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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 401749 matches for " M Zia Sadique "
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Individual freedom versus collective responsibility: an economic epidemiology perspective
M Zia Sadique
Emerging Themes in Epidemiology , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1742-7622-3-12
Abstract: Immunisation represents a classic case of social dilemma: a conflict of interest between the private gains of individuals and the collective gains of a society. An individual's self-interest and choice often leads to a vaccination uptake rate less than the social optimum as individuals do not take into account the benefit to others [1]. Conventional wisdom generally favours public intervention in order to produce a socially warranted level of vaccination. This line of argument is primarily based on the externality associated with individual decisions, since individuals are presumed to make choices on the basis of their own welfare gains, without considering the full social impact of their decisions. As the benefits to society are larger than the sum of those to individuals, public policy measures aim to increase demand closer to the social optimum by subsidising the vaccine (many countries provide vaccines free of charge) or through compulsory vaccination, although such a policy is almost always partial. Individuals with religious, medical or social reasons are often exempted. There is, however, controversy over the effectiveness of public intervention compared to the free choice outcome [1-3], and it is the intention of this article to address this issue.Vaccination decisions are made under imperfect information, which means an individual's assessment of the risks and benefits of vaccination is often inaccurate. But even if individuals had perfect information regarding the cost and benefits of vaccination, the free choice outcome would still be different from the social outcome due to the 'free rider' problem associated with vaccination. The changes in risk of infection tend to induce changes in activities that put the individual at risk, which in turn alter the dynamics of disease transmission. There is a feedback mechanism between infection rate and rational response, but the classic models of infectious disease have not incorporated such endogenous behavioural r
Is Drotrecogin alfa (activated) for adults with severe sepsis, cost-effective in routine clinical practice?
M Zia Sadique, Richard Grieve, David A Harrison, Brian H Cuthbertson, Kathryn M Rowan
Critical Care , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/cc10468
Abstract: This CEA used data from a prospective cohort study that compared DrotAA versus no DrotAA (control) for severe sepsis patients with multiple organ systems failing admitted to critical care units in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland. The cohort study used case-mix and mortality data from a national audit, linked with a separate audit of DrotAA infusions. Re-admissions to critical care and corresponding mortality were recorded for four years. Patients receiving DrotAA (n = 1,076) were matched to controls (n = 1,650) with a propensity score (Pscore), and Genetic Matching (GenMatch). The CEA projected long-term survival to report lifetime incremental costs per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) overall, and for subgroups with two or three to five organ systems failing at baseline.The incremental costs per QALY for DrotAA were £30,000 overall, and £16,000 for the subgroups with three to five organ systems failing. For patients with two organ systems failing, DrotAA resulted in an average loss of one QALY at an incremental cost of £15,000. When the subgroup with two organ systems was restricted to patients receiving DrotAA within 24 hours, DrotAA led to a gain of 1.2 QALYs at a cost per QALY of £11,000. The results were robust to other assumptions including the approach taken to projecting long-term outcomes.DrotAA is cost-effective in routine practice for severe sepsis patients with three to five organ systems failing. For patients with two organ systems failing, this study could not provide unequivocal evidence on the cost-effectiveness of DrotAA.Severe sepsis is the most common cause of death for patients admitted to critical care [1-3]. Recent international studies suggest that the annual incidence of severe sepsis is 50 to 100 cases per population of 100,000 [4]. Approximately 80% of critical care admissions with severe sepsis have multiple organ systems failing, and the associated hospital mortality is around 50%. Severe sepsis is associated with substantial health
Determinants of Choice of Healthcare Providers: Evidence from Selected Rural Areas of Bangladesh
Syed Abdul Hamid,Md. Zia Sadique,Shamsuddin Ahmed,Azher Ali Molla
Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: This study mainly aims to identify the major factors determining the choice of healthcare providers. It also examines the characteristics and the patterns of choice of different healthcare providers by the patients in Bangladesh. It is based on primary data collected from an advanced village and a non-advanced village of a randomly selected Upazilla (sub-district) using both structured and semi-structured questionnaires and qualitative techniques. Although, public facility at the selected upazila (sub-district) is technically and structurally developed and provides healthcare without charging any consultation fee, most (52%) of the people in the selected area receive health services from informal providers. It was found that patients of non-advanced village were more inclined to seek care from informal providers than advanced village. Both supply side and demand side factors are seemed to affect the choice of informal providers. Income, education and occupation of household heads are found as important determinants to influence the choice of providers. Most (64%) of the patients of the poorest quintile received care from informal providers while most (55%) of the patients of the richest quintile received care from modern providers. About 54% of the patients among those who had no formal education received care from informal providers. But among those who had over 10 years of education, only 32% sought care from informal providers while 60% sought care from modern private providers. Most of the patients whose household heads` education level is low and household heads engaged in low status occupation sought care from informal providers. Some factors like cheap treatment, easy access, and availability whenever needed and perceived quality of care fascinated the patients to choose informal providers. Unavailability of providers in public hospital is identified as the main reason for not seeking care from public providers. Measures should be adopted to reduce the supply of informal care with concomitant increase in the supply of modern care. It is also important to increase the demand for modern care reducing the demand for the informal care.
