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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 40759 matches for " Luz Myriam; Jiménez-Ruiz "
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El consumo de tabaco en los hogares mexicanos, 1994-2005
Miera-Juárez,Belén Sáenz de; Jiménez-Ruiz,Jorge Alberto; Reynales-Shigematsu,Luz Myriam; Lazcano-Ponce,Eduardo; Hernández-ávila,Mauricio;
Salud Pública de México , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342007000800017
Abstract: objective: to analyze household tobacco consumption and expenditure in mexico from 1994 to 2005. material and methods: the national surveys on household income and expenditures conducted in mexico from 1994 to 2005 were used to estimate relevant statistics (proportions and means). confidence intervals of the estimated parameters are presented. results: smoking household prevalence decreased from 11.2% (ic95%: 10.4-12.1) in 1994 to 7.8% (ic95%: 7.3-8.3) in 2005. this percentage was lowest in low-income households -4.2% (ic95%: 3.4-5.1)- and highest in high-income households -11.2% (ic95%: 10.0-12.4). on the contrary, expenditure on tobacco as a percentage of total household expenditures was highest in low-income households -5.5% (ic95%: 4.2-6.9)- and lowest in high-income households -2.5% (ic95%: 2.1-2.8). conclusions: household smoking prevalence is lower than a decade before; however, expenditure on tobacco represents a high share of households? total expenditures, particularly, among low-income smoker households. consequently, tobacco is a burden for low-income smoker households where resources to buy essential goods and services are scarce.
Costos por ausentismo laboral atribuibles al consumo de tabaco en el Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social y en México, 2006-2009
Guerrero-López,Carlos Manuel; Reynales-Shigematsu,Luz Myriam; Jiménez-Ruiz,Jorge Alberto; Karam-Araujo,Roberto; Maldonado-Cruz,César Augusto; Camacho-Solís,Rafael;
Salud Pública de México , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342012000300005
Abstract: objective: to calculate the absenteeism costs by lung cancer, cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and acute myocardial infarction attributable to smoking in the mexican social security institute (imss) and the occupied population from 2006 to 2009. materials and methods: productivity loss data from selected illnesses were obtained from imss records. the smoking attributable fraction was used, and extrapolation to occupied population was conducted. results: imss paid $143.9 million pesos (2009 prices) attributable to smoking between 2006 and 2009. the productivity loss was $298.2 million pesos and $437.8 million pesos in the occupied population, attributable to smoking. conclusions: tobacco smoking implies costs to the individual, families and society, which urge to strengthen policies contained in the framework convention on tobacco control by the who.
El efecto del precio del tabaco sobre el consumo: un análisis de datos agregados para México
Olivera-Chávez,Rosa Itandehui; Cerme?o-Bazán,Rodolfo; Miera-Juárez,Belén Sáenz de; Jiménez-Ruiz,Jorge Alberto; Reynales-Shigematsu,Luz Myriam;
Salud Pública de México , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342010000800015
Abstract: objective. to estimate the price elasticity of the demand for cigarettes in mexico based on data sources and a methodology different from the ones used in previous studies on the topic. material and methods. quarterly time series of consumption, income and price for the time period 1994 to 2005 were used. a long-run demand model was estimated using ordinary least squares (ols) and the existence of a cointegration relationship was investigated. also, a model using dinamic ordinary least squares (dols) was estimated to correct for potential endogeneity of independent variables and autocorrelation of the residuals. results. dols estimates showed that a 10% increase in cigarette prices could reduce consumption in 2.5% (p<0.05) and increase government revenue in 16.11%. conclusions. the results confirmed the effectiveness of taxes as an instrument for tobacco control in mexico. an increase in taxes can be used to increase cigarette prices and therefore to reduce consumption and increase government revenue.
