Abstract:
The occurrence of adenitis ~foll owin g- the BCG vaccination is only a sign of . b the germ through the lymphatic way. expected invasion of the orgamsn: . y" d " ble complication of vaccination, O 1 th purating ademtls IS an un esira ruy, e sup 5 at most of the vaccinated people. Any which does not occur in more than 10/0 or 1,. % b ed by the. authors in 1957 . tage (as It was 0 serv increase, even slight, of this percen . . lation of the vaccine. and 1963) may indicate errors in preparatlOn or mocu

Abstract:
These figures confirm our previous observations regarding the encouraging effectiveness of combined prophylactic treatment of severely exposed individuals with antirabies serum and vaccine. It illustrates precisely the necessity of: I ) The administration of the combined treatment in all severely exposed cases regardless of delay between the exposure and the initiation of the treatment. 2) The administration of booster 10 and 20 days after the termination of the full course of the treatment. It is preferable to administer a third booster dose 90 days after the completion of the treatment.

Abstract:
Background: Finding an acute brain lesion by diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI upon an episode of transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a predictor of imminent stroke in the near future. Therefore, exploring risk factors associated with lesions in DW-MRI of the brain is important in adopting an approach to TIA management. In the current study, we tried to determine the risk factors associated with lesions in DW-MRI of the brain in patients experiencing TIA episodes.Methods: Fifty patients with TIA were recruited consecutively in Sina Hospital, Tehran, Iran, over a 6-month period between July 2008 and January 2009. All of the patients underwent a complete neurological examination and laboratory tests. Brain DW-MRIs were performed for all the patients within 72 hours of a TIA episode.Results: DW-MRI revealed an acute lesion in 16% of the participants. There was a significant correlation between presence of an acute lesion in DW-MRI and TIA duration, history of diabetes mellitus and presence of unilateral facial palsy (P=0.0003, P=0.02 and P=0.008, respectively). Other variables such as age, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, past history of TIA, headache, vertigo, and sensory or visual disturbances had no significant relation with the presence of an acute lesion in DW-MRI.Conclusion: Duration of TIA, presence of diabetes mellitus and unilateral facial palsy are risk factors for an acute lesion in DW-MRI, meaning that patients with such risk factors are at risk for stroke in the near future.

Abstract:
This work proposes two particle filter-based visual trackers — one using output images from a color camera and the other using images from a time-of-flight range imaging sensor. These proposed trackers were compared in order to identify the advantages and drawbacks of utilizing output images from the color camera as opposed to output from the time-of-flight range imaging sensor for the most efficient visual tracking. This paper is also unique in its novel mixture of efficient methods to produce two stable and reliable human trackers using the two cameras.

