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Our Economy  [PDF]
Christian Müller*
Modern Economy (ME) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/me.2011.24063
Abstract: I discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the current predominant approach to macroeconomic modelling of asset prices and suggest an alternative perspective. This alternative rests on the insight that the economy is the result of individual decisions. The industry standard has it, however, that individual action is ruled by objective, general laws instead. Changing the point of view allows to reconcile numerous puzzles and paves the way for a promising new research agenda.
Diphenyl methane laxatives do not induce electrolyte imbalance  [PDF]
Stefan Müller-Lissner
Open Journal of Gastroenterology (OJGas) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojgas.2013.35046
Abstract: Aim: To analyse whether there are changes in sodium and potassium serum levels during chronic treatment with the diphenyl methanes bisacodyl and sodium picosulfate. Methods: A literature search was done using PubMed, and the reference lists of pertinent papers were screened for additional studies. Only studies of at least 4 weeks duration were considered for further analysis. Results: Four relevant studies were identified. In three randomised controlled trials with 5 to 10 mg daily of bisacodyl or sodium picosulfate, respectively, over four weeks no electrolyte losses were found. Hypokalemia was also not a problem in a group of patients with paraplegia using bisacodyl suppositories for 2 to 34 years. Conclusions: Electrolyte losses, particularly hypokalemia, are not a problem when bisacodyl or sodium picosulfate are used long-term.
Analysis of South Hemisphere Temperature Anomalies over the Last Millennium up to the Beginning of the Contemporary Age: A Comparison between a Statistical Model and a Global Dynamic Model  [PDF]
Gabriela V. Müller, Cintia R. Repinaldo
American Journal of Climate Change (AJCC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2014.32019
Abstract:

We analyze the consistency of the coupled atmosphere-ocean GISS-ER climate model in reproducing South American temperature anomalies over the last millennium. For that purpose, we compare the model results with the Neukom’s temperature anomaly reconstruction provided by a statistical model that uses multiproxy data and climatological temperature anomalies. Specifically, we examine temperature anomalies for summer and winter of a 6-member ensemble of the GISS-ER model with 1× solar forcing and 2× solar forcing, calculated for the period 1000-1899. Using the Neukom’s reconstructions and the model outputs, we calculate the summer mean anomalies of the period 1001-1700 (a period that includes Medieval Climate Anomaly -MCA- and Little Ice Age -LIA-), and winter mean anomalies of the period 1706-1800 (a period that includes the pre-industrial period). These mean anomalies are subtracted from Neukom’s reconstructions defining the reconstructions wrt 1001-1700 (summer) and wrt 1706-1800 (summer and winter). In general, the model is not very consistent with the reconstructions, since the model’s mean and spread show very small interannual variability in contrast to what the reconstructions exhibit, and often with anomalies of opposite sign. In the period 1001-1700, the model presents, on average, negative temperature anomalies for the 1× and 2× forcing. In the period 1706-1800, the model displays positive anomalies for summer and negative anomalies for winter for the 1× and 2× forcing. In particular, the anomaly that better reproduces the sign of the reconstructions is that wrt 1001-1700 with 1× forcing and for summer. The model has an error of only 33% in reproducing the sign of the anomalies, in comparison to the Neukom’s reconstruction for the same reference period. The model’s anomaly wrt 1001-1700 with 1× forcing for summer also reproduces the MCA and LIA’s sign of the reconstruction. The MCA’s sign is reproduced in almost 75% of the comparisons, and the LIA’s sign in more than 73% of the comparisons with the reconstruction, indicating that the model can represent this important anomalies.

Mittendrin statt nur dabei: Ethnographie als Methodologie in der Humangeographie
M. Müller
Geographica Helvetica (GH) , 2013,
Abstract: Interest in the lived mundane practices and embodied experience of subjects has seen a tremendous upsurge in human geography in the past years. With its focus on social interaction and concern with subjects' lifeworlds, ethnography suggests itself as a suitable methodological approach to match this interest. Against the lack of a sustained debate in German-speaking human geography, this special issue seeks to illustrate the potential of ethnography for different conceptual approaches with the help of empirical examples. It is the task of this editorial to review key issues associated with ethnographic research. In so doing, it does not equate ethnography with the method of participant observation, but rather understands it as a methodology with specific implications for the responsibility and position of the researcher, the interpretation of the material and the construction of a narrative.
