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Protective Effects of Some Medicinal Plants from Lamiaceae Family Against Beta-Amyloid Induced Toxicity in PC12 Cell
P Balali,M Soodi,S Saeidnia
Tehran University Medical Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Excessive accumulation of beta-amyliod peptide (Aβ), the major component of senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD), causes neuronal cell death through induction of oxidative stress. Therefore, antioxidants may be of use in the treatment of AD. The medicinal plants from the Lamiaceae family have been widely used in Iranian traditional medicine. These plants contain compounds with antioxidant activity and some species in this family have been reported to have neuroprotective properties. In the present study, methanolic extract of seven plants from salvia and satureja species were evaluated for their protective effects against beta-amyloid induced neurotoxicity.Methods: Aerial parts of the plants were extracted with ethyl acetate and methanol, respectively, by percolation at room temperature and subsequently, methanolic extracts of the plants were prepared. PC12 cells were incubated with different concentrations of the extracts in culture medium 1h prior to incubation with Aβ. Cell toxicity was assessed 24h after addition of Aβ by MTT assay.Results: Satureja bachtiarica, Salvia officinalis and Salvia macrosiphon methanolic extracts exhibited high protective effects against Aβ induced toxicity (P<0.001). Protective effects of Satureja bachtiarica and Salvia officinalis were dose-dependent.Conclusion: The main constituents of these extracts are polyphenolic and flavonoid compounds such as rosmarinic acid, naringenin, apigenin and luteolin which have antioxidant properties and may have a role in neuroprotection. Based on neuroprotective effect of these plants against Aβ induced toxicity, we recommend greater attention to their use in the treatment of Alzheimer disease.
Effects of training in the Morris water maze on the spatial learning acquisition and VAChT expression in male rats
A Hosseini-Sharifabad,S Mohammadi-Eraghi,K Tabrizian,M Soodi
DARU : Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: "n "n Background and the purpose of the study: It has been well established that cholinergic pathway plays an important role in learning and memory processes. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of Morris water maze (MWM) training on spatial memory acquisition and expression of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) in male rats. "n Methods: In this study, training trials of all groups of animals were conducted in the MWM task. Rats received one training session consisting of four trials per day which continued for another four consecutive days. Controls received visible platform MWM training. The escape latency, the traveled distance and swimming speed for each rat were recorded and used to evaluate the performance of the animal during training period. For evaluation of expression of VAChT protein levels, brain tissues from animals in each experiment were obtained immediately after the last trial on the related experimental day and processed for immunohistochemistry staining and western blotting analysis. "n Results: There was a significant difference between animals subjected to one day training and those receiving four days of training in escape latency and travel distance. There were an apparent increase in VAChT immunoreactivity in the medial septal area (MSA) and CA1 region of the hippocampus in one day and four day trained animals compared with controls (visible group). Quantitative immunostaining analysis by optical density measurements in the CA1 region and evaluation of immunopositive neurons in medial septal area of brain sections confirmed qualitative findings. Assessment of VAChT protein level expression in hippocampus by western blotting evaluation showed the same pattern of immunohistochemistry results. "n Conclusion: Overall, results of this study reveal changes in cholinergic neuron activity in different stages of training in the MWM task. Data suggest that there is a significant level of cholinergic neuronal activity during early stages of the training especially in the hippocampus region that may contribute to the apparent increase in VAChT expression.
Clinical Effects of Fennel Essential oil on Primary Dysmenorrhea
Nahid Khorshidi,Seyed Nasser Ostad,Mahmoud Mosaddegh,Malihe Soodi
Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research , 2003,
Abstract: Dysmenorrhea is among the most common gynecological complaints. There are several mechanisms which initiate dysmenorrhea. Therefore, different compounds can be employed to control its symptoms. NSAIDs such as ibuprofen are highly used in modern medicine to relievethe pain in short-term therapy. This method is not acceptable for long-term therapy due to side effects. Our previous data showed that Fennel essential oil (FEO) could reduce the frequency and intensity of contraction of rat uterus in isolated organ models. Furthermore, the use of FEO is strongly recommended in traditional medicine for the relief of dysmenorrhea symptoms.Clinical study of FEO in primary dysmenorrhea showed that the essence reduces pain and some of following sequelae side effects noticeably
Effect of Lead (Pb2+) Exposure in Female Pregnant Rats and Their Offspring on Spatial Learning and Memory in Morris Water Maze
Maliheh Soodi,Nasser Naghdi,Mohammad Sharifzadeh,Seyed Nasser Ostad
Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research , 2008,
Abstract: Lead (Pb2+) is a well known neurotoxin that was frequently found in the environment and chronic exposure to lead has been matter of public health. In the present study the effect of lead on spatial memory in developmentally exposed rats and their dams in Morris water maze task were investigated. Female rats were divided into three groups and two groups exposed to 250 and 750 part per million (ppm) Pb acetate and one group Na acetate , as a control group, through drinking water, ten days prior to mating and continue through pregnancy, pregnant animals were tested in the swim task at gestation day 14±2. Another group of animals exposed to the same concentration of Pb acetate at different developmental stages including a maternally exposed group (including gestation and lactation period) and continuously exposed group (including gestation, lactation and continue to lead exposure until test time). Rats in these groups were tested for spatial learning and memory in Morris water maze task at post natal day (PND) 56. Exposure to lead did not affect learning ability of dams in Morris water maze performance indicating by no significant differences in escape latency and traveled distance between groups, but, for both maternally-and continuously-exposed groups treated with 750 ppm lead, average escape latency and traveled distance were increased, indicating significant impairment in spatial learning and memory. These results are more direct evidence that indicate developing brain is more susceptible to Pb2+ induced neurotoxicity.
Study of Duct Characteristics Deduced from Low Latitude Ground Observations of Day-Time Whistler at Jammu  [PDF]
M. Altaf, M. M. Ahmad
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2013.33032
Abstract:

