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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 544802 matches for " Mélanie DULONG de ROSNAY "
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The preservation of digital heritage: epistemological and legal reflections
Mélanie DULONG de ROSNAY,Francesca MUSIANI
Essachess : Journal for Communication Studies , 2012,
Abstract: Different disciplines and fields of study seem to be heralding the rise of an interdisciplinary scientific and intellectual movement focused on digital heritage, operationally defined as the ensemble of documents and information created in digital formats and subjected to preservation policies developed by individuals, companies and institutions. This article seeks to address some of the methodological challenges that – notwithstanding a diverse, thriving body of work that is currently contributing to the establishment of the scholarship on digital heritage – are currently facing scholarly attempts to consider digital heritage in its plurality. At the present, exploratory stage of the digital heritage scientific/intellectual movement, contributions to a reflection on the very foundations of this movement are needed, so as to refine the possible approaches of future digital heritage-related studies. This article is meant to provide such a contribution, drawing on the authors’ experience with interdisciplinary approaches to subjects of study such as alternative, decentralized infrastructures for Internet services, or the techno-legal governance of data, the commons and the public domain. The article reflects on practical tools, and epistemological/theoretical foundations, allowing to define and to include in the analysis all the facets of digital heritage – its archives, traces and instruments.
Check Your Data Freedom: A Taxonomy to Assess Life Science Database Openness
Melanie Dulong De Rosnay
Computer Science , 2012, DOI: 10.1038/npre.2008.2083.1
Abstract: Molecular biology data are subject to terms of use that vary widely between databases and curating institutions. This research presents a taxonomy of contractual and technical restrictions applicable to databases in life science. It builds upon research led by Science Commons demonstrating why open data and the freedom to integrate facilitate innovation and how this openness can be achieved. The taxonomy describes technical and legal restrictions applicable to life science databases, and its metadata have been used to assess terms of use of databases hosted by Life Science Resource Name (LSRN) Schema. While a few public domain policies are standardized, most terms of use are not harmonized, difficult to understand and impose controls that prevent others from effectively reusing data. Identifying a small number of restrictions allows one to quickly appreciate which databases are open. A checklist for data openness is proposed in order to assist database curators who wish to make their data more open to make sure they do so.
A correspondence between a class of cone structures and contact forms
Mélanie Bertelson,Cédric De Groote
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: In the spirit of Sullivan's paper "Cycles for the Dynamical Study of Foliated Manifolds and Complex Manifolds", existence of a contact structure on a closed manifold $M$ is shown to be equivalent to existence of an ample $S^1$-invariant cone structure with no nontrivial exact structure cycles on the manifold $S^1 \times M$.
Le Coup de dés numérisé : modèles, défis, perspectives
émile Fromet de Rosnay
Synergies Canada , 2012,
Abstract: S’il existe peu de différences formelles entre l’analogique et le numérique, quand on ajoute l’interactivité et d’autres aspects dynamiques au texte numérique, des différences structurelles fondamentales se présentent. La mise en page du document électronique augmente la lecture humaine, selon la notion mcluhanesque de l’extension, mais le potentiel de l’édition numérique ne s’arrête pas là. En numérisant la poésie de Mallarmé, comme dans le projet Mallarmé Hypertext, il s’agit de trouver du potentiel à partir de la rencontre du texte et du balisage. Désormais, on peut réinventer le texte en trouvant des modèles conceptuels qui démontrent autrement la textualité mallarméenne. Toutefois, la médialité chez Mallarmé souligne les limites du dispositif numérique, et la lecture hypermédiatique exige une perspective hybride. Le but est de trouver de nouveaux modèles tout en scrutant les limites de ces modèles, afin de voir ce que c’est que lire au sein de la singularité technologique.
Soil moisture mapping over West Africa with a 30-min temporal resolution using AMSR-E observations and a satellite-based rainfall product
T. Pellarin, T. Tran, J.-M. Cohard, S. Galle, J.-P. Laurent, P. de Rosnay,T. Vischel
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS) & Discussions (HESSD) , 2009,
Abstract: An original and simple method to map surface soil moisture over large areas has been developed to obtain data with a high temporal and spatial resolution for the study of possible feedback mechanisms between soil moisture and convection in West Africa. A rainfall estimation product based on Meteosat geostationary satellite measurements is first used together with a simple Antecedent Precipitation Index (API) model to produce soil moisture maps at a spatial resolution of 10×10 km2 and a temporal resolution of 30-min. However, given the uncertainty of the satellite-based rainfall estimation product, the resulting soil moisture maps are not sufficiently accurate. For this reason, a technique based on assimilating AMSR-E C-band measurements into a microwave emission model was developed in which the estimated rainfall rates between two successive AMSR-E brightness temperature (TB) measurements are adjusted by multiplying them by a factor between 0 and 7 that minimizes the difference between simulated and observed TBs. Ground-based soil moisture measurements obtained at three sites in Niger, Mali and Benin were used to assess the method which was found to improve the soil moisture estimates on all three sites.
