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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2595 matches for " Luigi Scipione "
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L'unificazione nazionale e l’eccezionalità italiana / The National Unification and the Italian Exception
Guarracino, Scipione
Storicamente , 2011,
Efficient Electrochemical N-Alkylation of N-Boc-Protected 4-Aminopyridines: Towards New Biologically Active Compounds
Marta Feroci,Isabella Chiarotto,Gianpiero Forte,Giovanna Simonetti,Felicia Diodata D'Auria,Louis Maes,Daniela De Vita,Luigi Scipione,Laura Friggeri,Roberto Di Santo,Silvano Tortorella
ISRN Organic Chemistry , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/621592
Abstract: The use of electrogenerated acetonitrile anion allows the alkylation of N-Boc-4-aminopyridine in very high yields, under mild conditions and without by-products. The high reactivity of this base is due to its large tetraethylammonium counterion, which leaves the acetonitrile anion “naked.” The deprotection of the obtained compounds led to high yields in N-alkylated 4-aminopyridines. Nonsymmetrically dialkylated 4-aminopyridines were obtained by subsequent reaction of monoalkylated ones with t-BuOK and alkyl halides, while symmetrically dialkylated 4-aminopyridines were obtained by direct reaction of 4-aminopyridine with an excess of t-BuOK and alkyl halides. Some mono- and dialkyl-4-aminopyridines were selected to evaluate antifungal and antiprotozoal activity; the dialkylated 4-aminopyridines 3ac, 3ae and 3ff showed antifungal towards Cryptococcus neoformans; whereas 3cc, 3ee and 3ff showed antiprotozoal activity towards Leishmania infantum and Plasmodium falciparum. 1. Introduction N-Alkylated 4-aminopyridine is a common moiety in biologically active molecules. It is present, in fact, in compounds with different activities such as inhibitors of p38 MAP kinase [1], inhibitors of HIV-EP1 cellular transcription factor [2], inhibitors of coagulation Factor Xa [3], and -chemokine receptor CCR5 antagonists in anti-HIV therapy [4]; in particular we have focused our work on the development of new CYP51 inhibitors, active both on fungal strains [5] and Trypanosoma Cruzi [6]. Many literature data evidenced that the pyridine group can efficaciously replace the heme-iron chelating azole moiety present in classical azole CYP51 inhibitors and, therefore, the alkylation of 4-aminopyridine (4AP) represents an important goal in organic synthesis to develop novel classes of antifungal and antiparasitic drugs [7, 8]. Due to the wide presence of these products, the alkylation of 4-aminopyridine (4AP) is therefore an important goal in organic synthesis. Different approaches to obtain N-alkylated 4-aminopyridines have been reported in the literature. Some examples are the efficient condensation of 4AP with alcohols catalyzed by benzaldehyde [9] or copper [10, 11] or magnetite [12], the reaction of 4AP with an acyl chloride, and the following reduction of the amide with LiAlH4 [13]. The most straightforward method, however, is the direct alkylation of 4AP with alkyl halides, although it suffers from some drawbacks. The two different nitrogen atoms compete in the alkylation reaction and usually the more nucleophilic pyridine nitrogen atom reacts faster, leading to the
DANTE’s Medical Knowledge: The Case of INFERNO, Canto XXX  [PDF]
Luigi Roffi
Advances in Historical Studies (AHS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ahs.2018.71002

The Divine Comedy, by Dante Alighieri, describes an imaginative journey in afterlife. In Hell, canto XXX, Dante meets the falsifiers and sees a man who has the shape of a lute, a rotting face, and an abdomen bloated by “dropsy”. This horribly deformed sinner is Master Adam, who counterfeited Florentine money, and for this crime was burned at the stake. Previous critics had ascribed Master Adam’s punishment to various real or imaginary diseases, but an alternative possibility is that it may represent one of the most ancient, yet accurate, descriptions of tense ascites in the literature.

Supporting Rights Clearance for Digitisation Projects with the ARROW Service
Nuno Freire,Gabriella Scipione,Markus Muhr,Andreas Juffinger
Liber Quarterly : The Journal of European Research Libraries , 2013,
Abstract: The process of clearing the rights situation of a work for digitisation is very difficult to be performed for works that have been published during the 20th and 21st centuries. Although libraries hold materials of public interest, which should be made digitally available to a broader public, legal issues make it necessary to determine their exact copyright status before a library can digitise it. One of the major challenges in rights clearance is the significant fragmentation of rights information across multiple data sources, some of which are not remotely accessible. This makes the rights clearance process very demanding and expensive for libraries. Large-scale digitisation projects can digitise thousands of books per week, and therefore there is a significant need to develop faster ways to clear the copyright status of the books. In the ARROW and ARROW Plus projects (Accessible Registries of Rights Information and Orphan Works), a single framework is being established to combine and access rights information. It proposes to create a seamless service across a distributed network of national databases containing information that will assist in determining the rights status of works. Its goal is to support mass digitisation projects by finding automated ways to clear the rights of the books to be digitised. This paper describes the ARROW service from the perspective of libraries undertaking digitisation projects. It presents the complete ARROW workflow, how national bibliographies are used in ARROW, and the services that ARROW offers particularly for libraries.
Security Engineering of SOA Applications Via Reliability Patterns  [PDF]
Luigi Coppolino, Luigi Romano, Valerio Vianello
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2011.41001
Abstract: Providing reliable compositions of Web Services is a challenging issue since the workflow architect often has only a limited control over the reliability of the composed services. The architect can instead achieve reliability by properly planning the workflow architecture. To this end he must be able to evaluate and compare the reliability of multiple architectural solutions. In this paper we present a useful tool which allows to conduct reliability analysis on planned workflows, as well as to compare the reliability of alternative solutions in a what-if analysis. The tool is implemented as a plug-in for the widely adopted Active BPEL Designer and exploits the concept of reliability pattern to evaluate the reliability formula of the workflow. The effectiveness of the approach and the operation of the tool are demonstrated with respect to a case study of a business security infrastructure realized by orchestrating simple security services.
Altruism, Selfishness and Social Cohesion  [PDF]
Antonio Luigi Paolilli
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2011.14018
Abstract: Recently has been shown that, given certain conditions, altruism can prevail in a population even without the help of mechanisms as kin selection, reciprocal altruism and group selection. At the light of this hypothesis, it is shown how altruism and cooperative aptitudes can favor the concentration of a population and how an (incomplete) evolution of altruism, caused by group selection, into the Benthamian form, determining the emergence of sentiments and behaviors, such as a sense of justice, as well as envy and gossip, can lead to the formation of a regulated society. From this standpoint, altruism leads to group selection, and not the contrary.
Clinical, radiological and histological diagnoses of periapical periodontitis spreading to the adjacent tooth: A case of endodontic failure  [PDF]
Luigi Cianconi, Manuele Mancini
Open Journal of Stomatology (OJST) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojst.2013.35048

