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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1431 matches for " Lukas Novotny "
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Optical Measurement of the Phase-Breaking Length in Graphene
Luiz Gustavo Cancado,Ryan Beams,Lukas Novotny
Physics , 2008,
Abstract: This paper reports the experimental determination of the phase-breaking length L of conduction electrons in graphene using Raman spectroscopy. Based on the double-resonance model, we extract L from the spatial dependence of the D band susceptibility near the graphene edge. By using prior knowledge of sample properties and the excitation point-spread function we are able to determine the spatial variation of the Raman susceptibilities with high accuracy, and the results reveal a phase-breaking length L~40nm near the graphene edge.
Electrical excitation of surface plasmons
Palash Bharadwaj,Alexandre Bouhelier,Lukas Novotny
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.106.226802
Abstract: We exploit a plasmon mediated two-step momentum downconversion scheme to convert low-energy tunneling electrons into propagating photons. Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) propagating along an extended gold nanowire are excited on one end by low-energy electron tunneling and are then converted to free-propagating photons at the other end. The separation of excitation and outcoupling proofs that tunneling electrons excite gap plasmons that subsequently couple to propagating plasmons. Our work shows that electron tunneling provides a non-optical, voltage-controlled and low-energy pathway for launching SPPs in nanostructures, such as plasmonic waveguides
Graphene Transfer with Reduced Residue
Michael Her,Ryan Beams,Lukas Novotny
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1016/j.physleta.2013.04.015
Abstract: We present a new transfer procedure for graphene using acetic acid, which removes the residue that is common in standard acetone treatments. Post-transfer samples cleaned with acetic acid and acetone were characterized using Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy for comparison. We further illustrate the quality of our transfer process by using fluorescence quenching to create an optical map of surface contaminants.
Controllable Optical Negative Refraction and Phase Conjugation in Graphene
Hayk Harutyunyan,Ryan Beams,Lukas Novotny
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1038/nphys2618
Abstract: The development of optical metamaterials has resulted in the demonstration of remarkable physical properties, including cloaking, optical magnetism, and negative refraction. The latter has attracted particular interest, mainly because of its promise for super-resolution imaging. In recent years, negative refraction has been demonstrated with plasmonic materials and nonlinear discrete elements. However, the widespread use of negative refraction at optical frequencies is limited by high losses and strong dispersion effects, which typically limits operation to narrow frequency bands. Here we use degenerate four-wave mixing (d-4WM) to demonstrate controllable negative refraction at a graphene interface, which acts as a highly efficient phase-conjugating surface. The scheme has very low loss because of the very small thickness of the nonlinear material and it ensures broadband operation due to the linear bandstructure of graphene.
Thermal nonlinearities in a nanomechanical oscillator
Jan Gieseler,Lukas Novotny,Romain Quidant
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1038/nphys2798
Abstract: Nano- and micromechanical oscillators with high quality (Q) factors have gained much attention for their potential application as ultrasensitive detectors. In contrast to micro-fabricated devices, optically trapped nanoparticles in vacuum do not suffer from clamping losses, hence leading to much larger Q-factors. We find that for a levitated nanoparticle the thermal energy suffices to drive the motion of the nanoparticle into the nonlinear regime. First, we experimentally measure and fully characterize the frequency fluctuations originating from thermal motion and nonlinearities. Second, we demonstrate that feedback cooling can be used to mitigate these fluctuations. The high level of control allows us to fully exploit the force sensing capabilities of the nanoresonator. Our approach offers a force sensitivity of 20 zN $Hz^{-1/2}$, which is the highest value reported to date at room temperature, sufficient to sense ultra-weak interactions, such as non-Newtonian gravity-like forces.
Optical Measurement of the Phase-Breaking Length in Graphene
Ryan Beams,Luiz Gustavo Can?ado,Lukas Novotny
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1021/nl104134a
Abstract: In mesoscopic physics, interference effects play a central role on the transport properties of conduction electrons, giving rise to exotic phenomena such as weak localization, Aharonov-Bohm effect, and universal conduction fluctuations. Mesoscopic objects have a size on the order of the {\em phase-breaking length} $L_{\phi}$, the length conduction electrons travel while keeping phase coherence. In this letter, we use vibrational spectroscopy in combination with a novel optical defocusing method to measure $L_{\phi}$ of photo-excited electrons in graphene which undergo inelastic scattering by optical phonons. We extract $L_{\phi}$ from the spatial confinement of the defect-induced Raman D band near the edges of graphene. Temperature dependent measurements in the range of 1.55\,K to 300\,K yield $L_{\phi} \propto 1/\sqrt{T}$, in agreement with previous magneto-transport measurements.
