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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 42566 matches for " Luoling Xu "
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Influenza Transmission in the Mother-Infant Dyad Leads to Severe Disease, Mammary Gland Infection, and Pathogenesis by Regulating Host Responses
Stéphane G. Paquette?,David Banner?,Stephen S. H. Huang?,Raquel Almansa?,Alberto Leon?,Luoling Xu,Jessica Bartoszko?,David J. Kelvin?,Alyson A. Kelvin
PLOS Pathogens , 2015, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005173
Abstract: Seasonal influenza viruses are typically restricted to the human upper respiratory tract whereas influenza viruses with greater pathogenic potential often also target extra-pulmonary organs. Infants, pregnant women, and breastfeeding mothers are highly susceptible to severe respiratory disease following influenza virus infection but the mechanisms of disease severity in the mother-infant dyad are poorly understood. Here we investigated 2009 H1N1 influenza virus infection and transmission in breastfeeding mothers and infants utilizing our developed infant-mother ferret influenza model. Infants acquired severe disease and mortality following infection. Transmission of the virus from infants to mother ferrets led to infection in the lungs and mother mortality. Live virus was also found in mammary gland tissue and expressed milk of the mothers which eventually led to milk cessation. Histopathology showed destruction of acini glandular architecture with the absence of milk. The virus was localized in mammary epithelial cells of positive glands. To understand the molecular mechanisms of mammary gland infection, we performed global transcript analysis which showed downregulation of milk production genes such as Prolactin and increased breast involution pathways indicated by a STAT5 to STAT3 signaling shift. Genes associated with cancer development were also significantly increased including JUN, FOS and M2 macrophage markers. Immune responses within the mammary gland were characterized by decreased lymphocyte-associated genes CD3e, IL2Ra, CD4 with IL1β upregulation. Direct inoculation of H1N1 into the mammary gland led to infant respiratory infection and infant mortality suggesting the influenza virus was able to replicate in mammary tissue and transmission is possible through breastfeeding. In vitro infection studies with human breast cells showed susceptibility to H1N1 virus infection. Together, we have shown that the host-pathogen interactions of influenza virus infection in the mother-infant dyad initiate immunological and oncogenic signaling cascades within the mammary gland. These findings suggest the mammary gland may have a greater role in infection and immunity than previously thought.
Inflammatory Cytokine Expression Is Associated with Chikungunya Virus Resolution and Symptom Severity
Alyson A. Kelvin ,David Banner,Giuliano Silvi,Maria Luisa Moro,Nadir Spataro,Paolo Gaibani,Francesca Cavrini,Anna Pierro,Giada Rossini,Mark J. Cameron,Jesus F. Bermejo-Martin,Stéphane G. Paquette,Luoling Xu,Ali Danesh,Amber Farooqui,Ilaria Borghetto,David J. Kelvin,Vittorio Sambri,Salvatore Rubino
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001279
Abstract: The Chikungunya virus infection zones have now quickly spread from Africa to parts of Asia, North America and Europe. Originally thought to trigger a disease of only mild symptoms, recently Chikungunya virus caused large-scale fatalities and widespread economic loss that was linked to recent virus genetic mutation and evolution. Due to the paucity of information on Chikungunya immunological progression, we investigated the serum levels of 13 cytokines/chemokines during the acute phase of Chikungunya disease and 6- and 12-month post-infection follow-up from patients of the Italian outbreak. We found that CXCL9/MIG, CCL2/MCP-1, IL-6 and CXCL10/IP-10 were significantly raised in the acute phase compared to follow-up samples. Furthermore, IL-1β, TNF-α, Il-12, IL-10, IFN-γ and IL-5 had low initial acute phase levels that significantly increased at later time points. Analysis of symptom severity showed association with CXCL9/MIG, CXCL10/IP-10 and IgG levels. These data give insight into Chikungunya disease establishment and subsequent convalescence, which is imperative to the treatment and containment of this quickly evolving and frequently re-emerging disease.
Lack of Innate Interferon Responses during SARS Coronavirus Infection in a Vaccination and Reinfection Ferret Model
Mark J. Cameron, Alyson A. Kelvin, Alberto J. Leon, Cheryl M. Cameron, Longsi Ran, Luoling Xu, Yong-Kyu Chu, Ali Danesh, Yuan Fang, Qianjun Li, Austin Anderson, Ronald C. Couch, Stephane G. Paquette, Ndingsa G. Fomukong, Otfried Kistner, Manfred Lauchart, Thomas Rowe, Kevin S. Harrod, Colleen B. Jonsson, David J. Kelvin
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0045842
Abstract: In terms of its highly pathogenic nature, there remains a significant need to further define the immune pathology of SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection, as well as identify correlates of immunity to help develop vaccines for severe coronaviral infections. Here we use a SARS-CoV infection-reinfection ferret model and a functional genomics approach to gain insight into SARS immunopathogenesis and to identify correlates of immune protection during SARS-CoV-challenge in ferrets previously infected with SARS-CoV or immunized with a SARS virus vaccine. We identified gene expression signatures in the lungs of ferrets associated with primary immune responses to SARS-CoV infection and in ferrets that received an identical second inoculum. Acute SARS-CoV infection prompted coordinated innate immune responses that were dominated by antiviral IFN response gene (IRG) expression. Reinfected ferrets, however, lacked the integrated expression of IRGs that was prevalent during acute infection. The expression of specific IRGs was also absent upon challenge in ferrets immunized with an inactivated, Al(OH)3-adjuvanted whole virus SARS vaccine candidate that protected them against SARS-CoV infection in the lungs. Lack of IFN-mediated immune enhancement in infected ferrets that were previously inoculated with, or vaccinated against, SARS-CoV revealed 9 IRG correlates of protective immunity. This data provides insight into the molecular pathogenesis of SARS-CoV and SARS-like-CoV infections and is an important resource for the development of CoV antiviral therapeutics and vaccines.