Aims: This article describes the apical infection in endodontically treated tooth 4.5 that spread to adjacent tooth 4.4. Case Report: A 52-year-old woman was referred for the presence of radiolucency extending from tooth 4.5 and mental foramen. Spontaneous symptoms were present. Tooth 4.5 showed poor-quality endodontics. The vitality of tooth 4.4 was negative, even though no mechanical trauma had been reported, nor was caries present. Both teeth were sensitive to percussion. Endodontic re-treatment of 4.5 and endodontic treatment of 4.4 were performed in a single visit. A large amount of endodontic sealer squeezed mesially from the root of tooth 4.5, where a partial horizontal root fracture was hypothesized. 6-, 12-, and 18-month radiographic follow-ups, by both periapical and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) analyses, showed incomplete osseous healing. CBCT excluded root fracture on 4.5. Local symptoms were still present. Clinical and radiological conditions led to extractions, and a cystic lesion was enucleated for histopathologic analyses. Histopathologic diagnosis was a periapical cyst. The supposed partial horizontal root fracture of 4.5 was actually a large lateral canal. Although the root canal treatments followed high standards in terms of quality, a persistent chronic infection developed histologically. The cystic lesion was one consistent reason for the unsuccessful healing of 4.5.

Learning from experience: A simple effective protocol to test footwear prescriptions for the Diabetic foot by using the Pedar system  [PDF]
Claudia Giacomozzi, Luigi Uccioli
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2013.65A008

Adherence of patients to treatment and appropriateness of prescribed footwear are mandatory for successful prevention of Diabetic foot ulceration. In a Public Healthcare Service, footwear approval is under the responsibility of the clinician. In some cases kinetic measurements are taken inside the shoes to support the clinical decision; however, an overall agreement is still missing with respect to a simple, reliable and effective test protocol based on proper threshold values. Authors’ past experiences, specific needs of the Diabetic outpatient service, and suggestions from valuable literature led to an instrumental test protocol based on reference peak pressure (PP) thresholds and gait line (GL) specific for each level of risk. Permission was obtained for one preliminary validation session at the Authors’ outpatient service, during which 11 patients at high/very high risk of ulceration were examined—9 for testing new footwear, 2 for monitoring 12-month-old footwear. The protocol was well accepted by patients and operators, fast and easy to be used. Based on the instrumental, clinical and visual inspection data; 4 new footwear did not pass the test; 5 passed the test but integration or minor changes were requested; the 2 old footwear were found no more effective. As a first positive feedback, after 4 months of wearing the modified prescriptions none of the patients had developed plantar ulcers or signs of tissue damage. Successive data processing proved that in all patients altered PPs and deviated GLs did correlate with alterations of other kinetic parameters. The protocol, which is proved to be sensitive and valuable for the Diabetic foot care, may have a general validity; the delivered specific PP thresholds and reference data, instead, can be reliably used if the test is performed with a calibrated Pedar Insole System and with the wide Insoles in the range UW-YW (EU size 36 - 45).

SEM evaluation of apical intraradicular dentine cleanliness and degree of erosion after the application of three irrigating solutions  [PDF]
Manuele Mancini, Luigi Cianconi
Open Journal of Stomatology (OJST) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojst.2013.32030

Aims: The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of 37% phosphoric acid, 12% nitric acid, 17% EDTA in endodontic smear layer removal and degree of erosion in the apical third of endodontic canals. Methods and Material: One hundred and four extracted single-rooted human teeth were randomized into four groups (n = 26) and instrumented using ProTaper Universal Ni-Ti rotary instruments. Each canal was irrigated with one of the following solutions: 37% phosphoric acid, 12% nitric acid, 17% EDTA, 5.25% NaOCl (control). All specimens were then irrigated with 5 mL distilled water and dried with sterile paper points. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-WhitneyU statistical tests were used. Results: Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) evaluation showed no significant differences among test reagents in smear layer removal. However, the efficacy of 12% nitric acid and 17% EDTA in removing the smear layer was significantly greater than 5.25% NaOCl (control). Degree of erosion could not be evaluated. Conclusion: Protocols used in this study were not sufficient to completely remove the smear layer in the apical third of shaped root canals.

Economic and Cultural Peripheralization in the Eurozone  [PDF]
Antonio Luigi Paolilli
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2014.41006

In this paper, we will discuss the reasonableness of the decision by Italy and other southern and western EU states to become members of the eurozone. We will also discuss whether this economic choice can be socially and culturally sustainable in a Europe characterized by cultures which, despite their shared substratum, are in competition with each other.

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