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Phagodeterrence by Quassia amara (Simaroubaceae) wood extract fractions on Hypsipyla grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae
Soto,Francisco; Hilje,Luko; Mora,Gerardo A; Carballo,Manuel;
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2011,
Abstract: in latin america and the caribbean, precious wood species like mahoganies (swietenia spp.) and cedars (cedrela spp.) are seriously injured by the mahogany shootborer, hypsipyla grandella (zeller) (lepidoptera: pyralidae) larva, which bores into the main shoot of trees. in previous experiments focused on searching for a preventive method for managing this pest, a wood extract of bitterwood, quassia amara l. ex blom (simaroubaceae) had been shown to cause phagodeterrence to larvae. therefore, three fractions (water, methanol and diethyl ether) of a wood extract were tested for their phagodeterrence to larvae, by means of laboratory and greenhouse trials. phagodeterrence was assessed by determining their effect on foliage consumption, mortality and signs of damage (number of orifices, sawdust piles, fallen shoots, number of tunnels and tunnel length) caused by larvae on spanish cedar (c. odorata). both the methanol and diethyl ether fractions caused phagodeterrence, by strongly reducing foliage consumption and signs of damage, while not causing larval mortality. the lowest concentration at which phagodeterrence was detected for the methanol fraction corresponded to 0.0625%, which is equivalent to a 1.0% of the bitterwood crude extract. however, results with the diethyl ether fraction were unsatisfactory, as none of the treatments differed from the solvent, possibly because of an adverse effect of the solvent on foliar tissues. phagodeterrent principles from q. amara derivatives may play an important role in dealing with h. grandella if they are complemented with other integrated pest management preventative tactics. rev. biol. trop. 59 (1): 487-499. epub 2011 march 01.
Antifeedant activity of botanical crude extracts and their fractions on Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) adults: I. Gliricidia sepium (Fabaceae)
Flores,Guillermo; Hilje,Luko; Mora,Gerardo A; Carballo,Manuel;
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2008,
Abstract: bemisia tabaci is an important virus vector on a number of crops worldwide. therefore, a preventive approach to deal with viral epidemics may be the deployment of repellents or phagodeterrents at earlier stages of plant development (critical period). thus, the crude extract and four fractions thereof (water, water:methanol, methanol, and diethyl ether) of mother-of-cocoa (gliricidia sepium, fabaceae) were tested for phagodeterrence to b. tabaci adults under greenhouse conditions, on tomato plants, in costa rica. both restricted-choice and unrestricted-choice experiments showed that the crude extract and some fractions exerted such effect on the insect. in the former (in sleeve cages), three fractions caused deterrence at doses as low as 0.1% (methanol), 0.5% (water:methanol) and 1.5% (diethyl ether). however, in the latter (plants exposed in a greenhouse) no one of the fractions performed well, suggesting that the deterrent principles somehow decomposed under the experimental conditions. rev. biol. trop. 56 (4): 2099-2113. epub 2008 december 12.
Antifeedant activity of botanical crude extracts and their fractions on Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) adults: II. Sechium pittieri (Cucurbitaceae)
Flores,Guillermo; Hilje,Luko; Mora,Gerardo A; Carballo,Manuel;
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2008,
Abstract: bemisia tabaci is a key pest of vegetables and other crops worldwide, but it is a particularly serious problem in the tropics, due to its ability to transmit several types of viruses, especially begomoviruses (geminiviridae). therefore, a preventive approach to deal with viral epidemics may be the deployment of repellents or phagodeterrents at earlier stages of plant development (critical period). thus, the crude extract and four fractions thereof (water, water: methanol, methanol, and diethyl ether) of wild "tacaco" (sechium pittieri, cucurbitaceae), were tested for phagodeterrence to b. tabaci adults under greenhouse conditions, on tomato plants, in costa rica. both restricted-choice and unrestricted-choice experiments showed that the crude extract as well as some fractions exert such effect on the insect. in the former (in sleeve cages), fractions caused deterrence at doses as low as 0.1% (ether) and 0.5% (water and water: methanol), with the methanol fraction showing no activity. however, in the latter (plants exposed in a greenhouse) no one of the fractions performed well, suggesting that the deterrent principles somehow decomposed under the experimental conditions. rev. biol. trop. 56 (4): 2115-2129. epub 2008 december 12.
