Abstract:
We say that a metric space $(X,d)$ possesses the \emph{Banach Fixed Point Property (BFPP)} if every contraction $f:X\to X$ has a fixed point. The Banach Fixed Point Theorem says that every complete metric space has the BFPP. However, E. Behrends pointed out \cite{Be1} that the converse implication does not hold; that is, the BFPP does not imply completeness, in particular, there is a non-closed subset of $\RR^2$ possessing the BFPP. He also asked \cite{Be2} if there is even an open example in $\RR^n$, and whether there is a 'nice' example in $\RR$. In this note we answer the first question in the negative, the second one in the affirmative, and determine the simplest such examples in the sense of descriptive set theoretic complexity. Specifically, first we prove that if $X\su\RR^n$ is open or $X\su\RR$ is simultaneously $F_\si$ and $G_\de$ and $X$ has the BFPP then $X$ is closed. Then we show that these results are optimal, as we give an $F_\si$ and also a $G_\de$ non-closed example in $\RR$ with the BFPP. We also show that a nonmeasurable set can have the BFPP. Our non-$G_\de$ examples provide metric spaces with the BFPP that cannot be remetrised by any compatible complete metric. All examples are in addition bounded.

Abstract:
We consider the set of Baire 1 functions endowed with the pointwise partial ordering and investigate the structure of the linearly ordered subsets.

Abstract:
We show that if the gradient of $f:\RR^2\rightarrow\RR$ exists everywhere and is nowhere zero, then in a neighbourhood of each of its points the level set $\{x\in\RR^2:f(x)=c\}$ is homeomorphic either to an open interval or to the union of finitely many open segments passing through a point. The second case holds only at the points of a discrete set. We also investigate the global structure of the level sets.

Abstract:
The main goal of this note is to prove the following theorem. If $A_n$ is a sequence of measurable sets in a $\sigma$-finite measure space $(X, \mathcal{A}, \mu)$ that covers $\mu$-a.e. $x \in X$ infinitely many times, then there exists a sequence of integers $n_i$ of density zero so that $A_{n_i}$ still covers $\mu$-a.e. $x \in X$ infinitely many times. The proof is a probabilistic construction. As an application we give a simple direct proof of the known theorem that the ideal of density zero subsets of the natural numbers is random-indestructible, that is, random forcing does not add a co-infinite set of naturals that almost contains every ground model density zero set. This answers a question of B. Farkas.

Abstract:
The set of continuous or Baire class 1 functions defined on a metric space $X$ is endowed with the natural pointwise partial order. We investigate how the possible lengths of well-ordered monotone sequences (with respect to this order) depend on the space $X$.

Abstract:
A \emph{hull} of $A \subset [0,1]$ is a set $H$ containing $A$ such that $\lambda^*(H)=\lambda^*(A)$. We investigate all four versions of the following problem. Does there exist a monotone (wrt. inclusion) map that assigns a Borel/$G_\delta$ hull to every negligible/measurable subset of $[0,1]$? Three versions turn out to be independent of ZFC (the usual Zermelo-Fraenkel axioms with the Axiom of Choice), while in the fourth case we only prove that the nonexistence of a monotone $G_\delta$ hull operation for all measurable sets is consistent. It remains open whether existence here is also consistent. We also answer a question of Z. Gyenes and D. P\'alv\"olgyi which asks if monotone hulls can be defined for every chain (wrt. inclusion) of measurable sets. We also comment on the problem of hulls of all subsets of $[0,1]$.

Abstract:
Let $G$ be an abelian Polish group, e.g. a separable Banach space. A subset $X \subset G$ is called Haar null (in the sense of Christensen) if there exists a Borel set $B \supset X$ and a Borel probability measure $\mu$ on $G$ such that $\mu(B+g)=0$ for every $g \in G$. The term shy is also commonly used for Haar null, and co-Haar null sets are often called prevalent. Answering an old question of Mycielski we show that if $G$ is not locally compact then there exists a Borel Haar null set that is not contained in any $G_\delta$ Haar null set. We also show that $G_\delta$ can be replaced by any other class of the Borel hierarchy, which implies that the additivity of the $\sigma$-ideal of Haar null sets is $\omega_1$. The definition of a generalised Haar null set is obtained by replacing the Borelness of $B$ in the above definition by universal measurability. We give an example of a generalised Haar null set that is not Haar null, more precisely we construct a coanalytic generalised Haar null set without a Borel Haar null hull. This solves Problem GP from Fremlin's problem list. Actually, all our results readily generalise to all Polish groups that admit a two-sided invariant metric.

Abstract:
We consider decompositions of the real line into pairwise disjoint Borel pieces so that each piece is closed under addition. How many pieces can there be? We prove among others that the number of pieces is either at most 3 or uncountable, and we show that it is undecidable in $ZFC$ and even in the theory $ZFC + \mathfrak{c} = \omega_2$ if the number of pieces can be uncountable but less than the continuum. We also investigate various versions: what happens if we drop the Borelness requirement, if we replace addition by multiplication, if the pieces are subgroups, if we partition $(0,\infty)$, and so on.