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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 61113 matches for " Luis Antonio Mariscal Amaro "
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Selección de genotipos de avena para la identificación de razas de roya del tallo Selection of oat genotypes for the identification of stem rust races
Luis Antonio Mariscal Amaro,Julio Huerta Espino,Héctor Eduardo Villase?or Mir,Santos Gerardo Leyva Mir
Revista mexicana de ciencias agrícolas , 2011,
Abstract: La identificación de razas fisiológicas de Puccinia graminis f. sp. avenae al usar diferenciales, es importante en los programas de mejoramiento genético de avena, para obtener genotipos resistentes a roya del tallo y conocer la evolución y dispersión regional del patógeno. En 2008-2009 en los invernaderos del CIMMYT, El Batán, México, se probaron 50 aislamientos monopustulares de P. graminis f. sp. avenae en 24 genotipos de avena (Avena sativa L.), con el objetivo de determinar la diversidad del patógeno en muestras recolectadas en seis estados de México y conocer si estos genotipos podían ser utilizados como plantas diferenciales. Los genotipos Avemex, Obsidiana, Papigochi, Diamante, Rarámuri, Chihuahua y el Progenitor 7, expresaron diferentes tipos de infección y se pueden usar como diferenciales para estudiar la diversidad del patógeno y la prevalencia de razas. Al usar estas diferenciales se encontraron 24 razas diferentes del patógeno. Esto permite concluir que existe gran variabilidad genética del hongo en las regiones muestreadas. Se observó que ante los aislamientos probados las variedades Agata, Avena desnuda, Menonita y Saia, mostraron el mayor nivel de resistencia; y los progenitores 11, 12 y 13, y las variedades 12, 14, 27, 28, 36, 43 y 44 tuvieron buen nivel de resistencia, por lo que pueden ser utilizados como progenitores en futuros planes de cruzamientos. Identification of physiological races of Puccinia graminis f. sp. avenae using differentials, is important in oat's genetic improvement programs, in order to obtain resistance to stem rust and learn about evolution and regional spread of the pathogen. In 2008-2009, in greenhouses of CIMMYT, El Batan, Mexico, 50 monopustule isolates of P. graminis f. sp. avenae were tested in 24 genotypes of oat (Avena sativa L.), in order to determine the pathogen diversity in samples collected in six states of Mexico and see if these genotypes could be used as differential plants. Genotypes Avemex, Obsidiana, Papigochi, Diamante, Raramuri, Chihuahua and Progenitor 7, expressed different types of infection and can be used as differentials to study pathogen diversity and races prevalence. Using these differentials, 24 different races of the pathogen were found. This leads to the conclusion that there is great genetic variability of the fungus in the sampled regions. Against isolates tested, it was noted that Agata, Avena desnuda, Menonita and Saia varieties, showed the highest resistance level and progenitors 11, 12 and 13 and varieties 12, 14, 27, 28, 36, 43 and 44 had good resistance level, so they ca
Prueba de similitud en genes con resistencia a roya del tallo en genotipos de avena Test of similarity in genes with resistance to stem rust in oat genotypes
Luis Antonio Mariscal Amaro,Julio Huerta Espino,Héctor Eduardo Villase?or Mir,Santos Gerardo Leyva Mir
Revista mexicana de ciencias agrícolas , 2010,
Abstract: La roya del tallo causada por Puccinia graminis Pers. f. sp. Avenae, es considerada el factor biótico que más afecta al cultivo de avena (Avena sativa L.), disminuyendo el rendimiento y peso de grano en variedades susceptibles, en 75% y 60%, respectivamente. La estrategia que más ha apoyado al control de esta enfermedad es el uso de variedades resistentes, requiriéndose constantemente de fuentes de resistencia. La forma cómo opera la resistencia y los genes que están confiriéndola en el germoplasma de avena se desconoce; de tal modo, que es necesario hacer más estudios sobre número y similitud de genes así como de su forma de acción. El objetivo del estudio fue determinar la similitud y el número de genes de resistencia en planta adulta y plántula, en familias F3 de cruzas entre seis progenitores de avena, moderadamente resistentes a roya del tallo; por su importancia para los programas de mejoramiento como fuentes de resistencia, mediante el análisis de las progenies derivadas de las cruzas entre ellos desde 2006 a 2009. En estado de plántula en invernadero, los progenitores por separado tuvieron lecturas de 0, ";", y 1, indicando su resistencia ante el aislamiento PgaMex99.13. Las familias F3 de todas las cruzas no segregaron familias susceptibles, indicando que estos seis progenitores poseen un gen en común confiriendo resistencia contra el aislamiento probado. En campo, aún con inoculaciones del mismo aislamiento, las familias en todas las cruzas mostraron diferentes niveles de infección, algunos mayores a 60% indicando la incidencia de otras razas distintas a la inoculada, para las cuales el gen de resistencia en común en los