Do Stock Prices in Turkey Reflect Fundamental Information? A Firm-level Analysis
M. Arifur Rahman,M. Shibley Sadique,Shah Saeed Hassan Chowdhury
International Journal of Economics and Finance , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/ijef.v4n12p137
Abstract: This paper investigates the correspondence between stock prices and firm fundamentals in Turkey. In pursuing our objective, we explore the relationship between firm-specific variation in stock returns and fundamentals in the context of a simple present value framework. We overcome the typical insufficiency of the spans of time-series accounting data in emerging market research, and the consequent loss of statistical testing power, by adopting a firm-level micro panel data approach. After properly accounting for unobserved heterogeneity, potential endogeneity bias and volatility persistence, we find that firm-specific variation of stock returns in Turkey is only weakly correlated with alternative proxies of firm-specific variation in firm fundamentals and that the relationship is not robust to the influence of control variables such as the firm size. Our findings are, therefore, consistent with the usual perception that stock prices in emerging markets contain little firm-specific information.
Review on fifteen Statistical Tests proposed by NIST
J?K?MSadique?Uz?Zaman,Ranjan?Ghosh
Journal of Theoretical Physics and Cryptography , 2012,
Abstract: With a motivation to understand all the fifteen test algorithms and to write their codes independently without looking at various sites mentioned in the NIST document a review study of the NIST Statistical Test Suite is undertaken. All the codes are executed with the test data given in the NIST document and excellent agreements have been found. The codes have been put together in a software, called as CU software, executable in Linux platform. Based on the CU software, exhaustive tests are executed on a long bit sequence generated by the Blum‐Blum‐Shub generator (BBSG). The CU software executes properly giving the results almost matched with those of the NIST results.
A Review Study of NIST Statistical Test Suite: Development of an indigenous Computer Package
J K M Sadique Uz Zaman,Ranjan Ghosh
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: A review study of NIST Statistical Test Suite is undertaken with a motivation to understand all its test algorithms and to write their C codes independently without looking at various sites mentioned in the NIST document. All the codes are tested with the test data given in the NIST document and excellent agreements have been found. The codes have been put together in a package executable in MS Windows platform. Based on the package, exhaustive test runs are executed on three PRNGs, e.g. LCG by Park & Miller, LCG by Knuth and BBSG. Our findings support the present belief that BBSG is a better PRNG than the other two.
Kinetics of Degradation of Eosin Y by One of the Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs)—Fenton’s Process  [PDF]
Ashraf Hossain, A. B. M. Sadique Rayhan, Md. Jahir Raihan, Aklima Nargis, Iqbal M. I. Ismail, Ahsan Habib, Abu Jafar Mahmood
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2016.712074
Abstract: Kinetics of homogeneous degradation of Eosin Y (EY), also known as Acid red 87 (CI 45380), are studied, mostly using Fenton’s process, at 30 by monitoring its absorbance at 517 nm (λmax of EY). This process is one of the advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). Mixture of H2O2 and Fe(II) ion in acetate buffer medium (pH 2.74 - 4.56) generates hydroxyl free radicals (?OH) which attack the dye molecules, resulting in degradation of the dye molecules. Results show that the initial rate of EY degradation decreases with the increasing of solution pH because of removal of kinetically important Fe (iron) species through formation of ferric hydroxide. On the other hand, the rate increases with increasing the?concentrations of H2O2, Fe(II) and EY at low solution pH. The initial rate increases with increasing of concentration of H2O2 and, subsequently remains unaffected with further increase of its concentration at a constant Fe(II) concentration because of the enhanced scavenging environment created by H2O2 at its higher concentration. The initial rate also increases with increasing of concentration of Fe(II) at a constant H2O2 concentration and remains unaffected with its further increase. EY concentration also enhances the initial rate at low pH. However, the initial rate is significantly enhanced by UV light. This is because of formation of additional hydroxyl radicals through excitation of the dye molecules by UV light. During the period of experiment, EY in aqueous solution alone hardly suffered any degradation. Degradation mechanism of EY by the Fenton and photo-Fenton’s processes is also discussed. Statistical analysis was used to validate the experimental results. Low values of the standard deviation for both the initial rate and % degradation indicated the consistency of the experimental data.
