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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2651 matches for " Luigi Ferrucci "
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Comparison of the Cosmed K4b2 Portable Metabolic System in Measuring Steady-State Walking Energy Expenditure
Jennifer A. Schrack,Eleanor M. Simonsick,Luigi Ferrucci
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009292
Abstract: Recent introduction of the Cosmed K4b2 portable metabolic analyzer allows measurement of oxygen consumption outside of a laboratory setting in more typical clinical or household environments and thus may be used to obtain information on the metabolic costs of specific daily life activities. The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of the Cosmed K4b2 portable metabolic analyzer against a traditional, stationary gas exchange system (the Medgraphics D-Series) during steady-state, submaximal walking exercise.
A cost-minimization analysis of diuretic-based antihypertensive therapy reducing cardiovascular events in older adults with isolated systolic hypertension
G John Chen, Luigi Ferrucci, William P Moran, Marco Pahor
Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1478-7547-3-2
Abstract: Using the Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program (SHEP) and other data, a cost-minimization analysis was performed. The cost was presented as the cost of number-needed-to treat (NNT) of patients for 5 years to prevent one adverse event associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD).It was found that the cost of 5 year NNT to prevent one adverse CVD event ranged widely from $6,843 to $37,408 in older patients with ISH. The incremental cost of the 5 year NNT was lower to treat older patients in the very high CVD risk group relative to patients in the lower CVD risk group, ranging from $456 to $15,511. Compared to the cost of the 5 year NNT of other commonly prescribed antihypertensive drugs, the cost of SHEP-based therapy is the lowest. The incremental costs of the 5 year NNT would be higher if other agents were used, ranging from $6,372 to $38,667 to prevent one CVD event relative to SHEP-based drug therapy.Antihypertensive therapy that is diuretic-based and that includes either low-dose reserpine or atenolol is an effective and relatively inexpensive strategy to prevent cardiovascular events in older adults with isolated systolic hypertension. Use of the diuretic-based therapy is the most cost-effective in patients at high risk for developing cardiovascular disease.Hypertension is among the most common chronic conditions in middle-aged and older adults. Approximately 50 million Americans are currently diagnosed with this condition, and more than $18.7 billion is spent on hypertension management, including $3.8 billion for medications[1].Treatment of hypertension can significantly decrease the risk of developing CVD [2,3]. The SHEP and other studies have demonstrated the great potential of antihypertensive treatments to significantly reduce the number of cardiovascular events in elderly patients [4-10]. This, in turn, may reduce the costs associated with this chronic condition. Based on the SHEP study, it is estimated that 24,000 strokes, 44,000 major cardiovascu
Phalli and bacula of European Dormice: description and comparison
Shimon Simson,Luigi Ferrucci,Cengiz Kurtonur,Beytullah ?zkan
Hystrix : the Italian Journal of Mammalogy , 1995, DOI: 10.4404/hystrix-6.1-2-4035
Abstract: We examined the glans penis of 34 adult specimens belonging to five genera and six species of Myoxidae. Three measurements of phalli and 11 measurements of bacula were taken and nine ratios were calculated. The baculum of Myoxidae is simple and in all the species studied is fully expressed at the tip of the phallus and, excluding Muscardinus, lies beneath cavernous tissue. In Myoxus, the baculum is triangular, wide and flat and evident interpopulational variability is existing: North Italian specimens display shape differences in comparison with South Italian and Thracian populations. The baculum of Dryomys is relatively thick, wide on the base and narrow at the shaft. There are differences in size between Thracian and Israeli populations of Dryomys nitedula. The baculum of Muscardinus is short and thin, with a small