Pharmacological treatments for tobacco dependence
K. O. Fagerstr?m,C. A. Jiménez-Ruiz
European Respiratory Review , 2008,
Abstract: There are currently three licensed therapies for smoking cessation: nicotine replacement (NR), bupropion and varenicline. NR can be indicated for: 1) aid in abrupt cessation; 2) gradual reduction in order to quit smoking; 3) temporary abstinence; and 4) smoking reduction maintenance. A meta-analysis has found that the relative risk of abstinence for any form of NR relative to control was 1.6. It has been found that starting NR treatment 1–3 weeks before smoking cessation and combining NR products, usually patch and gum, increases efficacy. Recently some new nicotine administration forms, i.e. lozenge, mouth spray and a pouch, have been developed. They seem to have the potential to relieve cravings faster than the current high-dose gum, and also be more preferred. Varenicline is a selective partial agonist at the 4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). It decreases cravings and alleviates the symptoms of withdrawal. It can also reduce the rewarding and reinforcing effects of nicotine. Trials have shown varenicline to have increased efficacy relative to bupropion. Varenicline has also been compared with NR (21 mg transdermal patch) in one randomised study. Abstinence at the end of treatment at 12 weeks was significantly increased for varenicline (56%) compared with for nicotine patch (43%). Some post-marketing reports have expressed concern about psychiatric adverse effects, such as aggression, depression and suicides. The European Medicines Agency and the Food and Drug Administration of the USA are monitoring reported side-effects, but so far no confirmed casual relationship between these adverse effects and varenicline has been established. Bupropion inhibits neuronal re-uptake of dopamine and norepinephrine and is an antagonist on the nAChR. Its efficacy, compared with placebo, has been proved in several meta-analyses. A recent study suggests that longer pre-cessation use of bupropion, e.g. for 4 weeks, can improve efficacy results. Under development for the treatment of tobacco dependence are cannabinoid antagonists, immunotherapy against nicotine, monoaminooxidase inhibitors, dopamine receptor D3 receptor antagonists and partial agonists, glutamatergic and GABA-ergic compounds and novel selective nicotine cholinergic receptor agonists and antagonists.
Tracking climate variability in the western Mediterranean during the Late Holocene: a multiproxy approach
V. Nieto-Moreno,F. Martínez-Ruiz,S. Giralt,F. Jiménez-Espejo
Climate of the Past (CP) & Discussions (CPD) , 2011, DOI: 10.5194/cp-7-1395-2011
Abstract: Climate variability in the western Mediterranean is reconstructed for the last 4000 yr using marine sediments recovered in the west Algerian-Balearic Basin, near the Alboran Basin. Fluctuations in chemical and mineralogical sediment composition as well as grain size distribution are linked to fluvial-eolian oscillations, changes in redox conditions and paleocurrent intensity. Multivariate analyses allowed us to characterize three main groups of geochemical and mineralogical proxies determining the sedimentary record of this region. These three statistical groups were applied to reconstruct paleoclimate conditions at high resolution during the Late Holocene. An increase in riverine input (fluvial-derived elements – Rb/Al, Ba/Al, REE/Al, Si/Al, Ti/Al, Mg/Al and K/Al ratios), and a decrease in Saharan eolian input (Zr/Al ratio) depict the Roman Humid Period and the Little Ice Age, while drier environmental conditions are recognized during the Late Bronze Age-Iron Age, the Dark Ages and the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Additionally, faster bottom currents and more energetic hydrodynamic conditions for the former periods are evidenced by enhanced sortable silt (10-63 μm) and quartz content, and by better oxygenated bottom waters – as reflected by decreasing redox-sensitive elements (V/Al, Cr/Al, Ni/Al and Zn/Al ratios). In contrast, opposite paleoceanographic conditions are distinguished during the latter periods, i.e. the Late Bronze Age-Iron Age, the Dark Ages and the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Although no Ba excess was registered, other paleoproductivity indicators (total organic carbon content, Br/Al ratio, and organometallic ligands such as U and Cu) display the highest values during the Roman Humid Period, and together with increasing preservation of organic matter, this period exhibits by far the most intense productivity of the last 4000 yr. Fluctuations in detrital input into the basin as the main process managing deposition, reflected by the first eigenvector defined by the Principal Component Analyses, point to solar irradiance and the North Atlantic Oscillation variability as the main driving mechanisms behind natural climate variability over decadal to centennial time-scales for the last 4000 yr.
