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Therapeutic efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine combination in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria among children under five years of age in three ecological zones in Ghana
Abuaku Benjamin,Duah Nancy,Quaye Lydia,Quashie Neils
Malaria Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-11-388
Abstract: Background In 2008, artemether - lumefantrine (AL) and dihydroartemisinin - piperaquine (DHAP) were added to artesunate - amodiaquine (AS-AQ) as first-line drugs for uncomplicated malaria in Ghana. The introduction of new drugs calls for continuous monitoring of these drugs to provide timely information on trends of their efficacy and safety to enhance timely evidence-based decision making by the National Malaria Control Programme. In this regard, the therapeutic efficacy of AL was monitored from September 2010 to April 2011 in four sentinel sites representing the three main ecological zones of the country. Methods The study was a one-arm prospective evaluation of clinical and parasitological responses to directly observed treatment for uncomplicated malaria among children aged 6 months to 59 months using the 2009 WHO protocol for surveillance of anti-malarial drug efficacy. Children recruited into the study received weight-based 20/120 mg AL at 0, 8, 24, 36, 48, and 60 hrs. Parasitaemia levels were assessed on days 2, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and at any time a study child was brought to the clinic with fever. Results A total of 175 children were enrolled into the study: 56 in the savanna zone, 78 in the forest zone and 41 in the coastal zone. Per-protocol analysis showed that the overall PCR-corrected cure rates on day 14 and day 28 were 96.5% (95% CI: 92.1, 98.6) and 95.4% (95% CI: 90.3, 98.0), respectively, with statistically significant differences between the ecological zones. The 90.4% day-28 cure rate observed in the savannah zone (95% CI: 78.2, 96.4) was significantly the lowest compared with 100% (95% CI: 93.2, 99.9) in the forest zone and 93.8% (95% CI: 77.8, 98.9) in the coastal zone (P = 0.017). Fever and parasite clearance were slower among children enrolled in the savannah zone. Gametocytaemia after day-3 post-treatment was rare in all the zones. Conclusions The study has shown that AL remains efficacious in Ghana with significant ecologic zonal differences. The savannah zone may be a potential zone for any emergence of resistant alleles as a result of the slower parasite clearance observed in the zone.
A quick and cost effective method for the diagnosis of Mycobacterium ulcerans infection
Dziedzom K de Souza, Charles Quaye, Lydia Mosi, Phyllis Addo, Daniel A Boakye
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-12-8
Abstract: The methodology employed is based on the loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technique. Four sets of Primers, targeting the mycolactone encoding plasmid genome sequence of M. ulcerans were designed. The BU-LAMP assay was developed and tested on five M. ulcerans strains from patients in Ghana and two American Type Culture Control (ATCC) reference isolates; Ghana #970321 (D19F9) and Benin #990826 (D27D14). We also tested the assay on other closely related, mycolactone-producing mycobacterial strains; M. marinum 1218, M. marinum DL240490, M. liflandii and M. pseudoshotsii, as well as experimentally infected laboratory animal and clinical samples.The results revealed a high specificity of the BU-LAMP assay for selectively detecting M. ulcerans. Compared to the conventional IS-2404 PCR, the new assay is cheaper and simpler and ten times more sensitive. Test results can be obtained within 1 hour.This study indicates that the BU-LAMP assay could be suitable for early disease diagnosis and application in low-resource health facilities.Mycobacterium ulcerans, a bacterium belonging to the same family as M. tuberculosis and M. leprae, is the causative agent of Buruli ulcer (BU). BU has been described as a neglected tropical disease and is the third most common mycobacterial infection after tuberculosis and leprosy [1]. It is a necrotizing, painless, cutaneous infection mainly localized on the limbs of affected individuals and causes extensive damage to the skin, its associated tissues and even the bone. The pathology of the disease is due to mycolactone, a necrotizing and immunosuppressive lipid toxin produced by the bacterium. The genes that code for the production of the toxin are located on a 174 kb plasmid. In endemic countries like Ghana, Cote d'Ivoire and Benin, the disease is prevalent in rural poor communities. In the most endemic district in Ghana a prevalence of up to 150.8 per 100,000 individuals has been reported [2]. However epidemiological studies sugge
Evaluation of Public Weather Services by Users in the Formal Services Sector in Accra, Ghana  [PDF]
Kwabena Asomanin Anaman, Ruth Quaye, Evelyn Amankwah
Modern Economy (ME) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/me.2017.87065
Abstract: We undertook a study that evaluated the public weather services used by people working in the formal services sector of the Ghana based in Accra, the capital city of Ghana. The study employed randomly-sampling survey technique to request information from 102 respondents on their use of services and information produced by the Ghana Meteorological Agency (GMet), the country’s official producer and archival of meteorological data, information, products and services. The results of the analysis of survey data indicated that virtually all the respondents used public weather services produced by GMet. The users generally considered the quality of the public weather services to be of moderate quality. Using the contingent valuation method to ascertain the economic value of public weather services, 87.7% of the respondents were prepared to pay for the public weather services rather than be without them. The average WTP per person per month was 16.67 Ghana cedis per month or 200.04 Ghana cedis per year or 51.96 United States dollars per year. The aggregate economic value, based on only the users of public weather services in the formal services sector of Accra, who constitute just about 2.1% of the total work force of Ghana, is over four times the value of the annual budget provided by the Government of Ghana to GMet in 2016. Users in the formal services sector wanted GMet to produce more locality-specific weather forecasts and services with advance warning times. Further the information from the Agency needs to be distributed and publicised by the mass media through radio and television including the emerging and fast growing local language-based mass media on hourly basis rather than the current system where they are supplied to the general public once a day via the evening television news through the English-language radio and TV channels.
