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Comparing Carotid Intima-Media Thickness In Type 2 Diabetes Between Patients With And Without Retinopathy
M Naroi Nejad,M Yousefi,H Nazari,A Ghasempoor
Tehran University Medical Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Microangiopathy and macroangiopathy frequently coexist in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Both types of the vascular complications share traditional risk factors but it is not clear whether the presence of microangiopathy, such as diabetic retinopathy, constitutes a predictor of atherosclerosis in carotid arteries in patients with the disease. In this study we looked for the association between diabetic retinopathy and intima-media thickness in carotid arteries of patients with T2DM. Methods: In this case-control study we examined 100 consecutive patients with T2DM in Rasoul Akram Hospital in Tehran, Iran during 2009-2010. We assessed intima-media thickness of carotid arteries by ultrasonography. All patients underwent ophthalmo-logic examination. Results: Diabetic retinopathy was found in 50 (50%) patients. Intima-media thickness was higher in patients with diabetic retinopathy than those without it (0.77±0.17 mm vs. 0.71±0.2 mm, respectively, P=0.041). Moreover, intima-media thickness was more prevalent in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy than patients with non-proliferative form of the disease (0.87±0.16 mm vs. 0.68±0.1 mm, respectively, P<0.001). Conclusion: Diabetic retinopathy seems to be associated with increased intima-media thickness of carotid arteries in T2DM. It may be a common denominator of pathogene-sis of microvascular complications and atherosclerosis in T2DM. Evaluations of carotid arteries are to be done by non-invasive methods such as color Doppler sonography for screening and preventing prospective cereberovascular accidents in patients with diabetic retinopathy, especially proliferative retinopathy, in routine ophthalmological examination of patients with T2DM.
Notes on Whitehead space of an algebra
M. Arian-Nejad
International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences , 2002, DOI: 10.1155/s0161171202007998
Abstract: Let R be a ring, and denote by [R,R] the group generated additively by the additive commutators of R. When Rn=Mn(R) (the ring of n×n matrices over R), it is shown that [Rn,Rn] is the kernel of the regular trace function modulo [R,R]. Then considering R as a simple left Artinian F-central algebra which is algebraic over F with Char F=0, it is shown that R can decompose over [R,R], as R=Fx
The future of low-mass condensations in a core of molecular cloud
M. Nejad-Asghar
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.16757.x
Abstract: Two scenarios have been proposed for evolution of star forming cores: gravitational fragmentation of larger structures and coalescence of smaller entities which are formed from some instabilities. Here, we turn our attention to the latter idea to investigate the evolution of observed low-mass condensations (LMCs) in the cores of molecular clouds. For this purpose, we implement the evolution of the observed LMCs of Taurus molecular cloud~1 (TMC-1). The core is modeled as a contracting cylinder with randomly spawned condensations in the middle region around its axis. For advancing bodies in their trajectories, we represent the acceleration of a particular LMC in terms of a fourth-order polynomial using the predictor-corrector scheme. Whenever two LMCs collide, they are assumed to be merged in one large condensation containing all the masses of the two progenitors. Implementations of many computer experiments with a wide variety of the free parameters show that the LMCs merge to form star-forming regions in the core. The results show that the total mechanical energy of the core increases by time, and its rate of increasing decreases by facilitating the merger. Finally, the mass spectrum index and goodness-of-fit are determined with 50% error in the number of mass points. The results show that the goodness-of-fit will be refined at the end of simulations, and the mass spectrum index inclines to the observed values for the moderate mass objects. The simulations show that the TMC-1 turns about 40% of its mass into cluster of dynamically unstable protostellar cores. In general, we suggest that the future of LMCs in a core of molecular cloud is merger to convert about half of its initial masses into a cluster of gravitationally unstable protostellar cores.