Tracking climate variability in the western Mediterranean during the Late Holocene: a multiproxy approach
V. Nieto-Moreno,F. Martínez-Ruiz,S. Giralt,F. Jiménez-Espejo
Climate of the Past Discussions , 2011, DOI: 10.5194/cpd-7-635-2011
Abstract: Climate variability in the western Mediterranean is reconstructed for the last 4000 yr using marine sediments recovered in the west Algerian-Balearic basin, near the Alboran basin. Fluctuations in chemical and mineralogical sediment composition as well as grain size distribution are linked to fluvial-eolian oscillations, changes in redox conditions and paleocurrent intensity. Multivariate analyses allowed us to characterize three main groups of geochemical and mineralogical proxies determining the sedimentary record of this region. These three statistical groups were applied to reconstruct paleoclimate conditions at high resolution during the Late Holocene. An increase in fluvial-derived elements (Rb/Al, Ba/Al, REE/Al, Si/Al, Ti/Al, Mg/Al and K/Al ratios), finer grain size, slower flows and oxygen-poor bottom waters – as suggested by sortable silt (10–63 μm), clays (< 2 μm) and redox-sensitive elements (V/Al, Cr/Al, Ni/Al and Zn/Al ratios) – depict the Roman Humid Period (RHP) and the Little Ice Age (LIA), while drier environmental conditions are recognized during the Late Bronze Age-Iron Age (LBA-IA) and the Medieval Warm Period (MWP). Although no Ba excess was registered, other paleoproductivity indicators (total organic carbon content, Br/Al ratio, and organometallic ligands such as U and Cu) display the highest values during the RHP, this period exhibiting by far the most intense productivity of the last 4000 yr. These marine sediments evidence oscillations that support the link of the westernmost Mediterranean climate with the North Atlantic coupled ocean-atmosphere climatic system, pointing to solar irradiance and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) variability as the main driving mechanisms behind natural climate variability over decadal to centennial time-scales for the last 4000 yr.
Late Holocene climate variability in the southwestern Mediterranean region: an integrated marine and terrestrial geochemical approach
C. Martín-Puertas,F. Jiménez-Espejo,F. Martínez-Ruiz,V. Nieto-Moreno
Climate of the Past Discussions , 2010, DOI: 10.5194/cpd-6-1655-2010
Abstract: A combination of marine (Alboran Sea cores, ODP 976 and TTR 300 G) and terrestrial (Zo ar Lake, Andalucia, Spain) paleoclimate information using geochemical proxies provides a high resolution reconstruction of climate variability and human influence in southwestern Mediterranean region for the last 4000 years at inter-centennial resolution. Proxies respond to changes in precipitation rather than temperature alone. Our archive documents a succession of dry and wet periods coherent with the North Atlantic climate signal. Drier stages occurred prior to 2.7 cal ka BP, well-correlated with the global aridity crisis of the third-millennium BC, and during the Medieval Warm Period (1.4–0.7 cal ka BP). Wetter conditions prevailed from 2.7 to 1.4 cal ka BP and after the Medieval Warm Period and the onset of the Little Ice Age. Hydrological signatures during the Little Ice Age are highly variable but consistent with more humidity that the period before. Additionally, Pb anomalies in sediments at the end of Bronze Age suggest anthropogenic pollution earlier than the Roman Empire development in the Iberian Peninsula. The evolution of the climate in the study area during the Late Holocene confirms the see-saw pattern previously shown between eastern and western Mediterranean regions and suggests a higher influence of the North Atlantic dynamics in the western Mediterranean.