Stokes--anti-Stokes Correlations in Raman Scattering from Diamond Membranes
Mark Kasperczyk,Ado Jorio,Elke Neu,Patrick Maletinsky,Lukas Novotny
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: We investigate the arrival statistics of Stokes (S) and anti-Stokes (aS) Raman photons generated in diamond membranes. Strong quantum correlations between the S and aS signals are observed, which implies that the two processes share the same phonon, that is, the phonon excited by the S process is consumed in the aS process. We show that the intensity cross-correlation $g_{\rm S,aS}^{(2)}(0)$, which describes the simultaneous detection of Stokes and anti-Stokes photons, decreases steadily with laser power as $1/{\rm P_L}$. Contrary to many other material systems, diamond exhibits a maximum $g_{\rm S,aS}^{(2)}(0)$ at very low pump powers, implying that the Stokes-induced aS photons outnumber the thermally generated aS photons. On the other hand, the coincidence rate shows a quadratic plus cubic power dependence, which indicates a departure from the Stokes-induced anti-Stokes process.
Nonlinear mode-coupling and synchronization of a vacuum-trapped nanoparticle
Jan Gieseler,Marko Spasenovic,Lukas Novotny,Romain Quidant
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.103603
Abstract: We study the dynamics of a laser-trapped nanoparticle in high vacuum. Using parametric coupling to an external excitation source, the linewidth of the nanoparticle's oscillation can be reduced by three orders of magnitude. We show that the oscillation of the nanoparticle and the excitation source are synchronized, exhibiting a well-defined phase relationship. Furthermore, the external source can be used to controllably drive the nanoparticle into the nonlinear regime, thereby generating strong coupling between the different translational modes of the nanoparticle. Our work contributes to the understanding of the nonlinear dynamics of levitated nanoparticles in high vacuum and paves the way for studies of pattern formation, chaos, and stochastic resonance.
Non-equilibrium steady state of a driven levitated particle with feedback cooling
Jan Gieseler,Lukas Novotny,Clemens Moritz,Christoph Dellago
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1088/1367-2630/17/4/045011
Abstract: Laser trapped nanoparticles have been recently used as model systems to study fundamental relations holding far from equilibrium. Here we study, both experimentally and theoretically, a nanoscale silica sphere levitated by a laser in a low density gas. The center of mass motion of the particle is subjected, at the same time, to feedback cooling and a parametric modulation driving the system into a non-equilibrium steady state. Based on the Langevin equation of motion of the particle, we derive an analytical expression for the energy distribution of this steady state showing that the average and variance of the energy distribution can be controlled separately by appropriate choice of the friction, cooling and modulation parameters. Energy distributions determined in computer simulations and measured in a laboratory experiment agree well with the analytical predictions. We analyse the particle motion also in terms of the quadratures and find thermal squeezing depending on the degree of detuning.
Theory of spatial coherence in near-field Raman scattering
Luiz Gustavo Can?ado,Ryan Beams,Ado Jorio,Lukas Novotny
Physics , 2014,
Abstract: A theoretical study describing the coherence properties of near-field Raman scattering in two- and one-dimensional systems is presented. The model is applied to the Raman modes of pristine graphene and graphene edges. Our analysis is based on the tip-enhanced Raman scheme, in which a sharp metal tip located near the sample surface acts as a broadband optical antenna that transfers the information contained in the spatially-correlated (but non-propagating) near-field to the far-field. The dependence of the scattered signal on the tip-sample separation is explored, and the theory predicts that the signal enhancement depends on the particular symmetry of a vibrational mode. The model can be applied to extract of the correlation length $L_{\rm c}$ of optical phonons from experimentally recorded near-field Raman measurements. Although the coherence properties of optical phonons have been broadly explored in the time and frequency domains, the spatially-resolved approach presented here provides an alternative probe for the study of local material properties at the nanoscale.
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