Abstract:
Die ESWT ist eine derzeit sehr intensiv erforschte Therapieform und im Vergleich mit anderen Therapien auch durchaus hohen EBM-Kriterien entsprechend. Die Wirkungsweise der ESWT ist bis heute nicht ganz gekl rt, aus den bisher durchgeführten Untersuchungen (meist Tierversuche) lassen sich folgende Wirkungen unterscheiden: ● Zerrei ungen (Steindesintegration, Knochenfissuren, Gewebszerrei ung) ● Kavitation (mit Bildung von Jet streams und freien Radikalen) ● Thermische und chemische Effekte ● Molekularbiologische und zellul re Ver nderungen ● Hyperstimulationsanalgesie (gate-control-Mechanismus) Diese Wirkungen rufen sehr komplexe Ver nderungen im Gewebe hervor, die beispielsweise zur Knochenneubildung führen, aber auch Neoangiogenese und Nervenver nderungen, die beim Verst ndnis der Effekte der ESWT an den Weichteil-Indikationen durchaus auch Erkl rungshilfen sind. Die meisten, bisher ver ffentlichten, klinischen Studien haben biometrische M ngel und ihre Ergebnisse sind sehr kontrovers. Die angeführten Indikationen sind die am meisten erforschten und sollen hier bewertet werden. Da für weitere Indikationen die Studien-Daten so sp rlich sind, werden sie hier nicht diskutiert. Die Indikationen mit statistisch signifikant guten Behandlungsergebnissen sind: ● Die Tendinitis calcarea (mit niedrigenergetischer und hochenergetischer ESWT) ● Die Fasciitis plantaris mit und ohne plantarem Fersensporn (mit niedrigenergetischer und hochenergetischer ESWT) ● Die Epicondylitis humeri lateralis (mit niedrigenergetischer und hochenergetischer ESWT) ● Verz gerte Knochenbruchheilung (mit hochenergetischer ESWT) ● Pseudoarthrosen (mit hochenergetischer ESWT) Für die Durchführung, die Anzahl der Impulse und die Intervall nge zwischen den ESWT-Sitzungen l t sich keine Regel ableiten, dies wird sich vernünftigerweise haupts chlich an den lokalen Gegebenheiten orientieren. Die bisher (als Richtlinie der ISMST von 2000 → http:// www.ismst.com/quality_standards.htm) geforderte Mindesttherapie vor ESWT erscheint sinnvoll, wird aber im Einzelfall bewertet werden müssen und ist subjektiv an die Patientenerfordernisse anzupassen. Wie bisher wird die Durchführung als rztliche T tigkeit betrachtet, das bedeutet, da der Anwender auch entsprechend geschult sein mu . Einer der gr ten Vorteile der ESWT ist die geringe Rate an Nebenwirkungen, die meist harmlos sind, wenn die gew hlte Energie nicht über die vorgeschlagenen Richtwerte der Firmen bzw. Ger tehersteller und ESWT-Gesellschaften geht. Als oberer Grenzwert wird derzeit 0,5 mJ/mm2 EFD (Energieflu dichte) angesehen. ● Eventuel

Abstract:
For high-dimensional datasets, it is common to evaluate a measure of dependence on every variable pair and retain the highest-scoring pairs for follow-up. If the statistic used systematically assigns higher scores to some relationship types over others, important relationships may be overlooked. This difficulty is avoided if the statistic is equitable [Reshef et al. 2015a], i.e., if, for some measure of noise, it assigns similar scores to equally noisy relationships regardless of relationship type. In this paper, we introduce and characterize a population measure of dependence called MIC*. We show three ways that MIC* can be viewed: as the population value of MIC, a highly equitable statistic from [Reshef et al. 2011], as a canonical "smoothing" of mutual information, and as the supremum of an infinite sequence defined in terms of optimal one-dimensional partitions of the marginals of the joint distribution. Based on this theory, we introduce an efficient algorithm for computing MIC* from the density of a pair of random variables, and we define a new consistent estimator MICe for MIC* that is efficiently computable. (In contrast, there is no known polynomial-time algorithm for computing MIC.) We show through simulations that MICe has better bias-variance properties than MIC, and that it has high equitability with respect to R^2 on a set of functional relationships. While MICe is designed for equitability rather than independence testing, we introduce a related statistic, TICe, that is a trivial side-product of the computation of MICe. We prove the consistency of independence testing based on TICe and show in simulations that this approach achieves excellent power. This paper is accompanied by a companion paper [Reshef et al. 2015b] focused on in-depth empirical evaluation of several leading measures of dependence that finds that the performance of MICe and TICe is state-of-the-art.

Abstract:
For analysis of a high-dimensional dataset, a common approach is to test a null hypothesis of statistical independence on all variable pairs using a non-parametric measure of dependence. However, because this approach attempts to identify any non-trivial relationship no matter how weak, it often identifies too many relationships to be useful. What is needed is a way of identifying a smaller set of relationships that merit detailed further analysis. Here we formally present and characterize equitability, a property of measures of dependence that aims to overcome this challenge. Notionally, an equitable statistic is a statistic that, given some measure of noise, assigns similar scores to equally noisy relationships of different types [Reshef et al. 2011]. We begin by formalizing this idea via a new object called the interpretable interval, which functions as an interval estimate of the amount of noise in a relationship of unknown type. We define an equitable statistic as one with small interpretable intervals. We then draw on the equivalence of interval estimation and hypothesis testing to show that under moderate assumptions an equitable statistic is one that yields well powered tests for distinguishing not only between trivial and non-trivial relationships of all kinds but also between non-trivial relationships of different strengths. This means that equitability allows us to specify a threshold relationship strength $x_0$ and to search for relationships of all kinds with strength greater than $x_0$. Thus, equitability can be thought of as a strengthening of power against independence that enables fruitful analysis of data sets with a small number of strong, interesting relationships and a large number of weaker ones. We conclude with a demonstration of how our two equivalent characterizations of equitability can be used to evaluate the equitability of a statistic in practice.