Antifeedant activity of botanical crude extracts and their fractions on Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) adults: III. Quassia amara (Simaroubaceae)
Flores,Guillermo; Hilje,Luko; Mora,Gerardo A; Carballo,Manuel;
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2008,
Abstract: bemisia tabaci is a key virus vector on several crops worldwide. then, a preventive approach to deal with viral epidemics may be the deployment of repellents or phagodeterrents at earlier stages of plant development (critical period). thus, the crude extract and four fractions thereof (water, water: methanol, methanol, and diethyl ether) of bitterwood (quassia amara, simaroubaceae) were tested for phagodeterrence to b. tabaci adults under greenhouse conditions, on tomato plants, in costa rica. both restricted-choice and unrestricted-choice experiments showed that the crude extract and some fractions exerted such effect on the insect. in the former case (in sleeve cages), all fractions caused deterrence at doses as low as 0.1 % (methanol), 0.5 % (water: methanol and diethyl ether), and 1% (water). in the latter case (plants exposed in a greenhouse) the methanol fraction stood out, followed by the diethyl ether fraction. nonetheless, none of the fractions performed better than the deterrent control (mineral oil). rev. biol. trop. 56 (4): 2131-2146. epub 2008 december 12.
Phagodeterrence by Quassia amara (Simaroubaceae) wood extract fractions on Hypsipyla grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae
Francisco Soto,Luko Hilje,Gerardo A Mora,Manuel Carballo
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2011,
Abstract: In Latin America and the Caribbean, precious wood species like mahoganies (Swietenia spp.) and cedars (Cedrela spp.) are seriously injured by the mahogany shootborer, Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larva, which bores into the main shoot of trees. In previous experiments focused on searching for a preventive method for managing this pest, a wood extract of bitterwood, Quassia amara L. ex Blom (Simaroubaceae) had been shown to cause phagodeterrence to larvae. Therefore, three fractions (water, methanol and diethyl ether) of a wood extract were tested for their phagodeterrence to larvae, by means of laboratory and greenhouse trials. Phagodeterrence was assessed by determining their effect on foliage consumption, mortality and signs of damage (number of orifices, sawdust piles, fallen shoots, number of tunnels and tunnel length) caused by larvae on Spanish cedar (C. odorata). Both the methanol and diethyl ether fractions caused phagodeterrence, by strongly reducing foliage consumption and signs of damage, while not causing larval mortality. The lowest concentration at which phagodeterrence was detected for the methanol fraction corresponded to 0.0625%, which is equivalent to a 1.0% of the bitterwood crude extract. However, results with the diethyl ether fraction were unsatisfactory, as none of the treatments differed from the solvent, possibly because of an adverse effect of the solvent on foliar tissues. Phagodeterrent principles from Q. amara derivatives may play an important role in dealing with H. grandella if they are complemented with other integrated pest management preventative tactics. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (1): 487-499. Epub 2011 March 01. En América Latina y el Caribe, algunas especies que son fuente de maderas preciosas, como las caobas (Swietenia spp.) y cedros (Cedrela spp.), son seriamente da adas por la larva de Hypsipyla grandella, la cual barrena el brote principal de los árboles. En experimentos previos orientados hacia la búsqueda de un método preventivo para manejar esta plaga, un extracto de la madera de hombre grande, Quassia amara (Simaroubaceae), había demostrado causar fagodisuasión a la larva. Por tanto, tres fracciones de un extracto de la madera de dicho árbol (agua, metanol y éter dietílico) fueron evaluadas en cuanto a su efecto fagodisuasivo sobre las larvas, mediante experimentos de laboratorio e invernadero. Dicho efecto se determinó según el consumo de follaje, la mortalidad y los signos de da o (número de orificios, montículos, brotes caídos, número y longitud de túneles) causados por las larvas en ar
Antifeedant activity of botanical crude extracts and their fractions on Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) adults: III. Quassia amara (Simaroubaceae)
Guillermo Flores,Luko Hilje,Gerardo A Mora,Manuel Carballo
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2008,
Abstract: Bemisia tabaci is a key virus vector on several crops worldwide. Then, a preventive approach to deal with viral epidemics may be the deployment of repellents or phagodeterrents at earlier stages of plant development (critical period). Thus, the crude extract and four fractions thereof (water, water: methanol, methanol, and diethyl ether) of bitterwood (Quassia amara, Simaroubaceae) were tested for phagodeterrence to B. tabaci adults under greenhouse conditions, on tomato plants, in Costa Rica. Both restricted-choice and unrestricted-choice experiments showed that the crude extract and some fractions exerted such effect on the insect. In the former case (in sleeve cages), all fractions caused deterrence at doses as low as 0.1 % (methanol), 0.5 % (water: methanol and diethyl ether), and 1% (water). In the latter case (plants exposed in a greenhouse) the methanol fraction stood out, followed by the diethyl ether fraction. Nonetheless, none of the fractions performed better than the deterrent control (mineral oil). Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (4): 2131-2146. Epub 2008 December 12.