Exogenous Application of Salicylic Acid and Nitric Oxide on the Ionic Contents and Enzymatic Activities in NaCl-Stressed Soybean Plants  [PDF]
M. Simaei, R. A. Khavari-Nejad, F. Bernard
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2012.310180
Abstract: The possible protective role of exogenous SA and NO donor (sodium nitroprusside) against salt stress was examined NaCl-induced oxidative stress in Glycine max L. The results indicated that NaCl-induced ionic toxicity led to significant increase of Na+ uptake in root and shoot of soybean, while K+ and Ca2+ uptake was decreased markedly. Application of SA, SNP and the combination of SA with SNP inhibited Na+ uptake, but improved K+ and Ca2+ uptake. Under NaCl salinity, germination percentage (GP) was decreased significantly as compared with control plants. Moreover, the activity of lipoxygenase (LOX) was increased by NaCl, while the application of SA, NO and SA + SNP could decrease LOX activity in this condition. As well, activities of the polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) were significantly decreased by 100 mM NaCl, while the application of exogenous SA and NO increased the activities of PPO and PAL. In addition, it was observed that the SA and NO have effective functions in decreasing the damages induced by NaCl salinity. The seeds of G. max cv. Union × Elf (called L17) were obtained from the Institute of Sapling and Seed in Tehran and experiments have been done in Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University. After treatment with SA, SNP and NaCl, the plants were harvested for the estimation of ionic contents and assay of enzyme activities. The results showed that SA and NO act synergistically to reduce the damaging effects of salt tress via enhancing the activity of antioxidative systems.
Sonographic Diagnosis of Appendicitis
M Bala Nejad,M Tahraei
Iranian Journal of Pediatrics , 1995,
Abstract:
Shear bond strength; Blood contamination; Prompt L-Pop, Composite resin; Compomer
Zarrabian M.,Aligholi M.,Loghmani Nejad N
Journal of Dental Medicine , 2005,
Abstract: Statement of Problem: Root canal cleaning and elimination of the source of infection are the most important basis and the main requirements for successful root treatment since the main cause of failure in root treatment is the permeation of bacteria or their products into the periapical tissues. Nowadays, the newly designed and prcsented instruments for canal instrumentation can improve root treatment. Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the decrease in the number of intracanal Enterococcus-faecalis (Ef) among three mechanical instrumentation methods: manual (K-type) and rotary (Race, Profile). Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 30 single rooted teeth were selected. Three cases were considered as negative and three cases as posetive controls and 24 remainder cases were divided into three experimental groups. All root canals were inoculated by Ef and samples were taken from all canals to prepare microbial cultures. The three instrumentation procedures were: - Crown- down technique with K-type manual system file - Crown- down technique with Profile rotary system - Crown- down technique wiht Race rotary system After instrumentation, microbial cultures were taken from root canals and the reduction rate of bacteria were evaluated and compared using one way ANOVA test with P<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: There was no significant difference among the three instrumentation procedures regarding bacterial elimination. Conclusion: According to the finding of this study, K-type manual file, Profile and Race rotary systems, all can be used in canal instrumentaion. However, since manual files are more accessible and require less equipment compared with rotary systems, and since the ability of all of these methods is identical regarding bacterial elimination, manual files can be used in straight canal instead of rotary systems.
Evaluation of bacterial leakage of four root- end filling materials: Gray Pro Root MTA, White Pro Root MTA, Root MTA and Portland Cement (type I)
Zarabian M.,Aligholi M.,Shokouhi Nejad N
Journal of Dental Medicine , 2005,
Abstract: Background and Aim: Today several materials have been used for root- end filling in endodontic surgery. Optimal properties of Pro Root MTA in in-vitro and in-vivo studies has been proven. On the other hand, based on some studies, Root MTA (Iranian Pro Root MTA) and Portland cement are similar to Pro Root MTA in physical and biologic properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate bacterial leakage (amount and mean leakage time) of four root- end filling materials. Materials and Methods: In this experimental in-vitro study, seventy six extracted single- rooted human teeth were randomly divided into six groups for root-end filling with gray Pro Root MTA, white Pro Root MTA, Root MTA (Iranian Pro Root MTA), Portland Cement (type I) and positive and negative control groups. Root canals were instrumented using the step- back technique. Root- end filling materials were placed in 3mm ultra sonic retro preparations. Samples and microleakage model system were sterilized in autoclave. The apical 3-4 mm of the roots were immersed in phenol red with 3% lactose broth culture medium. The coronal access of each specimen was inoculated every 24h with a suspension of Streptococcus sanguis (ATCC 10556). Culture media were observed every 24h for colour change indicating bacterial contamination for 60 days. Statistical analysis was performed using log- rank test with P<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: At the end of study 50%, 56.25%, 56.25% and 50% of specimens filled with Gray Pro Root MTA, White Pro Root MTA. Root MTA and Portland Cement (type I) had evidence of leakage respectively. The mean leakage time was 37.19±6.29, 36.44±5.81, 37.69±5.97 and 34.81±6.67 days respectively. Statistical analysis of data showed no significant difference among the leakage (amount and mean leakage time) of the four tested root- end filling materials (P=0.9958). Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, there were no significant differences in leakage among the four tested groups at 60 days. The results suggest that Root MTA and Portland Cement can be used as less expensive root filling materials.