Abstract:
In exploratory data analysis, we are often interested in identifying promising pairwise associations for further analysis while filtering out weaker, less interesting ones. This can be accomplished by computing a measure of dependence on all variable pairs and examining the highest-scoring pairs, provided the measure of dependence used assigns similar scores to equally noisy relationships of different types. This property, called equitability, is formalized in Reshef et al. [2015b]. In addition to equitability, measures of dependence can also be assessed by the power of their corresponding independence tests as well as their runtime. Here we present extensive empirical evaluation of the equitability, power against independence, and runtime of several leading measures of dependence. These include two statistics introduced in Reshef et al. [2015a]: MICe, which has equitability as its primary goal, and TICe, which has power against independence as its goal. Regarding equitability, our analysis finds that MICe is the most equitable method on functional relationships in most of the settings we considered, although mutual information estimation proves the most equitable at large sample sizes in some specific settings. Regarding power against independence, we find that TICe, along with Heller and Gorfine's S^DDP, is the state of the art on the relationships we tested. Our analyses also show a trade-off between power against independence and equitability consistent with the theory in Reshef et al. [2015b]. In terms of runtime, MICe and TICe are significantly faster than many other measures of dependence tested, and computing either one makes computing the other trivial. This suggests that a fast and useful strategy for achieving a combination of power against independence and equitability may be to filter relationships by TICe and then to examine the MICe of only the significant ones.

Abstract:
Currently, there is a large gap among economic growth rate of Iran s provinces. The various policies have been made to decrease this gap in development plans in the country. However, this problem has been intensified through using financial instruments such as special fiscal facilities. In this study, it is tried to identify the existing economic growth gap among Iran s provinces using Endogenous Growth Models. To do this, an Economic Growth Model for Iran s provinces has been estimated by Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) in a sample of pooled data. The estimation results show that human capital has the highest effect on economic growth among provinces. Also, the impact of human capital on economic growth among provinces having per capita income higher than average per capita income in the country has been greater than provinces having per capita income less than average per capita income in the country.

Abstract:
The association of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) with SLE is well established yet the causal variants arising from this region remain to be identified, largely due to inadequate study design and the strong linkage disequilibrium demonstrated by genes across this locus. The majority of studies thus far have identified strong association with classical class II alleles, in particular HLA-DRB1*0301 and HLA-DRB1*1501. Additional associations have been reported with class III alleles; specifically, complement C4 null alleles and a tumor necrosis factor promoter SNP (TNF-308G/A). However, the relative effects of these class II and class III variants have not been determined. We have thus used a family-based approach to map association signals across the MHC class II and class III regions in a cohort of 314 complete United Kingdom Caucasian SLE trios by typing tagging SNPs together with classical typing of the HLA-DRB1 locus. Using TDT and conditional regression analyses, we have demonstrated the presence of two distinct and independent association signals in SLE: HLA-DRB1*0301 (nominal p = 4.9 × 10？8, permuted p < 0.0001, OR = 2.3) and the T allele of SNP rs419788 (nominal p = 4.3 × 10？8, permuted p < 0.0001, OR = 2.0) in intron 6 of the class III region gene SKIV2L. Assessment of genotypic risk demonstrates a likely dominant model of inheritance for HLA-DRB1*0301, while rs419788-T confers susceptibility in an additive manner. Furthermore, by comparing transmitted and untransmitted parental chromosomes, we have delimited our class II signal to a 180 kb region encompassing the alleles HLA-DRB1*0301-HLA-DQA1*0501-HLA-DQB1*020？1 alone. Our class III signal importantly excludes independent association at the TNF promoter polymorphism, TNF-308G/A, in our SLE cohort and provides a potentially novel locus for future genetic and functional studies.