Virtual Reality: A Tool for Cartographic Visualization
JA Quaye-Ballard
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) , 2008,
Abstract: Visualization methods in the analysis of geographical datasets are based on static models, which restrict the visual analysis capabilities. The use of virtual reality, which is a three-dimensional (3D) perspective, gives the user the ability to change viewpoints and models dynamically overcomes the static limitations of two-dimensional (2D) views. Based on this, the paper highlights the importance, characteristic and classification of Virtual Reality as a tool in data visualization. The paper also outlines real life applications of Virtual Reality as a means of visualization. The distinction between Virtual Reality and Cartography is also presented. This paper also attempts to outline the Virtual Reality Modelling Language (VRML), which is a scene description language for developing Virtual Reality.
The use of virtual reality in visualizing land property
JA Quaye-Ballard
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) , 2007,
Abstract: The paper discusses virtual reality as a visualization tool such that users could interact with a developed application medium, as if they are inside the virtual environment presenting the application. Virtual reality as a presentational medium offers different views of reality which real estate agents could use to visualize estate properties. In this paper the virtual application (prototype) was designed using ArcGIS 8.2, Internet Space Builder (ISB) and Image Editing software. Interviews and responses to questionnaires used as inputs to developing the application are highlighted. The developed application involving 3D virtual environment was achieved by exporting an extruded two and half dimensional (2 D) cube-like shapes of cadastral parcel boundaries into Virtual Reality Modelling Language (VRML). The developed application was then tested. The intent of developing the 3D virtual application (prototype) is to help clients' of real estate agents to visualize properties in 3D when they visit the real estate agents. Journal of Science and Technology(Ghana) Vol. 27 (1) 2007: pp. 102-108
Voice of the Researcher: Extending the Limits of What Counts as Research
Stephen John Quaye
Journal of Research Practice , 2007,
Abstract: Social sciences research is entrenched with particular values, beliefs, norms, and practices that students, faculty, and researchers reproduce over time. In this article, the author argues for extending what counts as research within the social sciences to be more inclusive of differing methodologies and writing genres. Using personal narrative, diaries, and poetry, the author demonstrates unconventional ways of thinking about, doing, and writing research. He situates his personal experiences as a Ghanaian/American student within relevant literature to illuminate the merging of his home cultural values with those of the academic community and the contradictions and struggles associated with this process. Ultimately, the story portrays the journey of a graduate student as he challenges traditional research norms to open up spaces for underrepresented students to feel more at home within academe.
Bridging the SME Financing Gap in Ghana: The Role of Microfinance Institutions  [PDF]
Isaac Quaye, Eugene Abrokwah, Alfred Sarbah, Joseph Yaw Osei
Open Journal of Business and Management (OJBM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.2014.24040
Abstract: Financing Small and Medium-Scale Enterprises (SMEs) to achieve the desirable growth and expansion has been topical for governments, policymakers, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), financial and non-financial institutions. The recent upsurge in the interest of finding ways of bridging the financing gap faced by SMEs by these stakeholders have been necessitated by the enormous contributions of SMEs to the economic development and growth of countries in areas of job creation, GDP and entrepreneurial skill development. This research therefore sought to access the role of one of the stakeholders, microfinance institutions (MFIs) in helping to bridge the financing gap faced by SMEs in Ghana. The research established that there was indeed the existence of SME financing gap in the country as most of them were denied access to credit by commercial banks and other financial institutions. The research revealed that the operations of microfinance institutions (MFIs) are having positive impact on SMEs. The study also revealed some risk mitigation tools used by MFIs in granting loans to SMEs which included provision of collateral security in the form of land or any other valuable asset, business records, credit history among others. The research concluded with some recommendations on how the SME financing gap can further be bridged by MFIs and other stakeholders which included provision of support services to SMEs by MFIs such as training services in credit management as well as the need for MFIs to improve service delivery such as faster loan approval times.