progenitores no fue efectivo. The stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis Pers. f. sp. Avenae is considered the biotic factor that affects the most to oat cultivation (Avena sativa L.), decreasing yield and grain weight in susceptible varieties, in 75% and 60%, respectively. The strategy that has supported control of this disease is the use of resistant varieties, constantly requiring of resistance sources. The way resistance works, and the genes that give it to oat germoplasm, is still unknown; then is necessary to make more studies about number and similarity of genes as well as in their activity. The aim of the study was to determine similarity and number of resistance genes in mature plant and seedlings, in families F3 of crosses between oat parents, moderately resistant to stem rust; due their importance for the programs of improvement as resistance sources, by means of analysis of the derived progenies of cross between the
Genética de la resistencia a roya de la hoja (Puccinia triticina E.) en líneas elite de trigo duro
Luis Antonio Mariscal Amaro,Santos G. Leyva Mir,Julio Huerta Espino,Eduardo Villaseu00F1or Mir
Revista fitotecnia mexicana , 2007,
Abstract: Para determinar la genética de la resistencia en tres genotipos de trigo duro (Triticum turgidum var. durum) resistentes a la raza BBG/BN de roya de la hoja (Puccinia triticina E.), se hicieron cruzas de genotipos susceptible x resistentes y resistentes x resistentes, al usar como susceptible a Atil C2000 . La segregación de las progenies en la generación F3 indicó que los genotipos resistentes Syria 1740 y CMH82A.1062 poseen dos genes dominantes complementarios (1:8:7) que condicionan la resistencia. La segregación de una familia resistente, dos familias segregantes, una familia susceptible (1:2:1) en el cultivar Creso indicó que la resistencia fue conferida por un gen dominante. En las cruzas resistentes x resistentes se observó que en "Syria 1740" x "Creso" y "Creso" x "CMH82A.1062", las proporciones de cada cruza se ajustaron a la proporción fenotípica 63:1, que indica que la resistencia está condicionada por tres genes dominantes independientes en ambos casos, lo que sugiere que los genes de ambos progenitores segregaron independientemente en cada cruza. Tanto 2Syria 1740" como "CMH82A.1062" al ser cruzados con "Atil C2000" exhibieron dos genes dominantes complementarios que condicionan la resistencia. Por la ausencia de familias homocigóticas susceptibles en la cruza de "Syria 1740" x "CMH82A.1062", se infiere que los genes que poseen ambos progenitores son los mismos.
Control químico de las enfermedades: una alternativa para la producción de trigo de temporal en Tlaxcala Chemical control of diseases: an alternative for rainfall wheat production in Tlaxcala
Héctor Eduardo Villase?or Mir,René Hortelano Santa Rosa,Eliel Martínez Cruz,Luis Antonio Mariscal Amaro
Revista mexicana de ciencias agrícolas , 2012,
Abstract: Con el propósito de valorar la conveniencia de aplicar fungicida para mejorar la productividad del trigo harinero y cristalino cuando incide la roya amarilla y el complejo de enfermedades foliares bajo condiciones de temporal, se establecieron en tres localidades del estado de Tlaxcala las variedades Gema C2004 y Tlaxcala F2000. Las variables analizadas fueron días a floración y a madurez, altura de planta, rendimiento de grano, incidencia de roya amarilla en el follaje y en la espiga e incidencia y severidad de enfermedades foliares. En las tres localidades la variedad de trigo harinero Tlaxcala F2000 superó en rendimiento de grano a la variedad de trigo cristalino Gema C2004 de 9% hasta 46%. Las enfermedades en su conjunto causaron mermas en el rendimiento hasta 26%. Sportak fue el fungicida que se asoció con el mejor control de las enfermedades, lo cual se reflejó en una mayor productividad de grano con incrementos promedios 26.5 y 29.4%, cuando incidió roya amarilla y enfermedades foliares, respectivamente. Los resultados indican que es conveniente la aplicación de fungicida para reducir mermas en la producción de trigo de temporal. With the aim to evaluate convenience of applying fungicide to improve productivity of flour wheat and white wheat when there is incidence of yellow rust and complex of foliar diseases under rainfall conditions, varieties Gema C2004 and Tlaxcala F2000 were settled in three localities from state of Tlaxcala. Analyzed variables were days to flowering and to maturity, plant height, grain yield, incidence of yellow rust in foliage and in ear and incidence and severity of foliar diseases. In the three localities the flour wheat Tlaxcala F2000 variety overcame from 9% to 40% in grain yield to white wheat Gema C2004 variety. The diseases together caused decrease in yield up to 26%. Sportak was the fungicide associated with better disease control, which was seen in greater grain yield with average increases of 26.5 and 29.4% when yellow rust and foliar diseases affected, respectively. The results denote fungicide application to reduce decreases in rainfall wheat production is convenient.