Apoptotic markers in protozoan parasites
Antonio Jiménez-Ruiz, Juan Alzate, Ewan MacLeod, Carsten Günter Lüder, Nicolas Fasel, Hilary Hurd
Parasites & Vectors , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-3-104
Abstract: In this review we discuss the markers most frequently used to analyze cell death in protozoan parasites, paying special attention to changes in cell morphology, mitochondrial activity, chromatin structure and plasma membrane structure/permeability. Regarding classical regulators/executors of apoptosis, we have reviewed the present knowledge of caspase-like and nuclease activities.Recently there has been a move to clarify the classification of cell death [1] and to set up guidelines for cell death assays in eukaryotes [2]. While these events have been studied in metazoans for more than two decades, the presence of apoptosis-like processes in protozoans was not widely accepted when the first papers on events similar to metazoan apoptosis were published 15 years ago [3,4]. Therefore, considering the diversity of parasites and conditions for their study, there is an urgent need to define the markers, both cellular and molecular, which are the most accurate to assign as apoptosis-like events that occur during the death process of protozoan parasites. Defining the events that occur during death are of paramount importance to this field of study, since so far there is no definitive guide as to what happens in each parasitic protozoan when it undergoes this process, nor is it clear whether similar cell death phenotypes are exhibited by all taxa of unicellular organisms. Moreover, some of these assays are likely to be positive in cells undergoing different types of cell death. This fact stresses the relevance of using several markers simultaneously to confirm an apoptotic phenotype.According to the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death (NCCD) [1], the term apoptosis describes a specific morphological aspect of cell death. Cellular alterations during this process include rounding-up of the cell, reduction of cellular volume (pyknosis), chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation, plasma membrane blebbing and, if in the right context, engulfment by resident phagocytes. Little
Grado de cumplimiento de la legislación e impartición de ense anzas anti-tabaco en los centros escolares espa oles
Hernández-Mezquita Miguel Angel,Barrueco Miguel,Jiménez-Ruiz Carlos Andrés,Torrecilla Miguel
Revista Espa?ola de Salud Pública , 2000,
Abstract: Fundamento: No se dispone de estudios que analicen el cumplimiento de la legislación antitabaco en los centros escolares espa oles, por lo que nos propusimos conocer el grado de cumplimiento de la legislación oficial anti-tabaco en dichos centros y la influencia que ello tiene sobre el porcentaje de alumnos fumadores. Método: Se realizó una encuesta entre 3.050 directores de centros educativos espa oles, a los que se les preguntó sobre diversos aspectos del cumplimiento de la legislación oficial anti-tabaco en los centros y sobre las principales características del consumo de tabaco en los mismos. Resultados: El 80,9% de los directores afirman que en sus centros se exige el cumplimiento de la legislación y el 64,9% disponen de carteles que advierten de la prohibición de fumar. Afirman impartir ense anzas anti-tabaco el 82,2% de los centros en los que se exige la legislación y en el 64,8% de los centros en los que esta legislación no se exige. Creen que el porcentaje de profesores que fuman ante los alumnos es del 5,9% en los centros en que se exige la legislación y del 12,9% en los que no se cumple. En los centros donde se imparten ense anzas anti-tabaco creen que han probado el tabaco el 29% de los alumnos, frente al 31% que creen lo han hecho en los centros donde no se imparten estas ense anzas (p<0,001). Conclusiones: El cumplimiento de la legislación es insuficiente. Los directores de los centros educativos, como encargados de velar por el cumplimiento de la legislación oficial anti-tabaco en sus centros, deben exigir el cumplimiento de esta legislación, ya que esta medida es eficaz para mejorar el funcionamiento global de los centros y para reducir los porcentajes de alumnos y profesores fumadores.
Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis expresses a nuclease with molecular and biochemical features similar to the Endonuclease G of higher eukaryotes
Miguel A. Toro-Londo?o,Edwin Bairon Pati?o,Sara María Robledo,Antonio Jiménez-Ruiz
Colombia Médica , 2011,
Abstract: Objective: To characterize the molecular and biochemical features of the Endonuclease G of Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis.Methods: The gene of the putative L. (V.) panamensis Endonuclease G was amplified, cloned, and sequenced. The recombinant protein was produced in a heterologous expression system and biochemical assays were run to determine its ion, temperature, and pH preferences.Results: The L. (V.) panamensis rENDOG has biochemical features similar to those found in other trypanosomatids and higher eukaryotes. In addition, phylogenetic analysis revealed a possible evolutionary relationship with metazoan ENDOG.Conclusions: L. (V.) panamensis has a gene that codifies an ENDOG homologous to those of higher organisms. This enzyme can be produced in Escherichia coli and is able to degrade covalently closed circular double-stranded DNA. It has a magnesium preference, can be inhibited by potassium, and is able to function within a wide temperature and pH range.
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