Ranking insertion, deletion and nonsense mutations based on their effect on genetic information
Amin Zia, Alan M Moses
BMC Bioinformatics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2105-12-299
Abstract: We propose computational methods to rank insertion-deletion mutations in the coding as well as non-coding regions and nonsense mutations. We rank these variations by measuring the extent of their effect on biological function, based on the assumption that evolutionary conservation reflects function. Using sequence data from budding yeast and human, we show that variations which that we predict to have larger effects segregate at significantly lower allele frequencies, and occur less frequently than expected by chance, indicating stronger purifying selection. Furthermore, we find that insertions, deletions and premature stop codons associated with disease in the human have significantly larger predicted effects than those not associated with disease. Interestingly, the large-effect mutations associated with disease show a similar distribution of predicted effects to that expected for completely random mutations.This demonstrates that the evolutionary conservation context of the sequences that harbour insertions, deletions and nonsense mutations can be used to predict and rank the effects of the mutations.Genetic variations contribute to normal phenotypic variation [1]. For human, it is estimated that there are more than 10 million SNPs (i.e. 1 in 300 base pairs on average) with an observed minor allele frequency of ≥ 1% in the population [2]. Recent advances in sequencing technologies [3] have enabled rapid discovery of other types of variations, including mutations expected to have very large effects on protein function such as frame shifting insertions and deletions (indels) and nonsense mutations (mutations that introduce premature stop codons). Amazingly, insertions and deletions are also abundant in the human genome with sizes ranging from single to several million base pairs (bp) [4,5]. For example, in 179 human genomes there were 1.13 million short indels identified [6] indicating an estimate of 1 million indels per human genome (1 in 3600 bps on average). Sim
Towards a theoretical understanding of false positives in DNA motif finding
Amin Zia, Alan M Moses
BMC Bioinformatics , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2105-13-151
Abstract: Using large-deviations theory, we derive a remarkably simple relationship that describes the dependence of false positives on dataset size for the one-occurrence per sequence motif-finding problem. As expected, we predict that false-positives can be reduced by decreasing the sequence length or by adding more sequences to the dataset. Interestingly, we find that the false-positive strength depends more strongly on the number of sequences in the dataset than it does on the sequence length, but that the dependence on the number of sequences diminishes, after which adding more sequences does not reduce the false-positive rate significantly. We compare our theoretical predictions by applying four popular motif-finding algorithms that solve the one-occurrence-per-sequence problem (MEME, the Gibbs Sampler, Weeder, and GIMSAN) to simulated data that contain no motifs. We find that the dependence of false positives detected by these softwares on the motif-finding parameters is similar to that predicted by our formula.We quantify the relationship between the sequence search space and motif-finding false-positives. Based on the simple formula we derive, we provide a number of intuitive rules of thumb that may be used to enhance motif-finding results in practice. Our results provide a theoretical advance in an important problem in computational biology.
Magnetic Dipole and Electric Quadrupole Transitions in the Trivalent Lanthanide Series: Calculated Emission Rates and Oscillator Strengths
Christopher M. Dodson,Rashid Zia
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.86.125102
Abstract: Given growing interest in optical-frequency magnetic dipole transitions, we use intermediate coupling calculations to identify strong magnetic dipole emission lines that are well suited for experimental study. The energy levels for all trivalent lanthanide ions in the 4fn configuration are calculated using a detailed free ion Hamiltonian, including electrostatic and spin-orbit terms as well as two-body, three-body, spin-spin, spin-other-orbit, and electrostatically correlated spin-orbit interactions. These free ion energy levels and eigenstates are then used to calculate the oscillator strengths for all ground-state magnetic dipole absorption lines and the spontaneous emission rates for all magnetic dipole emission lines including transitions between excited states. A large number of strong magnetic dipole transitions are predicted throughout the visible and near-infrared spectrum, including many at longer wavelengths that would be ideal for experimental investigation of magnetic light-matter interactions with optical metamaterials and plasmonic antennas.
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