Host adaptive immunity deficiency in severe pandemic influenza
Jesus F Bermejo-Martin, Ignacio Martin-Loeches, Jordi Rello, Andres Antón, Raquel Almansa, Luoling Xu, Guillermo Lopez-Campos, Tomás Pumarola, Longsi Ran, Paula Ramirez, David Banner, Derek Cheuk Ng, Lorenzo Socias, Ana Loza, David Andaluz, Enrique Maravi, Maria J Gómez-Sánchez, Mónica Gordón, Maria C Gallegos, Victoria Fernandez, Sara Aldunate, Cristobal León, Pedro Merino, Jesús Blanco, Fernando Martin-Sanchez, Lucia Rico, David Varillas, Veronica Iglesias, Maria ángeles Marcos, Francisco Gandía
Critical Care , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/cc9259
Abstract: We utilized gene expression, cytokine profiles and generation of antibody responses following hospitalization in 19 critically ill patients with primary pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza pneumonia for identifying host immune responses associated with clinical outcome. Ingenuity pathway analysis 8.5 (IPA) (Ingenuity Systems, Redwood City, CA) was used to select, annotate and visualize genes by function and pathway (gene ontology). IPA analysis identified those canonical pathways differentially expressed (P < 0.05) between comparison groups. Hierarchical clustering of those genes differentially expressed between groups by IPA analysis was performed using BRB-Array Tools v.3.8.1.The majority of patients were characterized by the presence of comorbidities and the absence of immunosuppressive conditions. pH1N1 specific antibody production was observed around day 9 from disease onset and defined an early period of innate immune response and a late period of adaptive immune response to the virus. The most severe patients (n = 12) showed persistence of viral secretion. Seven of the most severe patients died. During the late phase, the most severe patient group had impaired expression of a number of genes participating in adaptive immune responses when compared to less severe patients. These genes were involved in antigen presentation, B-cell development, T-helper cell differentiation, CD28, granzyme B signaling, apoptosis and protein ubiquitination. Patients with the poorest outcomes were characterized by proinflammatory hypercytokinemia, along with elevated levels of immunosuppressory cytokines (interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-1ra) in serum.Our findings suggest an impaired development of adaptive immunity in the most severe cases of pandemic influenza, leading to an unremitting cycle of viral replication and innate cytokine-chemokine release. Interruption of this deleterious cycle may improve disease outcome.Pandemic 2009 influenza A(H1N1)(p2009A(H1N1)) viral infections continues
Direct association between pharyngeal viral secretion and host cytokine response in severe pandemic influenza
Raquel Almansa, Andres Anton, Paula Ramirez, Ignacio Martin-Loeches, David Banner, Tomás Pumarola, Luoling Xu, Jesús Blanco, Longsi Ran, Guillermo Lopez-Campos, Fernando Martin-Sanchez, Lorenzo Socias, Ana Loza, David Andaluz, Enrique Maravi, Mónica Gordón, Maria C Gallegos, Victoria Fernandez, Cristobal León, Pedro Merino, Maria Marcos, Francisco Gandía, Felipe Bobillo, Salvador Resino, Jose Ma Eiros, Carmen Castro, Paula Mateo, Milagros Gonzalez-Rivera, Jordi Rello, Raul de Lejarazu, David J Kelvin, Jesus F Bermejo-Martin
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-11-232
Abstract: Twenty three patients admitted to the ICU with primary viral pneumonia were included in this study. A quantitative PCR based method targeting the M1 influenza gene was developed to quantify pharyngeal viral load. In addition, by using a multiplex based assay, we systematically evaluated host cytokine responses to the viral infection at admission to the ICU. Correlation studies between cytokine levels and viral load were done by calculating the Spearman correlation coefficient.Fifteen patients needed of intubation and ventilation, while eight did not need of mechanical ventilation during ICU hospitalization. Viral load in pharyngeal swabs was 300 fold higher in the group of patients with the worst respiratory condition at admission to the ICU. Pharyngeal viral load directly correlated with plasma levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-12p70, IFN-γ, the chemotactic factors MIP-1β, GM-CSF, the angiogenic mediator VEGF and also of the immuno-modulatory cytokine IL-1ra (p < 0.05). Correlation studies demonstrated also the existence of a significant positive association between the levels of these mediators, evidencing that they are simultaneously regulated in response to the virus.Severe respiratory disease caused by the 2009 pandemic influenza virus is characterized by the existence of a direct association between viral replication and host cytokine response, revealing a potential pathogenic link with the severe disease caused by other influenza subtypes such as H5N1.Two years later, the pathogenesis of the illness caused by 2009 pandemic influenza is still poorly known. Pregnancy, severe obesity, cardiovascular disease and diabetes have been reported as risk factors for critical illness following infection with the pandemic virus [1,2]. Persistence of viral secretion has been found in the patients with the worst outcomes [3-5]. Prompt antiviral treatment has been recognized as a protective factor [6]. A number of studies report increased and persistent level
A Decision Problem of Hotels on Setting Online-Exclusive-Rooms in E-Commerce Age  [PDF]