Mapping surface soil moisture over the Gourma mesoscale site (Mali) by using ENVISAT ASAR data
F. Baup, E. Mougin, P. de Rosnay, P. Hiernaux, F. Frappart, P. L. Frison, M. Zribi,J. Viarre
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS) & Discussions (HESSD) , 2011,
Abstract: The potentialities of ENVISAT ASAR (Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar) multi-angle data for mapping surface soil moisture (SSM) in Sahelian rangelands are investigated at medium scale (30 000 km2). The Wide Swath data are selected to take advantage of their high temporal repetitivity (about 8 days at the considered scale) associated to a moderate spatial resolution (150 m). In the continuity of previous studies conducted at a local scale in the same region, SSM maps are here processed over the whole AMMA Gourma mesoscale site at 1 km resolution scale. Overall, the generated maps are found to be in good agreement with field data, EPSAT-SG (Estimation des Pluies par SATellite – Second Generation) rainfall estimates and ERS (European Remote Sensing) Wind Scatterometer (WSC) SSM products. The present study shows that the spatial pattern of SSM can be realistically estimated at a kilometric scale. The resulting SSM maps are expected to provide valuable information for initialisation of land surface models and the estimation of the spatial distribution of radiative fluxes. Particularly, SSM maps could help to desaggregate low-resolution products such as those derived from WSC data.
Modelling root water uptake in a complex land surface scheme coupled to a GCM
P. de Rosnay,J. Polcher
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS) & Discussions (HESSD) , 1998,
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to improve the representation of root water uptake in the land surface scheme SECHIBA coupled to the LMD General Circulation Model (GCM). Root water uptake mainly results from the interaction between soil moisture and root profiles. Firstly, one aspect of the soil hydrology in SECHIBA is changed: it is shown that increasing the soil water storage capacity leads to a reduction in the frequency of soil water drought, but enhances the mean evapotranspiration. Secondly, the representation of the soil-vegetation interaction is improved by allowing a different root profile for each type of vegetation. The interaction between sub-grid scale variabilities in soil moisture and vegetation is also studied. The approach consists of allocating a separate soil water column to each vegetation type, thereby 'tiling' the grid square. However, the possibility of choosing the degree of soil moisture spatial heterogeneity is retained. These enhancements of the land surface system are compared within a number of GCM experiments.
Soil moisture active and passive microwave products: intercomparison and evaluation over a Sahelian site
C. Gruhier, P. de Rosnay, S. Hasenauer, T. Holmes, R. de Jeu, Y. Kerr, E. Mougin, E. Njoku, F. Timouk, W. Wagner,M. Zribi
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS) & Discussions (HESSD) , 2010,
Abstract: This paper presents a comparison and an evaluation of five soil moisture products based on satellite-based passive and active microwave measurements. Products are evaluated for 2005–2006 against ground measurements obtained from the soil moisture network deployed in Mali (Sahel) in the framework of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis project. It is shown that the accuracy of the soil moisture products is sensitive to the retrieval approach as well as to the sensor type (active or passive) and to the signal frequency (from 5.6 GHz to 18.8 GHz). The spatial patterns of surface soil moisture are compared between the different products at meso-scale (14.5° N–17.5° N and 2° W–1° W). A general good consistency between the different satellite soil moisture products is shown in terms of meso-scale spatial distribution, in particular after convective rainfall occurrences. Comparison to ground measurement shows that although soil moisture products obtained from satellite generally over-estimate soil moisture values during the dry season, most of them capture soil moisture temporal variations in good agreement with ground station measurements.
The Neoliberal Pea and Thimble Trick: Changing Rhetoric of Neoliberal Champions across Two Periods of Economic History and Two Hypotheses about Why the Message Is Less Sanguine  [PDF]
Anthony M. Gould, Mélanie Robert
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2013.31010
Abstract: Neoliberalism, or faith in the capacity of markets to solve social and economic problems, is a key element of the prevailing public policy orthodoxy in G20 countries. Throughout the 1980s, key proponents of the Neoliberal message such as UK Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and American President Ronald Regan spoke optimistically about the philosophy’s inevitability and its benefits. During that period, the metaphor of a “rising tide lifting all boats” was offered as a way of envisaging the natural consequence of a supply-side strategy deployed with little or no state intervention. This project examines the shifting neoliberal message through two epochs: the closing decade of the industrial age from approximately 1980 to the early 1990s; and the period of the post-industrial age of e-commerce and the Internet. These eras can be viewed as steps along a path of diminishing comparative commercial advantage for G20 countries relative to emerging economies in Asia, and Latin America. Insofar as neoliberalism is concerned, early proponents of the ideology have realized their objective of reduced state involvement in Western countries but generally have not been able to produce evidence that a “rising tide lifts all boats”. Against this background, the modern G20 neoliberal message has changed from being one of optimism, opportunity and growing advantage to being one of survival. This paper explores why the message has changed and offers two interpretations of the relevance of a less bullish view of the advantages of neoliberalism.

Organotypic brain slices: a model to study the neurovascular unit micro-environment in epilepsies
Mélanie Morin-Brureau, Frédéric De Bock, Mireille Lerner-Natoli
Fluids and Barriers of the CNS , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/2045-8118-10-11
Abstract: OHCs were cultured from hippocampi of 6--7 day-old Sprague Dawley rats. After 2 weeks in culture, seizures were induced by application of kainate or bicuculline into culture medium. The regulation of BBB integrity under physiological and pathological conditions was evaluated by immunostaining of the main tight junction (TJ) proteins and of the basal membrane of microvessels. To mimic or prevent BBB disassembly, we used diverse pro- or anti-angiogenic treatments.This study demonstrates that NVU regulation can be investigated using OHCs. We observed in this model system an increase in vascularization and a down-regulation of TJ proteins, similar to the vascular changes described in a chronic focus of epileptic patients, and in rodent models of epilepsy or inflammation. We observed that Zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) protein disappeared after seizures associated with neuronal damage. In these conditions, the angiopoeitin-1 system was down-regulated, and the application of r-angiopoeitin-1 allowed TJ re-assembly. This article demonstrates that organotypic culture is a useful model to decipher the links between epileptic activity and vascular damage, and also to investigate NVU regulation in diverse neurological disorders.
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