgs production channel in hadron colliders.

Abstract:
Charmed mesons may be produced when a primary cosmic ray or the leading hadron in an air shower collide with an atmospheric nucleon. At energies \ge 10^8 GeV their decay length becomes larger than 10 km, which implies that they tend to interact in the air instead of decaying. We study the collisions of long-lived charmed hadrons in the atmosphere. We show that (\Lambda_c,D)-proton diffractive processes and partonic collisions of any q^2 where the charm quark is an spectator have lower inelasticity than (p,\pi)-proton collisions. In particular, we find that a D meson deposits in each interaction just around 55% of the energy deposited by a pion. On the other hand, collisions involving the valence c quark (its annihilation with a sea cbar quark in the target or c-quark exchange in the t channel) may deposit most of D meson energy, but their frequency is low (below 0.1% of inelastic interactions). As a consequence, very energetic charmed hadrons may keep a significant fraction of their initial energy after several hadronic interactions, reaching much deeper in the atmosphere than pions or protons of similar energy.

Abstract:
MAGIC-I is currently the Imaging Cherenkov Telescope with the worldwide largest reflector currently in operation. The initially achieved low trigger threshold of 60 GeV has been further reduced by means of a novel trigger that allows the telescope to record gamma ray showers down to 25 GeV. The high trigger rate combined with the 2 GHz signal sampling rate results in large data volumes that can reach 1 TByte per night for MAGIC-I and even more with the second MAGIC telescope coming soon into operation. To deal with the large storage requirements of MAGIC-I and MAGIC-II, we have installed the distributed file system GFS and a cluster of computers with concurrent access to the same shared storage units. The system can not only handle a sustained DAQ write rate above 1.2 kHz for MAGIC-I, but also allows other nodes to perform simultaneous concurrent access to the data on the shared storage units. Various simultaneous tasks can be used at any time, in parallel with data taking, including data compression, taping, on-line analysis, calibration and analysis of the data. The system is designed to quickly recover after the failure of one node in the cluster and to be easily extended as more nodes or storage units are required in the future.

Abstract:
The existence of extremely dark and compact astronomical bodies is by now a well established observational fact. On the other hand, classical General Relativity predicts the existence of black holes which fit very well with the observations, but do lead to important conceptual problems. In this contribution we ask ourselves the straightforward question: Are the dark and compact objects that we have observational evidence for black holes in the sense of General Relativity? By revising the semiclassical scenario of stellar collapse we find out that as the result of a collapse some alternative objects could be formed which might supplant black holes.

Abstract:
The recently introduced A-homotopy groups for graphs are investigated. The main concern of the present article is the construction of an infinite cell complex, the homotopy groups of which are isomorphic to the A-homotopy groups of the given graph. We present a natural candidate for such a cell complex, together with a homomorphism between the corresponding groups that indeed yields an isomorphism, if a cubical analog of the simplicial approximation theorem holds, which - so far - we were unable to prove.

Abstract:
M2M communications are projected to be one of the fastest growing technology segments of the IT sector in the next years. Sensor and actuator networks connect communication machines and devices so that they automatically transmit information, serving the growing demand for environmental data acquisition. IEEE 802.11ah Task Group addresses the creation of a new standard for giving response to the particular requirements of this type of networks: large number of power-constrained stations, long transmission range, small and infrequent data messages, low data-rates and non-critical delay. This article explores the key features of this new standard under development, especially those related to the reduction of energy consumption in the MAC Layer. In this direction, a performance assessment of IEEE 802.11ah in four typical M2M scenarios has been performed.

Abstract:
In this letter we will revise the steps followed by A. Einstein when he first wrote on cosmology from the point of view of the general theory of relativity. We will argue that his insightful line of thought leading to the introduction of the cosmological constant in the equations of motion has only one weakness: The constancy of the cosmological term, or what is the same, its independence of the matter content of the universe. Eliminating this feature, I will propose what I see as a simple and reasonable modification of the cosmological equations of motion. The solutions of the new cosmological equations give place to a cosmological model that tries to approach the Einstein static solution. This model shows very appealing features in terms of fitting current observations.

Abstract:
A generalisation of the asymptotic wormhole boundary condition for the case of spacetimes with a cosmological horizon is proposed. In particular, we consider de Sitter spacetime with small cosmological constant. The wave functions selected by this proposal are exponentially damped in WKB approximation when the scale factor is large but still much smaller than the horizon size. In addition, they only include outgoing gravitational modes in the region beyond the horizon. We argue that these wave functions represent quantum wormholes and compute the local effective interactions induced by them in low-energy field theory. These effective interactions differ from those for flat spacetime in terms that explicitly depend on the cosmological constant.

Abstract:
In this Thesis two different parts can be distinguished. In the first one, after a review of the SM Higgs sector, I describe some scenarios for new physics such as Little Higgs and Supersymmetry and discuss our contributions in each of them. In the second part I focus on one of the most interesting experimental hints of new physics, the forward-backward asymmetry in top-pair production measured at the Tevatron, analyzing in detail its possible implications at the LHC.