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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 408211 matches for " Lynnae M. Smith "
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α-Synuclein and Anti-α-Synuclein Antibodies in Parkinson’s Disease, Atypical Parkinson Syndromes, REM Sleep Behavior Disorder, and Healthy Controls
Lynnae M. Smith, Mya C. Schiess, Mary P. Coffey, Andrea C. Klaver, David A. Loeffler
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0052285
Abstract: α-synuclein is thought to play a key role in Parkinson’s disease (PD) because it is the major protein in Lewy bodies, and because its gene mutations, duplication, and triplication are associated with early-onset PD. There are conflicting reports as to whether serum and plasma concentrations of α-synuclein and anti-α-synuclein antibodies differ between PD and control subjects. The objectives of this study were to compare the levels of α-synuclein and its antibodies between individuals with typical PD (n = 14), atypical Parkinson syndromes (n = 11), idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (n = 10), and healthy controls (n = 9), to assess the strength of association between these serum proteins, and to determine group sizes needed for a high probability (80% power) of detecting statistical significance for 25% or 50% differences between typical PD and control subjects for these measurements. Analysis of log-transformed data found no statistically significant differences between groups for either α-synuclein or its antibodies. The concentrations of these proteins were weakly correlated (Spearman rho = 0.16). In subjects with typical PD and atypical Parkinson syndromes, anti-α-synuclein antibody levels above 1.5 μg/ml were detected only in subjects with no more than four years of clinical disease. Power analysis indicated that 236 and 73 samples per group would be required for an 80% probability that 25% and 50% differences, respectively, in mean α-synuclein levels between typical PD and control subjects would be statistically significant; for anti-α-synuclein antibodies, 283 and 87 samples per group would be required. Our findings are consistent with those previous studies which suggested that serum concentrations of α-synuclein and its antibodies are not significantly altered in PD.
ELISA measurement of specific non-antigen-bound antibodies to Aβ1-42 monomer and soluble oligomers in sera from Alzheimer's disease, mild cognitively impaired, and noncognitively impaired subjects
Andrea C Klaver, Mary P Coffey, Lynnae M Smith, David A Bennett, John M Finke, Loan Dang, David A Loeffler
Journal of Neuroinflammation , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1742-2094-8-93
Abstract: Serum antibodies to Aβ1-42 monomer and soluble oligomers in AD, MCI, and NCI subjects (10/group) were measured by ELISA, subtracting polyvalent antibody binding and dissociating antibody-antigen complexes. Differences in mean antibody levels were assessed for significance with repeated measures ANOVA using restricted maximum likelihood estimation, using Tukey-Kramer tests and confidence intervals for multiple comparisons. Spearman's rank correlation was used to determine associations between anti-monomer and anti-oligomer antibody concentrations. Estimated sample sizes required to detect effects of various sizes were calculated.There were no significant differences between groups for mean anti-Aβ antibody levels, although these tended to be higher in AD than NCI specimens. Estimated group sizes of 328 and 150 for anti-Aβ monomer and oligomer antibodies, respectively, would have been required for 80% power for significance at 0.05 for a 25% increase in the AD mean relative to the NCI mean. Serum antibody concentrations to Aβ monomer and oligomers were strongly associated (correlations: 0.798 for undissociated sera, 0.564 for dissociated sera). Antibody-antigen dissociation significantly increased anti-Aβ monomer but not anti-Aβ oligomer antibody levels.The findings in this pilot study are consistent with relatively similar concentrations of specific, non-antigen-bound antibodies to Aβ1-42 monomer and soluble oligomers in AD, MCI, and NCI sera. The differences between groups for these antibodies would have required approximate group sizes of 328 and 150, respectively, for a high probability for statistical significance. These findings do not support the hypothesis that reduced levels of anti-Aβ antibodies might contribute to AD's pathogenesis.Amyloid-beta (Aβ), the major plaque-associated protein in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain, has become the main target for AD therapy since the formulation of the "amyloid hypothesis" [1]. The significance of serum antibodies t
A continuous-time model of centrally coordinated motion with random switching
John C. Dallon,Lynnae C. Despain,Emily J. Evans,Christopher P. Grant,William V. Smith
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: This paper considers differential problems with random switching, with specific applications to the motion of cells and centrally coordinated motion. Starting with a differential-equation model of cell motion that was proposed previously, we set the relaxation time to zero and consider the simpler model that results. We prove that this model is well-posed, in the sense that it corresponds to a pure jump-type continuous-time Markov process (without explosion).We then describe the model's long-time behavior, first by specifying an attracting steady-state distribution for a projection of the model, then by examining the expected location of the cell center when the initial data is compatible with that steady-state. Under such conditions, we present a formula for the expected velocity and give a rigorous proof of that formula's validity. We conclude the paper with a comparison between these theoretical results and the results of numerical simulations.
Creating New Identities: Chinese American Women Professionals in Greater Baltimore  [PDF]
James M. Smith
Advances in Anthropology (AA) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/aa.2016.62004
Abstract: This qualitative paper explores the attitudes, values and social practices of a small group of first generation Chinese American professional women in the Greater Baltimore Region. The research focuses on ethnic self-ascription, marriage, dating and interethnic social relations. To explore boundary persistence and acculturation, informants answered an online survey. After this stage, several informants were interviewed in a semi-structured format. Qualitative analysis suggests that Chinese immigrants selectively acculturate through situational interaction with co-ethnic and out-group actors. Informants interact with non-co ethnics at work, and increasingly in non-work settings. Some date and marry outside of the ethnic label, though most marry within group. In areas such as culinary habits and parenting, cultural attitudes and practices deemed “Chinese” prevail, but values identified as Chinese can vary by individual. Within the Chinese ethnic category, informants tend to prefer interaction with Chinese from the same region in China. Yet, interethnic dating and marriage do not necessarily weaken ethnic identity persistence. The central point is that Chinese American ethnic expression varies by individual, and is framed within place specific multi-scalar structures of regional culture, economy and attitudes toward immigrants and race.
Raccoon Use of Den Trees and Plant Associations in Western Mesophytic Forests: Tree Attributes and Availability or Landscape Heterogeneity?  [PDF]
Winston P. Smith, Keith M. Endres
Natural Resources (NR) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2012.33012
Abstract: We monitored 15 radio-collared raccoons (Procyon lotor) on Davies Island in March 1987 - May 1988 to determine the extent to which individual tree attributes or spatial configuration of plant associations (habitat types) across the landscape influenced den use. Of 1091 verified den sites, 428 were in tree cavities. Raccoon occurrence among 4 cover types differed from that expected based on the total area of each across the island and varied across all seasons for all habitat types except Cedar Wood. Preference varied among age and sex groups and across seasons with some groups showing opposite selection for the same cover type in different seasons. Species and diameter-class distributions of selected den trees differed from a random sample of trees across the landscape. Species composition of trees with cavities also differed from the species composition across the study area. American beech (Fagus grandifolia—relative abundance 8.7%) was over-represented in the sample of trees with cavities (29.4%) and trees selected as dens (65%); diameter at breast height (dbh) of beech den trees averaged 80.0 cm, whereas all beech trees averaged 71.2 cm. For all species combined, mean dbh of den trees was 78.4 cm as compared to trees with cavities (67.6 cm), or all trees (50.4 cm). The relative availability of large, cavity-prone tree species was related to previous logging practices.
Changes in Diatom Biodiversity in Lake Sinclair, Baldwin County, Georgia, USA  [PDF]
Marká E. Smith, Kalina M. Manoylov
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2013.57074

