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Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in Children
AH Farhoodi,M Shekarabi
Iranian Journal of Pediatrics , 1986,
Abstract: In 1981 centers for disease control in Atlanta, USA, reported a new fatal disease in which its victims died of a variety of rare opportunistic infections and various malignancies. The disastrous infection spread among different populations at risk including homosexuals. A retrovirus was isolated as the causative agent of the diseases. Many abnormalities of humoral and cellular immunity associated with AIDS can be explained by preferential infection of T4 lymphocyte subset, thus the patients exhibit lymphopenia, T cell dysfunction, polyclonal B cell activations, monocyte and macrophage defects. Nevertheless a soluble suppressor factor has been also characterized in blood samples of affected individuals. Clinically pediatric AIDS shows almost the same manifestations as presented in adult patients. Those infants infected during perinatal and neonatal periods show the clinical symptoms during first two years of life while SGA is a typical characteristic of neonatal infection. The syndrome should be differentiated from other primary immunodeficiency diseases by measuring purine pathway enzymes.
Application of Triangular Functions to Numerical Solution of Stochastic Volterra Integral Equations
M. Khodabin,K. Maleknejad,F. Hosseini Shekarabi
IAENG International Journal of Applied Mathematics , 2013,
Abstract:
Superantigens in Polyp Tissue of Patients with Chronic Rhino-Sinusitis, A Comparative Study: A Brief Report
M Farhadi,A Tabatabaee,M Shekarabi,S Noorbakhsh
Tehran University Medical Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Staphylococcus aureus secretes numerous superantigenes which trigger the inflammatory mechanisms of sinus mucosa and cause chronic rhino-sinusitis. This study was designed to evaluate the role of staphylococcus aureus superantigens in polyp tissues of patients with chronic rhino-sinusitis in comparison with a control group.Methods: Polyp tissue samples of 28 patients and mucosal specimens of 19 healthy individuals were evaluated for staphylococcus aureus bacterium superantigens, exotoxins A, B, C and D and TSST-1 with RT-PCR and ELISA methods Rasoul Akram Hospital during 2 years.Results: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results revealed that 88.2% of the patients and 45.5% of the controls had at least one type of superantigen (P=0.03). Evaluation of superantigens using ELISA method showed presence of at least one type of superantigen in the nasal samples of all patients and in 35.3% of the controls (P<0.001).Conclusion: A relationship between staphylococcal superantigens and nasal polyps is concluded from this study which indicates the probable role of these superantigens in the pathogenesis of nasal polyposis.
The Comparison of TH1 and TH2 Cytokines Gene Expression in Allergic and Non-Allergic Patients With Nasal Polyps By PCR
Farhadi M,Tabatabaee A,Shekarabi M,Noorbaksh S
Tehran University Medical Journal , 2011,
Abstract: Background: Too many studies are in the process of determining the probable role of immune system in the etiopathogenesis of nasal polyposis. This study was designed to identify the probable participation of Th1, Th2 lymphocytes in the induction and progression of nasal polyposis.Methods: Seventy-five patients, 42 male and 33 female, with nasal polyposis were examined for total serum IgE, specific serum IgE and reaction to skin test for differentiating allergic from non-allergic participants in Rasoul Akram Hospital during 2010. To determine the possible correlation of allergic reactions in the upper respiratory tract and nasal polyposis, cytokine gene expression was evaluated on the extracted RNA by RT-PCR. The data were analyzed by using c2, independent t-test, correlation and Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve.Results: The mean age of participants was 38 years (18-81 years). IFN-γ and IL-4 gene expressions were more prevalent in allergic than non-allergic individuals (IFN-γ: 39.5% vs. 14.2%, P=0.3 and IL-4: 44.7% vs. 18.9%, P=0.02, respectively). IL-10 and IL-12 (P35 and P40 fractions) genes were not significantly different between the two groups. IL-10 and IL-12 (P35, P40) genes did not differ significantly either.Conclusion: This research suggests that overproduction of cytokines and an imbalance of Th1 and Th2 cell production may play an important role in the pathophysiology of allergic or non-allergic nasal polyp formation. Thus, although nasal polyposis is a multifactorial disease with several different etiological factors, chronic persistent inflammation is undoubtedly a major factor irrespective of the etiology.
Detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in cerebrospinal fluid of children: Quantification of CSF-IgG antibody
Noorbakhsh S,Shekarabi M,Kalbasi Z,Tabatabaei A
Tehran University Medical Journal , 2010,
Abstract: "nBackground: M. pneumoniae infection in children is usual and diagnosis of its neurologic complications for rapid treatment is very important. To compare the CSF- M. pneumoniae antibody level between febrile children with acute neurologic signs (Menigoencephalitis, Guillan Barre Syndrome (GBS), Transverse myelitis, Ataxia and so on) with unaffected ones. "n"nMethods: A cross sectional/ case control study in pediatric wards of Rasoul-e-Akram & Mofid hospitals (2007-2009) was done. The amount of Specific M. pneumoniae IgG (ELISA) antibody level determined in CSF of 55 cases and in 10 controls. Chi square values (CI 95%, p< 0.05) calculated for all categorical variables. Sensitivity; specificity; Positive Predictive Value (PPV); Negative Predictive Value (NPV) of CSF antibody level determined by using the Area under the ROC Curve. "n"nResults: Cases (n= 55) aged between five month to 13 years with mean age of 3.84±3.43 years. Area Under Curve (AUC) in ROC was 0.876 (%95 CI, 0.78- 0.96; p< 0.0001). Cut off level for antibody was 0.0025 with 73% sensitivity; 90% specificity; 100% PPV; 28.8% NPV. CSF antibody level had significant difference between cases and controls [0.08± 0.26 Versus 0.001± 0.001; p: 0.02]; It had poor agreement between cases and controls (Kappa= 0.27). Lowest amount seen in cases with aseptic meningitis; highest amount observed in cases with GBS and cases with focal neurologic signs. "n"nConclusion: The presence of very low amount (0.0025) of M. pneumoniae antibody in CSF of febrile children with acute neurologic signs had 70% sensitivity and 90% specificity; 100% PPV; but had low (28.8%) NPV. M. pneumoniae would be a rare cause in cases with aseptic meningitis. Finding the M. pneumoniae-DNAs in CSF are not so frequent (2%) but in high suspicious cases adding this test to determining the CSF antibody level might be helpful.
Sinc Collocation Method for Finding Numerical Solution of Integrodifferential Model Arisen in Continuous Mixed Strategy
F. Hosseini Shekarabi
Journal of Computational Engineering , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/320420
Abstract: One of the new techniques is used to solve numerical problems involving integral equations and ordinary differential equations known as Sinc collocation methods. This method has been shown to be an efficient numerical tool for finding solution. The construction mixed strategies evolutionary game can be transformed to an integrodifferential problem. Properties of the sinc procedure are utilized to reduce the computation of this integrodifferential to some algebraic equations. The method is applied to a few test examples to illustrate the accuracy and implementation of the method. 1. Introduction Evolutionary game dynamics is a fast developing field, with applications in biology, economics, sociology, politics, interpersonal relationships, and anthropology. Background material and countless references can be found in [1–8]. In the present paper we consider a continuous mixed strategies model for population dynamics based on an integrodifferential representation. Analogous models for population dynamics based on the replicator equation with continuous strategy space were investigated in [9–13]. For the moment based model has proved global existence of solutions and studied the asymptotic behavior and stability of solutions in the case of two strategies [14]. In the last three decades a variety of numerical methods based on the sinc approximation have been developed. Sinc methods were developed by Stenger [15] and Lund and Bowers [16] and it is widely used for solving a wide range of linear and nonlinear problems arising from scientific and engineering applications including oceanographic problems with boundary layers [17], two-point boundary value problems [18], astrophysics equations [19], Blasius equation [20], Volterras population model [21], Hallens integral equation [22], third-order boundary value problems [23], system of second-order boundary value problems [24], fourth-order boundary value problems [25], heat distribution [26], elastoplastic problem [27], inverse problem [28, 29], integrodifferential equation [30], optimal control [15], nonlinear boundary-value problems [31], and multipoint boundary value problems [32]. Very recently authors of [33] used the sinc procedure to solve linear and nonlinear Volterra integral and integrodifferential equations. The content of this paper is arranged in seven sections. In Section 2, I discuss the modeling of the problem in an integrodifferential form. Section 3, introduces some general concepts concerning the sinc approximation. Section 4, contains some preliminaries in collocation method. In Section 5, the
Potassium-Chloride Cotransporter 3 Interacts with Vav2 to Synchronize the Cell Volume Decrease Response with Cell Protrusion Dynamics
Adèle Salin-Cantegrel, Masoud Shekarabi, Sarah Rasheed, Fran?ois M. Charron, Janet Laganière, Rebecca Gaudet, Patrick A. Dion, Jean-Yves Lapointe, Guy A. Rouleau
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0065294
Abstract: Loss-of-function of the potassium-chloride cotransporter 3 (KCC3) causes hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with agenesis of the corpus callosum (HMSN/ACC), a severe neurodegenerative disease associated with defective midline crossing of commissural axons in the brain. Conversely, KCC3 over-expression in breast, ovarian and cervical cancer is associated with enhanced tumor cell malignancy and invasiveness. We identified a highly conserved proline-rich sequence within the C-terminus of the cotransporter which when mutated leads to loss of the KCC3-dependent regulatory volume decrease (RVD) response in Xenopus Laevis oocytes. Using SH3 domain arrays, we found that this poly-proline motif is a binding site for SH3-domain containing proteins in vitro. This approach identified the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) Vav2 as a candidate partner for KCC3. KCC3/Vav2 physical interaction was confirmed using GST-pull down assays and immuno-based experiments. In cultured cervical cancer cells, KCC3 co-localized with the active form of Vav2 in swelling-induced actin-rich protruding sites and within lamellipodia of spreading and migrating cells. These data provide evidence of a molecular and functional link between the potassium-chloride co-transporters and the Rho GTPase-dependent actin remodeling machinery in RVD, cell spreading and cell protrusion dynamics, thus providing new insights into KCC3's involvement in cancer cell malignancy and in corpus callosum agenesis in HMSN/ACC.