base; the phallus is tubelike and shorter than the baculum. The baculum of Myomimus is very short and robust, with a relatively wide base; the phallus, in contrast to other species, has no pad-like structure. The baculum of Eliomys differs from that of Dryomys and resembles more that of Myoxus, being more curved, more triangular and flat in shape, with widening in the middle. There are marked differences between bacula of E. quercinus and E. melanurus. A cluster analysis showed high affinities between Myoxus and Eliomys, as well as Myomimus and Dryomys, reflecting possible phylogenetic relationships. Riassunto Falli e bacula di Mioxidi europei; descrizione e comparazione - è stato esaminato il glans penis di 34 esemplari adulti appartenenti a cinque generi e sei specie di Myoxidae. Sono state rilevate tre misurazioni sul fallo, undici sul baculum e nove rapporti. Il baculum dei Myoxidae è semplice e in tutte le specie studiate è situato nella parte terminale del fallo e, tranne che nel moscardino, giace sotto il tessuto cavernoso. Il baculum di Myoxus è triangolare, ampio ed appiattito; è presente una evidente variabilità tra popolazioni. Esemplari dell'Italia settentrionale mostrano differenze nella forma del baculum rispetto a popolazioni dell'Italia meridionale e della Tracia. I1 baculum di Dryomys è relativamente spesso, ampio alla base e sottile nella parte terminale. Esistono differenze nelle dimensioni tra popolazioni di Dryomys nitedula della Tracia e di Israele. II baculum di Muscardinus è corto, sottile, con una piccola base; il fallo è tubulare e più corto del baculum. Il baculum di Myomimus è molto corto, robusto, con una base relativamente ampia; il fallo, contrariamente alle altre specie, è privo di protuberanze. Il b
Progression Analysis and Stage Discovery in Continuous Physiological Processes Using Image Computing
Shamir Lior,Rahimi Salim,Orlov Nikita,Ferrucci Luigi
EURASIP Journal on Bioinformatics and Systems Biology , 2010,
Abstract: We propose an image computing-based method for quantitative analysis of continuous physiological processes that can be sensed by medical imaging and demonstrate its application to the analysis of morphological alterations of the bone structure, which correlate with the progression of osteoarthritis (OA). The purpose of the analysis is to quantitatively estimate OA progression in a fashion that can assist in understanding the pathophysiology of the disease. Ultimately, the texture analysis will be able to provide an alternative OA scoring method, which can potentially reflect the progression of the disease in a more direct fashion compared to the existing clinically utilized classification schemes based on radiology. This method can be useful not just for studying the nature of OA, but also for developing and testing the effect of drugs and treatments. While in this paper we demonstrate the application of the method to osteoarthritis, its generality makes it suitable for the analysis of other progressive clinical conditions that can be diagnosed and prognosed by using medical imaging.
Sex-Specific Gait Patterns of Older Adults with Knee Osteoarthritis: Results from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging
Seung-uk Ko,Eleanor M. Simonsick,Liz M. Husson,Luigi Ferrucci
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/175763
Abstract: Men and women exhibit different gait patterns during customary walking and may respond differently to joint diseases. The present paper aims to identify gait patterns associated with knee-OA separately in men and women. Participants included 144 men and 124 women aged 60 years and older enrolled in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) who underwent gait testing at a self-selected speed. Both men and women with knee-OA had lower ankle propulsion mechanical work expenditure (MWE; <.001 for both) and higher hip generative MWE (<.001) compared to non-OA controls. Women with knee-OA had a higher BMI (=.008), slower gait speed (=.049), and higher knee frontal-plane absorbing MWE (=.007) than women without knee-OA. These differences were not observed in men. Understanding sex-specific differences in gait adaptation to knee-OA may inform the development of appropriate strategies for early detection and intervention for knee-OA in men and women.