Propagation characteristics of low latitude whistler duct characteristics have been investigated based on day-time measurements at Jammu. The morphogical characteristics of low latitude whistlers are discussed and compared with characteristics of middle and high latitude whistlers. The Max. electron density (Nm) at the height of the ionosphere obtained from whistler dispersion comes out to be higher than that of the background which is in accordance with the characteristics of whistler duct. The equivalent width is found to be close to the satellite observations and the characteristics of whistler duct in low latitude ionosphere are similar to those in middle and high latitude ionosphere. The width of ducts estimated from the diffuseness of the whistler track observed during magnetic storm is found to lie in the range of 50 - 200 Km.

Review Article: Immobilized Molecules Using Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology  [PDF]
Magdy M. M. Elnashar
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology (JBNB) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2010.11008
Abstract: Immobilized molecules using biomaterials and nanobiotechnology is a very interesting topic that touching almost all aspects of our life. It uses the sciences of biology, chemistry, physics, materials engineering and computer science to develop instruments and products that are at the cutting edge of some of today’s most promising scientific frontiers. In this review article, the author based on his experience in this arena has tried to focus on some of the supports for im-mobilization; the most important molecules to be immobilized such as DNA, cells, enzymes, metals, polysaccharides, etc and their applications in medicine, food, drug, water treatment, energy and even in aerospace. He specified a special section on what is new in the arena of supports and technologies used in enzyme immobilization and finally a recommendation by the author for future work with a special attention to up-to-date references.
Using of the generalized special relativity (GSR) in estimating the neutrino masses to explain the conversion of electron neutrinos  [PDF]
M. H. M. Hilo
Natural Science (NS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2011.34044
Abstract: In this work the Generalized Special Relativity (GSR) is utilized to estimate masses of some elementary particles such as, neutrinos. These results are found to be in conformity with experimental and theoretical data. The results obtained may explain some physical phenomena, such as, conversion of neutrinos from type to type when solar neutrino reaches the Earth.
Postischemic Lower Extremity Wounds Treated with and without Negative Pressure Dressing  [PDF]
Naz?mmü?
Surgical Science (SS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2012.37075
Abstract: Background: Vacuum-assisted dressing is a noninvasive closure system of the wound, which makes localized and controlled negative pressure. Its mechanical tension reduces edema, stimulates granulation tissue formation and angiogenesis, and prepares the wound bed for closure. In this study, a patient has been presented, who suffered from serious lower extremity wounds due to arterial emboli, one of her wounds has been treated with vacuum-assisted dressing and the other with conventional dressing to evaluate the efficacy of vacuum-assisted dressing in acute ischemic wounds. Methods: A 65-year-old female patient was admitted to the emergency clinic, due to complaint of severe pain in her right lower extremity which suggested an acute arterial occlusion. She immediately underwent an embolectomy operation; however, a few days later, severe ischemia on the leg and foot became appearant. All of the necrosis was sharply debrided under sterile conditions in the operating room, and then lower leg wound was covered with vacuum-assisted dressing, also calcaneal wound was dressed with silver sulphadiazine. Results: Eighteen days after the first dressing with negative pressure, distal leg wound became ready for closure, whereas, enough granulation tissue over the calcaneal area developed merely thirty-four days later. Calcaneal wound closed spontaneously within fifty-three days. Conclusions: When dealing with this experience, using the negative pressure dressing in patient with severe lower limb wounds following arterial emboli, accelerates wound healing by means of developing the granulation tissue, and rapidly prepares the wound for closure, so it may reduce the risk of amputation.
Laplace Transform Method for Unsteady Thin Film Flow of a Second Grade Fluid through a Porous Medium  [PDF]
M. Ali, M. Awais
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2014.53017
Abstract:

In this article, we have effectively used the Numerical Inversion of Laplace transform to study the time-dependent thin film flow of a second grade fluid flowing down an inclined plane through a porous medium. The solution to the governing equation is obtained by using the standard Laplace transform. However, to transform the obtained solutions from Laplace space back to the original space, we have used the Numerical Inversion of Laplace transform. Graphical results have been presented to show the effects of different parameters involved and to show how the fluid flow evolves with time.

An Integral Collocation Approach Based on Legendre Polynomials for Solving Riccati, Logistic and Delay Differential Equations  [PDF]
M. M. Khader, A. M. S. Mahdy, M. M. Shehata
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/am.2014.515228
Abstract:

In this paper, we propose and analyze some schemes of the integral collocation formulation based on Legendre polynomials. We implement these formulae to solve numerically Riccati, Logistic and delay differential equations with variable coefficients. The properties of the Legendre polynomials are used to reduce the proposed problems to the solution of non-linear system of algebraic equations using Newton iteration method. We give numerical results to satisfy the accuracy and the applicability of the proposed schemes.

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