Reports of cases of renal tubular acidosis with neurologic symptomes
Ghafarpour M,Nejad Dehghan Gh,Harirchian M
Tehran University Medical Journal , 1996,
Abstract: Proximal weakness specially in extremitas is a common neurologic symptom of patients, for which the physician should consider toxic, metabolic, infectious and paraneoblastic diseases affecting muscular system as well as primary myopathies. Osteomalacia is one of the most common considerations which is treatable but disabling as its natural course. Osteomalacia is the most often due to VITD or calcium deficiency but work up is necessary to find other primary defects that cause this disease. Renal tubular acidosis is one of these primary defects and osteomalacia secondary to it dose not respond to classic treatment of osteomalacia, so specific management is necessary. In this article we report six patients who have been referred to the clinic of neurology of Imam Khomeini Hospital since 1370 to 1374 with proximal weakness for whom RTA has been diagnosed
Dynamical Joint Energy and Spinning Reserve Dispatch Considering Transmission Network Constraint
M. Asadi Bazardeh,M. Rashidi-Nejad
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: This study is dealing with ancillary services procurement and pricing in the new environment of electricity market. Spinning reserve is one of the most important ancillary services needed for satisfying reliability requirements as well as desired level of security in power systems. In deregulated power markets, generally two methods for energy and spinning reserve dispatching are addressed the so-called sequential dispatch and joint dispatch. It can be said that the sequential dispatch method may not be even feasible as well as optimal because of the coupling between spinning reserve and energy capacity. Therefore, in this study, a new method is proposed for dynamical joint energy and reserve dispatch that can solve the bottling of reserve problem by considering transmission limits. A genetic algorithm as an evolutionary optimization technique is used to solve such a complicated and non-convex problem. The proposed methodology is applied to a typical IEEE 30-bus system, while simulation studies show the effectiveness of joint energy and spinning reserve dispatch in comparison with the sequential dispatch.
Optimization of Gate’s technique for measurement of GFR during routine renal scan
Zakavi SR,Momen Nejad M,Soleimani K
Iranian Journal of Nuclear Medicine , 2002,
Abstract: Using Gate’s technique for GFR measurement with Gamma camera, the patient is received 5mCi of Tc-99m-DTPA. By this amount of radioactivity, good quality renal scan is not possible. This study tries to optimize Gate’s technique for GFR measurement during routine renal scan (with 10-15 mCi). Methods and materials: Scanning was performed for 60 seconds from samples of Tc-99m with activities of 3, 9, 12, 15 and 18 mCi in a small syringe, with a 30 cm distance from the detector. Another sample of 12 mCi of Tc-99m was imaged for 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 seconds. The same sample was again imaged for 10 seconds in different distances (10, 20, 30 and 40 cm) from the detector. Each image was acquired 10 times. Using rectangular region of interest (ROI), total count and maximum count per pixel were recorded for all images. Results: The total count revealed rising in the images form 3 mCi to 15 mCi samples while declining thereafter, suggesting paralysis of the Gamma camera in high activities. Maximum count per pixel was 32767 (2 in 15 power minus one) in all images except for the 3 mCi sample image, suggesting saturation of the pixels in high activities. Also saturation of the pixels was note in images of 12 mCi sample for more than 15 seconds. No saturation of pixels was noticed within 20-40 cm distance from the detector. Conclusion: By optimization of the Gate’s technique for GFR measurement, GFR can be calculated during routine renal scan. We suggest using 10-15 mCi of Tc-99m-DTPA, with 5-15 seconds preinjected syringe count, 30 cm distant from the detector. Comparison of GFR calculation using suggested technique with GFR estimation by creatinine clearance in 9 patients, resulted in a significant and good correlation coefficient (R=0.883, P=0.005).
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