Antifeedant activity of botanical crude extracts and their fractions on Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) adults: I. Gliricidia sepium (Fabaceae)
Guillermo Flores,Luko Hilje,Gerardo A Mora,Manuel Carballo
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2008,
Abstract: Bemisia tabaci is an important virus vector on a number of crops worldwide. Therefore, a preventive approach to deal with viral epidemics may be the deployment of repellents or phagodeterrents at earlier stages of plant development (critical period). Thus, the crude extract and four fractions thereof (water, water:methanol, methanol, and diethyl ether) of mother-of-cocoa (Gliricidia sepium, Fabaceae) were tested for phagodeterrence to B. tabaci adults under greenhouse conditions, on tomato plants, in Costa Rica. Both restricted-choice and unrestricted-choice experiments showed that the crude extract and some fractions exerted such effect on the insect. In the former (in sleeve cages), three fractions caused deterrence at doses as low as 0.1% (methanol), 0.5% (water:methanol) and 1.5% (diethyl ether). However, in the latter (plants exposed in a greenhouse) no one of the fractions performed well, suggesting that the deterrent principles somehow decomposed under the experimental conditions. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (4): 2099-2113. Epub 2008 December 12. Mundialmente, Bemisia tabaci es un importante vector de virus en numerosos cultivos. Por tanto, un enfoque preventivo para enfrentar las epidemias virales podría ser el empleo de sustancias repelentes o fagodisuasivas en las etapas tempranas del desarrollo de las plantas (período crítico). Así, tanto el extracto crudo como cuatro fracciones (agua, agua:metanol, metanol y éter dietílico) del madero negro (Gliricidia sepium, Fabaceae) fueron evaluadas en cuanto a su actividad fagodisuasiva sobre los adultos de B. tabaci en condiciones de invernadero, utilizando plantas de tomate, en Turrialba, Costa Rica. Tanto los experimentos de escogencia restringida como los de escogencia irrestricta revelaron que el extracto crudo y algunas fracciones mostraron dicha actividad. En los primeros experimentos (en jaulas de manga), tres fracciones causaron fagodisuasión a dosis tan bajas como 0.1% (metanol), 0.5% (agua:metanol) y 1.5% (éter dietílico). Sin embargo, en los segundos (plantas expuestas dentro de un invernadero) ninguna de las fracciones lo hizo, lo cual sugiere que los principios fagodisuasivos perdieron su actividad en esas condiciones experimentales.
Antifeedant activity of botanical crude extracts and their fractions on Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) adults: II. Sechium pittieri (Cucurbitaceae)
Guillermo Flores,Luko Hilje,Gerardo A Mora,Manuel Carballo
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2008,
Abstract: Bemisia tabaci is a key pest of vegetables and other crops worldwide, but it is a particularly serious problem in the tropics, due to its ability to transmit several types of viruses, especially begomoviruses (Geminiviridae). Therefore, a preventive approach to deal with viral epidemics may be the deployment of repellents or phagodeterrents at earlier stages of plant development (critical period). Thus, the crude extract and four fractions thereof (water, water: methanol, methanol, and diethyl ether) of wild "tacaco" (Sechium pittieri, Cucurbitaceae), were tested for phagodeterrence to B. tabaci adults under greenhouse conditions, on tomato plants, in Costa Rica. Both restricted-choice and unrestricted-choice experiments showed that the crude extract as well as some fractions exert such effect on the insect. In the former (in sleeve cages), fractions caused deterrence at doses as low as 0.1% (ether) and 0.5% (water and water: methanol), with the methanol fraction showing no activity. However, in the latter (plants exposed in a greenhouse) no one of the fractions performed well, suggesting that the deterrent principles somehow decomposed under the experimental conditions. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (4): 2115-2129. Epub 2008 December 12. Bemisia tabaci es una plaga clave de hortalizas y otros cultivos, mundialmente, y representa un problema particularmente serio en los trópicos, debido a su habilidad para transmitir varios tipos de virus, especialmente begomovirus (Geminiviridae). Por tanto, un enfoque preventivo para enfrentar las epidemias virales podría consistir en la utilización de sustancias repelentes o disuasivas en las eta-pas tempranas del desarrollo de la planta (período crítico). Así, el extracto crudo y cuatro fracciones (agua, agua: metanol, metanol, y éter dietílico) de tacaco cimarrón (Sechium pittieri, Cucurbitaceae), fueron evaluadas por su posible actividad fagodisuasiva sobre B. tabaci en un invernadero, utilizando plantas de tomate, en Turrialba, Costa Rica. Tanto los experimentos de escogencia restringida como los de escogencia irrestricta mostraron dicha actividad en el extracto crudo y en algunas de sus fracciones. En el primer tipo de experimento (en jaulas de manga), las fracciones causaron fagodisuasión a dosis tan bajas como 0.1% (éter dietílico) y 0.5% (agua y agua: metanol), mientras que la fracción metanólica no la causó. Sin embargo, en los otros experimentos (plantas expuestas a B. tabaci dentro de un invernadero) ninguna de las fracciones funcionó bien, lo cual sugiere que los principios disuasivos se disiparon bajo esas condici
Biological activity of Ruta chalepensis (Rutaceae) and Sechium pittieri (Cucurbitaceae) extracts on Hypsipyla grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae
Mancebo,Fernando; Hilje,Luko; Mora,Gerardo A.; Castro,Víctor H.; Salazar,Rodolfo;
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2001,
Abstract: biological activity of a plant extract (common rue, ruta chalepensis) and a semi purifíed fraction (from "tacaco cimarrón", sechium pittieri) on mahogany shootborer larvas (hypsipyla grandella) was studied. a randomized complete block design, with four replications, was used. h. grandella third instar larvas were exposed for 24 h to cedrela odorata leaf discs dipped in several treatment dissolutions of each extract (0.1, 0.32, 1.0, 3.20, and 10%); afterwards, each larva was transferred to a flask containing an artificial diet and was allowed to complete its development. variables measured included food consumption (foliar area eaten in 24 h), mortality, and developmental effects (developmental time for each larval instar and the pupa, and pupal weight). the common rue extract showed a clear antifeedant activity at a concentration as low as 0.32%, whereas the "tacaco cimarrón" fraction caused toxicity, especially at the two highest concentrations (3.20 and 10%).
Biological activity of Ruta chalepensis (Rutaceae) and Sechium pittieri (Cucurbitaceae) extracts on Hypsipyla grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae
Fernando Mancebo,Luko Hilje,Gerardo A. Mora,Víctor H. Castro
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2001,
Abstract: Biological activity of a plant extract (common rue, Ruta chalepensis) and a semi purifíed fraction (from "tacaco cimarrón", Sechium pittieri) on mahogany shootborer larvas (Hypsipyla grandella) was studied. A randomized complete block design, with four replications, was used. H. grandella third instar larvas were exposed for 24 h to Cedrela odorata leaf discs dipped in several treatment dissolutions of each extract (0.1, 0.32, 1.0, 3.20, and 10%); afterwards, each larva was transferred to a flask containing an artificial diet and was allowed to complete its development. Variables measured included food consumption (foliar area eaten in 24 h), mortality, and developmental effects (developmental time for each larval instar and the pupa, and pupal weight). The common rue extract showed a clear antifeedant activity at a concentration as low as 0.32%, whereas the "tacaco cimarrón" fraction caused toxicity, especially at the two highest concentrations (3.20 and 10%). Se estudió la actividad biológica de un extracto de follaje de ruda (Ruta chalepensis) y de una fracción semipurificada de "tacaco cimarrón" (Sechium pittieri) sobre las larvas del gusano barrenador de las meliáceas (Hypsipyla grandella). Se utilizó un dise o de bloques completos al azar, con cuatro repeticiones. Durante 24 h se expusieron larvas de tercer estadio de H. grandella a discos de follaje de Cedrela odorata impregnados con cada tratamiento. Estos consistieron en disoluciones de cada extracto (0.1, 0.32, 1.0, 3.20 y 10%); posteriormente cada larva se transfirió a un frasco que contenía dieta artificial, donde se le permitió completar su desarrollo. Las variables de respuesta fueron el consumo de alimento (área foliar comida en 24 h), la mortalidad y efectos sobre el desarrollo (tiempo de desarrollo de cada estadio larval y de la pupa, y el peso de la pupa). El extracto de ruda causó fagodisuasión a una concentración de apenas 0.32%, mientras que la fracción de "tacaco cimarrón" provocó toxicidad especialmente a las dos mayores concentraciones (3.20 y 10%).
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