Liang Xu, Xiaoyan Xu
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2014.74029

Due to the rapid development of information technology, customers’ consumption pattern in hotel industry has dramatically changed, and many people book rooms through some professional online platforms. Hotel managers need to redesign their sale channel structures by incorporating online platforms, in order to increase profit. This paper focuses on a revenue maximization problem for a hotel which cooperates with an online platform. Two cooperating forms are investigated and compared. Specifically, one intuitive form is named complete sharing, in which all the hotel rooms are shared with the online platform for booking. The other form is named setting online-exclusive-rooms (OERs), in which the hotel set a fixed quantity of rooms for exclusively booking from the online platform. By building a loss queueing model, this paper finds some properties of the optimal quantity of OERs in the latter form. Factors affecting the selection and how they affect the selection are also investigated.

An Algorithm for Improving Throughput Guarantee of Topology-Transparent MAC Scheduling Strategy  [PDF]
Chaonong Xu
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/wsn.2010.210096
Abstract: Topology-transparent MAC scheduling strategies nowadays are all based on combinatorial design. To get throughput guarantee, a cover-free set is output as scheduling strategy of network. In this paper, we aim to modify the cover-free set so that better throughput can be guaranteed. At the first step, the redundant slot of the cover-free set is proposed and found to have negative influence on the minimal guaranteed throughput. Second, we prove that any subset of a cover-free set is still a cover-free set after its redundant slots were squashed out. Our algorithm chooses the subset which has the maximal number of redundant slots, squashes all of its redundant slots, and then designates it as the network scheduling strategy. Therefore, better through- put can be guaranteed if the squashed subset is adopted as network scheduling strategy. For any topology- transparent node scheduling strategy, both the increased minimal throughput and decreased maximal transmission delay can be gotten by just using our algorithm as an extra accessory.
Experimental and Numerical Study of the Effect of Surround Protection Technique on the Strain Measurement for Offshore Jacket Platform  [PDF]
Yongjun Xu
Engineering (ENG) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2011.35056
Abstract: For strain measurement on offshore jacket platform in deep water, waterproof of strain foil is always an important issue, especially, due to the high pressure in deep water. The waterproof is difficult in two places, one is between the matrix structure and the protection structure, and another is between the lead wires and the protection structure. The surround protection technique discussed in this paper is conventional and ideal, and can be operative for a long time, up to five years. In this method, a metal case and tube is added on the local position, which increases the local rigidity, but the effect on the measurement of strain is not well studied. In this paper, the effect of the surround protection technique on the strain measurement is studied by using numerical and experimental methods, and the results show that the measurement error is well in the range permitted by engineering practice.
Editorial: Special Section on Reinforcement Learning and Approximate Dynamic Programming  [PDF]
Xin Xu
Journal of Intelligent Learning Systems and Applications (JILSA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jilsa.2010.22008
Abstract: .
A Kind of Potential Practical Sensors of Metamaterial in Electromagnetic Flaw Nondestructive Testing  [PDF]
Zhanxian Xu
Engineering (ENG) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2011.37090
Abstract: We present a new kind of method of electromagnetic flaw nondestructive testing with coating of metamaterials and simulation near electromagnetic field property for test crack. The simulation of improving a Nondestructive testing (NDT) probe electromagnetic radiant property by Metamatrials (MMs) covering a tiny current element is investigated and analyzed using Ansoft HFSS based on finite element method (FEM), which permittivity and permeability are negative. Electromagnetic model: Ideal MMs ball shell with inner radius of 1 mm and outer radius variation, and the shell’s relative permittivity and relative permeability are all –3.0, dielectric loss tangent and magnetic loss tangent are all 0.1; and exciting current element length is with 0.3 mm, diameter 0.2 mm, value 1 mA at frequency 10 GHz; and simulation is with radiation boundary conditions. The simulating near electromagnetic field variety with ratio of inner radius and out radius, and so near or local field of MMs sensor on a surface crack, as well as comparing near field value of sensor with coating common material are finished. Results can be seen that MMs film sensor near electromagnetic field and radiation properties are obviously better than other two kinds of structures without coating medium and coating with common medium, and Metamaterial may be opened out some new kinds of sensors in electromagnetic flaw nondestructive testing for potential practical applications in future.
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