The effects of increased water temperature on algal community composition were investigated in Lake Sinclair, Baldwin County, Georgia, USA. The lake received waste cooling water from a coal burning power plant. Discharges of recycled lake water were, on average, 15°C ± 1.5°C (and up to 23°C) warmer than typical ambient temperatures. Seasonal changes in algal composition were observed, and the warmer sample site had a greater diversity of diatom species year round independent of changes in temperature. Thermal pollution created a high percent dissimilarity between diatoms at the warmer site and the remainder of the lake. Species turnover observed in natural samples was not detected for the warmer site. Anthropogenic thermal pollution was implicated as the factor inducing changes in the natural algal community composition, which may impact other trophic levels and ultimately the overall ecology of Lake Sinclair.

Using Single-Item Measures to Examine the Relationships between Work, Personality, and Well-Being in the Workplace  [PDF]
Gary M. Williams, Andrew P. Smith
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2016.76078

Measuring the well-being of employees through questionnaire measures can give a useful indication of the positive or negative mental health of a workforce along with their satisfaction with their circumstances. Furthermore, measuring the antecedents of these outcomes provides a basis for reducing negative outcomes and promoting positive mental health and satisfaction within an organization. This endeavour can quickly become impractical, however, as taking into account the range of possible environmental or personal factors, can lead to a lengthy and burdensome measurement tool. The current paper examines the use of single-items for this purpose, demonstrating that single-item measures of work-related and personality factors exhibit relationships with each other and with outcomes that the literature on well-being predicts. Using multiple-regression analysis, the results show that work related factors such as control and reward provide significant predictors of well-being outcomes including job satisfaction, while personality factors such as self-esteem and self-efficacy are significant predictors of all outcome measures. Furthermore, variations in the relationships with specific outcomes and interaction effects are found. The results suggest that using single-item measures may provide a valid approach to investigating well-being in the workplace in circumstances that may require very brief scales.