Elevated Serum Carboxymethyl-Lysine, an Advanced Glycation End Product, Predicts Severe Walking Disability in Older Women: The Women's Health and Aging Study I
Kai Sun,Richard D. Semba,Linda P. Fried,Debra A. Schaumberg,Luigi Ferrucci,Ravi Varadhan
Journal of Aging Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/586385
Abstract: Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of sarcopenia. Our aim was to characterize the relationship between serum carboxymethyl-lysine (CML), a major circulating AGE, and incident severe walking disability (inability to walk or walking speed < 0 . 4 ?m/sec) over 30 months of followup in 394 moderately to severely disabled women, ≥ 6 5 years, living in the community in Baltimore, Maryland (the Women’s Health and Aging Study I). During followup, 154 (26.4%) women developed severe walking disability, and 23 women died. Women in the highest quartile of serum CML had increased risk of developing of severe walking disability in a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model, adjusting for age and other potential confounders. Women with elevated serum CML are at an increased risk of developing severe walking disability. AGEs are a potentially modifiable risk factor. Further work is needed to establish a causal relationship between AGEs and walking disability. 1. Introduction Mobility difficulties are common among older adults and are associated with poor quality of life [1], increased need for care, and are predictive of death [2–4]. Understanding the processes that lead to disability is important in order to develop strategies to prevent or delay disability in older adults. Lifestyle factors that may influence the pathway to disability include diet. Diet has been incompletely characterized in relation to the development of disability. Recent studies suggest that advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which are active biomolecules formed by the non-enzymatic covalent binding of sugars with proteins and other molecules, may be related to muscle strength and physical performance [5, 6]. The western diet is high in AGEs, which are formed in high concentrations in foods that are prepared at high temperatures. Thus, some foods are considered an important exogenous source of AGEs. AGEs are thought to be absorbed in the process of digestion, circulate in the blood, and can be deposited in different organs and tissues [7]. Sarcopenia, or loss of muscle strength and muscle mass, is an important factor underlying mobility difficulties such as slow walking speed in older adults [8]. Older adults have increased cross-linking of collagen and deposition of AGEs in skeletal muscle [9]. In aging animals, cross-linking of collagen is associated with increased muscle stiffness, reduced muscle function [10, 11], and accumulation of AGEs [12]. AGEs may also play a role in sarcopenia through upregulation of inflammation and endothelial
Plasma BDNF Is Associated with Age-Related White Matter Atrophy but Not with Cognitive Function in Older, Non-Demented Adults
Ira Driscoll, Bronwen Martin, Yang An, Stuart Maudsley, Luigi Ferrucci, Mark P. Mattson, Susan M. Resnick
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0035217
Abstract: Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) seems to be involved in regulation of synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis. BDNF plasma and serum levels have been associated with depression, Alzheimer's disease, and other psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. In a community sample, drawn from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA), we examined whether BDNF plasma concentration was associated with rates of age-related change in cognitive performance (n = 429) and regional brain volume (n = 59). Plasma BDNF levels, which were significantly higher in females (p<0.05), were not associated with either concurrent cognitive performance or rates of age-related change in performance across cognitive domains (p's>0.05). Sex differences in the relationship between BDNF and the trajectories of regional brain volume changes were observed for the whole brain and frontal white matter volumes (p<0.05), whereby lower plasma BDNF was associated with steeper volume decline in females but not males. Together, our findings contribute to furthering the understanding of the relationships between plasma BDNF, structural brain integrity and cognition. Potential mechanisms mediating these relationships merit further investigation.
Progression Analysis and Stage Discovery in Continuous Physiological Processes Using Image Computing
Lior Shamir, Salim Rahimi, Nikita Orlov, Luigi Ferrucci, Ilya G Goldberg
EURASIP Journal on Bioinformatics and Systems Biology , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/107036