Wertsetzung als Implikation der Erz hlhaltung. Bemerkungen zur Judendarstellung im Jurek Beckers Romanen
Heidi M. Müller
Philosophica , 1986,
Abstract:
A minimal, statistical model for the surface albedo of Vestfonna ice cap, Svalbard
M. Mller
The Cryosphere , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/tc-6-1049-2012
Abstract: The ice cap Vestfonna is located in northeastern Svalbard and forms one of the largest ice bodies of the Eurasian Arctic. Its surface albedo plays a key role in the understanding and modelling of its energy and mass balance. The principle governing factors for albedo evolution, i.e. precipitation and air temperature and therewith snow depth and melt duration, were found to vary almost exclusively with terrain elevation throughout the ice cap. Hence, surface albedo can be expected to develop a comparable pattern. A new statistical model is presented that estimates this mean altitudinal albedo profile of the ice cap on the basis of a minimal set of meteorological variables on a monthly resolution. Model calculations are based on a sigmoid function of the artificial quantity rain-snow ratio and a linear function of cumulative snowfall and cumulative positive degree days. Surface albedo fields of the MODIS snow product MOD10A1 from the period March to October in the years 2001–2008 serve as a basis for both calibration and cross-validation of the model. The meteorological model input covers the period September 2000 until October 2008 and is based on ERA-Interim data of a grid point located close to the ice cap. The albedo model shows a good performance. The root mean square error between observed and modelled albedo values along the altitudinal profile is 0.057±0.028 (mean ± one standard deviation). The area weighted mean even reduces to a value of 0.054. Distinctly higher deviations (0.07–0.09) are only present throughout the very lowest and uppermost parts of the ice cap that are either small in area or hardly affected by surface melt. Thus, the new, minimal, statistical albedo model presented in this study is found to reproduce the albedo evolution on Vestfonna ice cap on a high level of accuracy and is thus suggested to be fully suitable for further application in broader energy or mass-balance studies of the ice cap.
A minimal, statistical model for the surface albedo of Vestfonna ice cap, Svalbard
M. Mller
The Cryosphere Discussions , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/tcd-6-981-2012
Abstract: The ice cap Vestfonna is located in Northeastern Svalbard and forms one of the largest ice bodies of the Eurasian Arctic. Its surface albedo plays a key role in understanding and modelling of its energy and mass balance. The principle governing factors for albedo evolution, i.e. precipitation and air temperature and therewith snowdepth and melt duration, were found to vary almost exclusively with terrain elevation throughout the ice cap. Hence, surface albedo can be expected to develop a comparable pattern. A new statistical model is presented that estimates this mean altitudinal albedo profile of the ice cap on the basis of a minimal set of meteorological variables on a monthly resolution. Model calculations are based on a logistic function of the artificial quantity rain-snow ratio and a linear function of cumulative snowfall and cumulative positive degree days. Surface albedo fields of the MODIS snow product MOD10A1 of the period March to October of the years 2001–2008 serve as a basis for both calibration and cross-validation of the model. The meteorological model input covers the period September 2000 until October 2008 and is based on ERA-Interim data of a grid point located close to the ice cap. The albedo model shows a good performance. The root mean square error between observed and modelled albedo values along the altitudinal profile is 0.057 ± 0.028 (mean ± one standard deviation). The area weighted mean even reduces to a value of 0.053. Distinctly higher deviations (0.07–0.09) are only present throughout the very lowest and uppermost parts of the ice cap that are either small in area or hardly affected by surface melt. Thus, the new, minimal, statistical albedo model presented in this study is found to reproduce the albedo evolution on Vestfonna ice cap on a high level of accuracy and is thus suggested to be fully suitable for further application in broader energy or mass-balance studies of the ice cap.
N-determined 2-compact groups
Jesper M. Mller
Mathematics , 2005,
Abstract: We first formulate a general scheme for the classification of 2-compact groups in terms of maximal torus normalizer pairs. Applying this scheme, we show that all connected and some non-connected 2-compact groups are N-determined. We also compute automorphism groups in many cases. As an application we confirm the splitting conjecture formulated by Dwyer and Wilkerson.
Euler characteristics of centralizer subcategories
Jesper M. Mller
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: Let p be a prime number, G a finite group, and A a finite group acting on G. The Brown poset of nonidentity p-subgroups of G is then an A-poset. We investigate the equivariant subposet and the equivariant Euler characteristics and establish a global relation between locally defined Euler characteristics and the number of p-elements of G centralized by A. It is a consequence of this relation that the equivariant version of Brown's theorem holds: The reduced Euler characteristic of the A-equivariant Brown poset is divisible by the p-part of the order of the centralizer of A. The second equivariant Euler characteristic for the conjugation of G on the Brown poset for G is especially intriguing because of its relation to the Knorr-Robinson conjecture and we carry out a concrete numerical verification of the conjecture in case of the smallest simple Mathieu group.
The fundamental group and covering spaces
Jesper M. Mller
Mathematics , 2011,
Abstract: These lecture notes from a first course in algebraic topology use the fundamental group and orbit categories to classify covering spaces.
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