Thinking inside the Box: Tissue Culture for Plant Propagation in a Key Ecological Species, Andropogon gerardii  [PDF]
Ava M. Hoffman, Melinda D. Smith
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2018.910144
Abstract: Intraspecific diversity has widespread effects on ecological communities and ecosystems. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying these effects, manipulative studies require a rigorous and efficient empirical approach. Yet, replicating sufficient numbers of genetically identical individuals remains a challenge. As a result, we are limited in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the ecological effects of intraspecific diversity. In contrast, large sample sizes are routinely produced in horticultural research using micropropagation, or tissue culture. In order to determine the potential usefulness of micropropagation technique for ecological studies, we investigated the efficiency and efficacy of micropropagation on the ecologically important non-model C4 grass species, Andropogon gerardii. Our preliminary results demonstrate that micropropagation is a rapid and effective technique for producing large numbers of genetically identical clones at up to 100 times the rate of traditional propagation. Key intraspecific differences among clones of A. gerardii were also retained through the micropropagation process. Given that traditional techniques used to test the effects of intraspecific diversity manipulations are time-limiting (greenhouse propagation) or can be biologically misrepresentative (seeds) for some species, we suggest that micropropagation might be a powerful tool for advancing ecological genetics studies in many plant systems.
Feasibility and acceptability of wrist actigraph in assessing sleep quality and sleep quantity: A home-based pilot study in healthy volunteers  [PDF]
Zaswiza Mohamad Noor, Alesha J. Smith, Simon S. Smith, Lisa M. Nissen
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.58A2010

Purpose: This study aimed to determine the feasibility and acceptability of actigraphy to monitor sleep quality and quantity in healthy self-rated good sleeper adults at home-based settings. Method: Sixteen healthy volunteers (age > 18) were invited to participate. Each participant was provided with a wrist actigraph device to be worn for 24-hour/day for seven consecutive days to monitor their sleep-wake patterns. Actigraphy data were downloaded using-proprietary software to generate an individual-sleep report. Participants also completed a set of self-reported Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) using WHO (five) Well Being Index (WBI) questionnaires. Results: Actigraphy was well accepted by all participants. Only 43.8% of the participants achieved normal total sleep time (TST) and 62.5% had a mean sleep efficiency value below the normal range. Despite a reduced quality of sleep among the participants, the self-reported HRQOL scores produced by the WHO-5 WBI showed a “fair” to “good” among the participants. Conclusions: To maintain healthy well-being, it is vital to have efficient and quality sleep. Insufficient and poor sleep may contribute to various health problems and hazardous outcomes. People often believe they have normal and efficient sleep, not realising they may be developing poor sleep habits. This study found that actigraphy can be easily utilized to monitor sleep-wake patterns at home-based settings. We proposed that actigraphy could be adapted for use in the primary care settings (e.g. community pharmacy) to improve the sleep health management in the community.

Tobacco Use among Emergency Department Patients
Patricia M. Smith
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph8010253
Abstract: This is the first study to systematically track the tobacco use prevalence in an entire emergency department (ED) population and compare age-stratified rates to the general population using national, provincial, and regional comparisons. A tobacco use question was integrated into the ED electronic registration process from 2007 to 2010 in 11 northern hospitals (10 rural, 1 urban). Results showed that tobacco use documentation (85–89%) and tobacco use (26–27%) were consistent across years with the only discrepancy being higher tobacco prevalence in 2007 (32%) due to higher rates at the urban hospital. Age-stratified outcomes showed that tobacco use remained high up to 50 years old (36%); rates began to decrease for patients in their 50’s (26%) and 60’s (16%), and decreased substantially after age 70 (5%). The age-stratified ED tobacco rates were almost double those of the general population nationally and provincially for all but the oldest age groups but were virtually identical to regional rates. The tobacco use tracking and age-stratified general population comparisons in this study improves on previous attempts to document prevalence in the ED population, and at a more local level, provides a “big picture” overview that highlights the magnitude of the tobacco-use problem in these communities.
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