Abstract: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a highly prevalent chronic clinical condition that limits mobility and causes substantial disability in late life [1]. It is estimated that of the population over the age of 65 have radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis [2], and given the increasing longevity in the industrialized world the prevalence of osteoarthritis is expected to increase further in the developed countries. While OA is one of the most prevalent diseases in the industrialized world, the physiological mechanisms of OA are poorly understood [3]. Yet, due to the increasing prevalence of knee osteoarthritis and its consequent effects on functional limitation and general life quality at older ages, there is a growing need for scientific tools that can be reliably used to study the mechanisms of OA.The presence and progression of osteoarthritis is usually evaluated by trained radiologists, who read knee X-rays and score them by using the standard Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) system [4, 5]. The KL classification scheme is a validated method for classifying individual joints into one of five grades, with 0 representing healthy joints, 1 representingdoubtful OA, 2 representingmild OA, 3moderate OA, and 4 being the most severe radiographic disease. This classification is based on features ofosteophytes (bony growths adjacent to the joint space),narrowing of part or all of the tibial-femoral joint space, andsclerosis of the subchondral bone, which reflect the progression of the disease. Figure 1 shows four knee X-rays of KL grades 0 (normal), 1 (doubtful), 2 (mild), and 3 (moderate).It should be noted that while the Kellgren-Lawrence classification is the most commonly used classification scheme, there is no scientific evidence that the KL system provides an accurate direct assessment of the progression of OA [6, 7]. This downside of the KL classification scheme limits its potential as an objective tool that can be used to directly study the mechanisms and nature of OA, as well as assess
Genome-wide association analysis of total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels using the Framingham Heart Study data
Li Ma, Jing Yang, H Runesha, Toshiko Tanaka, Luigi Ferrucci, Stefania Bandinelli, Yang Da
BMC Medical Genetics , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2350-11-55
Abstract: Single-locus effects and pairwise epistasis effects of 432,096 SNP markers were tested for their significance on log-transformed TC and HDL-C levels. Twenty nine additive SNP effects reached single-locus genome-wide significance (p < 7.2 × 10-8) and no dominance effect reached genome-wide significance. Two new gene regions were detected, the RAB3GAP1-R3HDM1-LCT-MCM6 region of chr02 for TC identified by six new SNPs, and the OSBPL8-ZDHHC17 region (chr12) for HDL-C identified by one new SNP. The remaining 22 single-locus SNP effects confirmed previously reported genes or gene regions. For TC, three SNPs identified two gene regions that were tightly linked with previously reported genes associated with TC, including rs599839 that was 10 bases downstream PSRC1 and 3.498 kb downstream CELSR2, rs4970834 in CELSR2, and rs4245791 in ABCG8 that slightly overlapped with ABCG5. For HDL-C, LPL was confirmed by 12 SNPs 8-45 kb downstream, CETP by two SNPs 0.5-11 kb upstream, and the LIPG-ACAA2 region by five SNPs inside this region. Two epistasis effects on TC and thirteen epistasis effects on HDL-C reached the significance of "suggestive linkage". The most significant epistasis effect (p = 5.72 × 10-13) was close to reaching "significant linkage" and was a dominance × dominance effect of HDL-C between LMBRD1 (chr06) and the LRIG3 region (chr12), and this pair of gene regions had six other D × D effects with "suggestive linkage".Genome-wide association analysis of the FHS data detected two new gene regions with genome-wide significance, detected epistatic SNP effects on TC and HDL-C with the significance of suggestive linkage in seven pairs of gene regions, and confirmed some previously reported gene regions associated with TC and HDL-C.Total cholesterol (TC) is related to coronary diseases and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) cholesterol is anti-atherogenic. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and human genetic studies have identified a number of genes and gene regions affec
Personality, Metabolic Rate and Aerobic Capacity
Antonio Terracciano, Jennifer A. Schrack, Angelina R. Sutin, Wayne Chan, Eleanor M. Simonsick, Luigi Ferrucci
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0054746
Abstract: Personality traits and cardiorespiratory fitness in older adults are reliable predictors of health and longevity. We examined the association between personality traits and energy expenditure at rest (basal metabolic rate) and during normal and maximal sustained walking. Personality traits and oxygen (VO2) consumption were assessed in 642 participants from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Results indicate that personality traits were mostly unrelated to resting metabolic rate and energy expenditure at normal walking pace. However, those who scored lower on neuroticism (r = ?0.12) and higher on extraversion (r = 0.11), openness (r = 0.13), and conscientiousness (r = 0.09) had significantly higher energy expenditure at peak walking pace. In addition to greater aerobic capacity, individuals with a more resilient personality profile walked faster and were more efficient in that they required less energy per meter walked. The associations between personality and energy expenditure were not moderated by age or sex, but were in part explained by the proportion of fat mass. In conclusion, differences in personality may matter the most during more challenging activities that require cardiorespiratory fitness. These findings suggest potential pathways that link personality to health outcomes, such as obesity and longevity.
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