Comparative Analysis of the Expression Profile of Wnk1 and Wnk1/Hsn2 Splice Variants in Developing and Adult Mouse Tissues
Masoud Shekarabi, Ron G. Lafrenière, Rébecca Gaudet, Janet Laganière, Martin M. Marcinkiewicz, Patrick A. Dion, Guy A. Rouleau
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0057807
Abstract: The With No lysine (K) family of serine/threonine kinase (WNK) defines a small family of kinases with significant roles in ion homeostasis. WNK1 has been shown to have different isoforms due to what seems to be largely tissue specific splicing. Here, we used two distinct in situ hybridization riboprobes on developing and adult mouse tissues to make a comparative analysis of Wnk1 and its sensory associated splice isoform, Wnk1/Hsn2. The hybridization signals in developing mouse tissues, which were prepared at embryonic day e10.5 and e12.5, revealed a homogenous expression profile with both probes. At e15.5 and in the newborn mouse, the two probes revealed different expression profiles with prominent signals in nervous system tissues and also other tissues such as kidney, thymus and testis. In adult mouse tissues, the two expression profiles appeared even more restricted to the nervous tissues, kidney, thymus and testis, with no detectable signal in the other tissues. Throughout the nervous system, sensory tissues, as well as in Cornu Ammonis 1 (CA1), CA2 and CA3 areas of the hippocampus, were strongly labeled with both probes. Hybridization signals were also strongly detected in Schwann and supporting satellite cells. Our results show that the expression profiles of Wnk1 isoforms change during the development, and that the expression of the Wnk1 splice variant containing the Hsn2 exon is prominent during developing and in adult mouse tissues, suggesting its important role in the development and maintenance of the nervous system.
Pneumococcal Nasopharyngeal Colonization During the First Days of Antibiotic Treatment in Pediatric Patients
Q Khotayi,MT Ashtiani,N Makki,D Shekarabi
Iranian Journal of Pediatrics , 2002,
Abstract: This prospective study was conducted to observe changes in nasopharyngeal (NP) pneumococcal carriage within 4 to 5 days after initiation of commonly used antibiotics for 150 patients who were admitted at infectious disease unit of children’s medical center in Tehran to determine whether a significant increase in the carriage rate of drug (Penicillin) resistant S.pneumonia on NP can be observed within this short interval. Nasopharyngeal culture for S.pneumonia was obtained before (Day 1) and after (Day 4 to 5) initiation of antibiotic treatment. Antibiogram was performed in all isolates and the MIC of penicillin in 20 resistant S.pneumonia. By E-test method among the initial 46 (30%) pneumococcal isolates 28 (60%) were sensitive and 8 (17%) were resistant to penicillin. After 4 to 5 days of antibiotic treatment with various drugs, 20 (13%) pneumococcal isolates in the culture were obtained, of whom 12 patients (60%) were resistant to penicillin and 8 patients (40%) were sensitive. In 4 of 150 patients (2.6%) a new S.pneumonia isolate was recovered 4 to 5 days after initiation of treatment. All of those isolates were penicillin-resistance. Conclusion: A rapid detection of penicillin-nonsusceptible NP pneumococcal isolates during antibiotic treatment is common. This may contribute to the spread of resistant pneumococci.
The Effectiveness of Group Hope Therapy on Hope and Depression of Mothers With Children Suffering From Cancer in Tehran
Ghazaleh Shekarabi Ahari,Jalal Younesi,Ahmad Borjali,Shahla Ansari Damavandi
Iranian Journal of Cancer Prevention , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Researches mainly focus on patients who suffer from cancer. Families and parents have been neglected in these researches although they experience levels of stress, depression and anxiety. This research aims at studying the effectiveness of Hope Therapy based on group therapy on hope and depression of mothers with children suffering from cancer in Aliasghar Children's Hospital, Tehran (2010). Methods: In this applied and semi-experimental research, 20 mothers were selected based on Snyder Hope Scale and Beck Depression Inventory (pre-test). They were randomly assigned into two groups of experimental and control. Intervention based on Hope Therapy protocol was executed on the experimental group for eight weeks (eight sessions, each lasted for 2 hours). Afterwards, post-test was performed for both groups. After eight weeks, the experimental group completed questionnaires and the follow up phase. Results: Results demonstrated that Hope Therapy increases hope (p<0.05), and decreases depression in mothers of children with cancer (p<0.001). Conclusion: Covariance analysis indicated that Hope Therapy significantly decreases depression and increases hope of mothers whose children suffer from cancer. Follow up results showed no significant changes in hope of this group of mothers in the two months after post-test, but depression was decreased significantly during this period. It was concluded that effectiveness of Hope Therapy may be continued during the follow up phase.
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