The Applicability of the Learning School Model of Strategy Formulation (Strategy Formulation as an Emergent Process)  [PDF]
Isaac Quaye, Abraham Osei, Alfred Sarbah, Eugene Abrokwah
Open Journal of Business and Management (OJBM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.2015.32014
Abstract: Great strategies are worth nothing if they cannot be implemented [1]. It can be extended to say that better to implement effectively a second grade strategy than to ruin a first class strategy with ineffective implementation [2]. Thus, effective implementation of strategies is important to the success of every entity. There are many ways of classifications of strategy. However, there are ten schools of thought that dominate recent thinking on strategy. These ten schools or models of strategy formulation were proposed by Henry Mintzberg, Bruce Ahlstrand and Joseph Lampel in their book “Strategy Safari: A Guided Tour through the Wilds of Strategic Management”. The “learning school” is one of these schools. From the perspective of this school, there is the emergence of strategies as people act individually but most of the time through concerted efforts, learning about a phenomenon as well as their entity’s competence in dealing with it. There are criticisms of this model saying there is the danger of going to the opposite extreme which may result in no strategy, lost strategy or wrong strategy. However, the study provides insight into the adoption and application of this strategy as well as the enormous benefits that accrue to learning organizations. The authors, having reviewed a vast number of literature, have summarized the concept of the learning school as “all hands-on-deck phenomenon” where individuals or employees are empowered in teams to improve their desire and ability to create and explore what they want in order to understand and manage the organization and its task environment.
Corporate Governance in Family Businesses: The Role of the Non-Executive and Independent Directors  [PDF]
Alfred Sarbah, Isaac Quaye, Emmanuel Affum-Osei
Open Journal of Business and Management (OJBM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.2016.41003
Abstract: The paper investigates the challenges faced by Non-Executive and Independent Directors in ensuring that good corporate governance practices are adhered to in non-listed Ghanaian family business at all times using non-listed family business in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. The findings revealed that the presence of non-executive and independent directors had no significant effect on the performance of non-listed family businesses in Ghana since they were dormant in most of the roles expected to be discharged by them and active in only few responsibilities or roles. It is also discovered that the boards of non-listed family businesses meet only when there is a problem to solve and not regularly. The owner-manager-chief executive office-board chairman, makes all decisions and ensures its implementation. The results draw the attention of policy makers to the position of non-executive and independent directors in family businesses given the enormous positive contribution they play to the economic development of the nations and their contributions to the society in general.
Review of Stock Markets’ Reaction to New Events: Evidence from Brexit  [PDF]
Isaac Quaye, Yinping Mu, Braimah Abudu, Ramous Agyare
Journal of Financial Risk Management (JFRM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jfrm.2016.54025
Abstract: Several studies have evolved to deal with the determinants of stock market volatility. However, there exists a gap in literature with regards to the interrelation among the broad categories of factors that trigger stock market reaction namely company fundaments, technical factors and market sentiments. This paper provides a holistic and comprehensive theoretical review of drivers of stock markets’ reaction as well as designs an interrelated conceptual framework of the factors that influence investors’ decision making to fill the gap in literature. Brexit is presented as a case study to illustrate how investors and stock markets are affected by new events or information. This study will reveal some of the global staggering effects of Brexit at the end of trading on June 24, 2016 in areas such as currencies, stock markets, banks, commodities, bonds, automakers and homebuilders as well as hedge fund. Barely 24 hours after the results of Brexit were declared; global stock markets lost about $2 trillion in value. The British pound plunged to almost $1.33, its lowest level in over 30 years against the US dollar and gold proved to be one of the few safe havens for investors on that day. In order for investors to insulate themselves against loses from Black Swans events, the conclusion of this study recommends some protective mechanisms for investors which include avoidance of overexposure and stockpiling of cash.
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