Control químico de las enfermedades: una alternativa para la producción de trigo de temporal en Tlaxcala
Villase?or Mir, Héctor Eduardo;Santa Rosa, René Hortelano;Martínez Cruz, Eliel;Mariscal Amaro, Luis Antonio;Leyva Mir, Santos Gerardo;Huerta Espino, Julio;
Revista mexicana de ciencias agrícolas , 2012,
Abstract: with the aim to evaluate convenience of applying fungicide to improve productivity of flour wheat and white wheat when there is incidence of yellow rust and complex of foliar diseases under rainfall conditions, varieties gema c2004 and tlaxcala f2000 were settled in three localities from state of tlaxcala. analyzed variables were days to flowering and to maturity, plant height, grain yield, incidence of yellow rust in foliage and in ear and incidence and severity of foliar diseases. in the three localities the flour wheat tlaxcala f2000 variety overcame from 9% to 40% in grain yield to white wheat gema c2004 variety. the diseases together caused decrease in yield up to 26%. sportak? was the fungicide associated with better disease control, which was seen in greater grain yield with average increases of 26.5 and 29.4% when yellow rust and foliar diseases affected, respectively. the results denote fungicide application to reduce decreases in rainfall wheat production is convenient.
Selección de genotipos de avena para la identificación de razas de roya del tallo
Mariscal Amaro, Luis Antonio;Huerta Espino, Julio;Villase?or Mir, Héctor Eduardo;Leyva Mir, Santos Gerardo;Sandoval Islas, José Sergio;Benítez Riquelme, Ignacio;
Revista mexicana de ciencias agrícolas , 2011,
Abstract: identification of physiological races of puccinia graminis f. sp. avenae using differentials, is important in oat's genetic improvement programs, in order to obtain resistance to stem rust and learn about evolution and regional spread of the pathogen. in 2008-2009, in greenhouses of cimmyt, el batan, mexico, 50 monopustule isolates of p. graminis f. sp. avenae were tested in 24 genotypes of oat (avena sativa l.), in order to determine the pathogen diversity in samples collected in six states of mexico and see if these genotypes could be used as differential plants. genotypes avemex, obsidiana, papigochi, diamante, raramuri, chihuahua and progenitor 7, expressed different types of infection and can be used as differentials to study pathogen diversity and races prevalence. using these differentials, 24 different races of the pathogen were found. this leads to the conclusion that there is great genetic variability of the fungus in the sampled regions. against isolates tested, it was noted that agata, avena desnuda, menonita and saia varieties, showed the highest resistance level and progenitors 11, 12 and 13 and varieties 12, 14, 27, 28, 36, 43 and 44 had good resistance level, so they can be used as progenitors in future crosses plans.
Identificación del Cornezuelo (Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul.) del Trigo (Triticum aestivum L.) en el Municipio de Nanacamilpa, Tlaxcala, México
Leyva-Mir, Santos Gerardo;Hernández-Bautista, Aurelio;Mariscal- Amaro, Luis Antonio;Villase?or-Mir, Héctor Eduardo;Huerta-Espino, Julio;
Revista mexicana de fitopatología , 2010,
Abstract: c. purpurea is the fungus causing the disease called "ergot of wheat" and can affect the yield until 40 %. in the region of nanacamilpa, tlaxcala, suspects the presence of c. purpurea; in addition, by the sclerotia size its believes that could be c. gigantea. some authors argue that for an early diagnosis and differentiation of these two pathogens, the sclerotia size at an early age is a distinctive feature. by extraction of dna and amplification of the its region (internal transcribed spacer), was proved that size is not a distinctive feature for the separation of these two pathogens, besides was observed that the fungus in the region may reach a greater early sclerotia size than average mentioned in the literature. finally it was confirmed the presence of c. purpurea in the town of nanacamilpa, tlaxcala.
