Abstract:
It is shown how a integrable mechanical system provides all the localized static solutions of a deformation of the linear O(N)-sigma model in two space-time dimensions. The proof is based on the Hamilton-Jacobi separability of the mechanical analogue system that follows when time-independent field configurations are being considered. In particular, we describe the properties of the different kinds of kinks in such a way that a hierarchical structure of solitary wave manifolds emerges for distinct N.

Abstract:
In this paper we describe the moduli space of kinks in a class of systems of two coupled real scalar fields in (1+1) Minkowskian space-time. The main feature of the class is the spontaneous breaking of a discrete symmetry of (real) Ginzburg-Landau type that guarantees the existence of kink topological defects.

Abstract:
The kinks of the (1+1)-dimensional Wess-Zumino model with polynomic superpotential are investigated and shown to be related to real algebraic curves.

Abstract:
We identify the kinks of a deformed O(3) linear Sigma model as the solutions of a set of first-order systems of equations; the above model is a generalization of the MSTB model with a three-component scalar field. Taking into account certain kink energy sum rules we show that the variety of kinks has the structure of a moduli space that can be compactified in a fairly natural way. The generic kinks, however, are unstable and Morse Theory provides the framework for the analysis of kink stability.

Abstract:
We investigate the exact relation existing between the stability equation for the solutions of a mechanical system and the geodesic deviation equation of the associated geodesic problem in the Jacobi metric constructed via the Maupertuis-Jacobi Principle. We conclude that the dynamical and geometrical approaches to the stability/instability problem are not equivalent.

Abstract:
The generalization of the Maupertuis principle to second-order Variational Calculus is performed. The stability of the solutions of a natural dynamical system is thus analyzed via the extension of the Theorem of Jacobi. It is shown that the Morse Theory of the trajectories in the dynamical system is identical to the Morse Theory of geodesics in the Jacobi metric, even though the second-variation functionals around the action and the Jacobi length do not coincide. As a representative example, we apply this result to the study of the separatrix solutions of the Garnier System.

Abstract:
The low energy dynamics of degenerated BPS domain walls arising in a generalized Wess-Zumino model is described as geodesic motion in the space of these topological walls.

Abstract:
We discuss the solitary wave solutions of a particular two-component scalar field model in two-dimensional Minkowski space. These solitary waves involve one, two or four lumps of energy. The adiabatic motion of these composite non-linear non-dispersive waves points to variations in shape.

Abstract:
It is shown that the Confluent Heun Equation (CHEq) reduces for certain conditions of the parameters to a particular class of Quasi-Exactly Solvable models, associated with the Lie algebra $sl (2,{\mathbb R})$. As a consequence it is possible to find a set of polynomial solutions of this quasi-exactly solvable version of the CHEq. These finite solutions encompass previously known polynomial solutions of the Generalized Spheroidal Equation, Razavy Eq., Whittaker-Hill Eq., etc. The analysis is applied to obtain and describe special eigen-functions of the quantum Hamiltonian of two fixed Coulombian centers in two and three dimensions.