Prueba de similitud en genes con resistencia a roya del tallo en genotipos de avena
Mariscal Amaro, Luis Antonio;Huerta Espino, Julio;Villase?or Mir, Héctor Eduardo;Leyva Mir, Santos Gerardo;Sandoval Islas, Sergio;Benítez Riquelme, Ignacio;
Revista mexicana de ciencias agrícolas , 2010,
Abstract: the stem rust caused by puccinia graminis pers. f. sp. avenae is considered the biotic factor that affects the most to oat cultivation (avena sativa l.), decreasing yield and grain weight in susceptible varieties, in 75% and 60%, respectively. the strategy that has supported control of this disease is the use of resistant varieties, constantly requiring of resistance sources. the way resistance works, and the genes that give it to oat germoplasm, is still unknown; then is necessary to make more studies about number and similarity of genes as well as in their activity. the aim of the study was to determine similarity and number of resistance genes in mature plant and seedlings, in families f3 of crosses between oat parents, moderately resistant to stem rust; due their importance for the programs of improvement as resistance sources, by means of analysis of the derived progenies of cross between them from 2006 to 2009. in greenhouse seedling state, the parents, considering each one apart, had readings of 0, ";", and 1, indicating their resistance to isolation pgamex99.13. the families f3 of all breeds didn't segregate susceptible families, indicating that these six parents have a gene in common conferring resistance against tested isolation. in field, even with inoculations of same isolation, the families in all breeds showed different infection levels, some above at 60% indicating the incidence of other breeds different to the one inoculated, for which the resistance gene common in the parents was not effective.
Evaluación bajo condiciones de temporal de variedades de trigo macarronero generadas para riego
Villase?or Mir, Héctor Eduardo;Limón Ortega, Agustín;Rodríguez García, María Florencia;Martínez Cruz, Eliel;Santa Rosa, René Hortelano;Mariscal Amaro, Luis Antonio;
Revista mexicana de ciencias agrícolas , 2011,
Abstract: in order to know the possibilities of producing crystalline wheat with good yields and quality in rainfed areas of high valleys of mexico, an experiment was established in four different production environments, where wheat varieties topacio c98, júpare c2001 and gema c2004 were tested and compared with bread wheat varieties rebeca f2000 and tlaxcala f2000, which were developed for rainfed conditions; genotypes were evaluated with and without fungicide application. the results indicate that the bread wheat varieties overcame for its agronomic and yield characteristics to the durum wheat in all the testing sites, obtaining higher yields up to 20% (1 200 kg ha-1). bread wheat had higher yields and was the best option in evaluated favorable production environments and the best alternative in critical environments. due to its agronomic performance and yield, júpare c2001 was the durum wheat with better response and adaptation in the tested environments. the industrial quality of durum wheat in any condition, allowed obtaining suitable semolina for the manufacture of good quality products, but its production under rainfed conditions could be an alternative for using it as a flour mixtures improver.
Genética de la resistencia a roya del tallo (Puccinia graminis f. sp. avenae Erikss. & Henning) en tres genotipos de avena (Avena sativa L.)
Mariscal-Amaro, L. Antonio;Huerta-Espino, Julio;Villase?or-Mir, H. Eduardo;Leyva-Mir, S. Gerardo;Sandoval-Islas, J. Sergio;Benítez-Riquelme, Ignacio;
Agrociencia , 2009,
Abstract: the genetics of resistance to stem rust was determined in three resistant oat genotypes (karma, avemex and calandria) by analysis of progenies derived from their crosses with the susceptible varieties chihuahua and opalo. segregation in the f3 generations of karma progeny was adjusted to two dominant complementary genes (1:8:7, for resistant, segregating and susceptible). for avemex, the phenotypic ratio for the same generations was 1:2:1 indicating the presence of a dominant gene. the calandria progeny segregated in the phenotypic proportion of 3:1 of resistant and susceptible, which indicates that in this progenitor one dominant gene confers resistance.
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