Abstract:
Algebraic contraction is proposed to realize mappings between models Hamiltonians. This transformation contracts the algebra of the degrees of freedom underlying the Hamiltonian. The rigorous mapping between the anisotropic $XXZ$ Heisenberg model, the Quantum Phase Model, and the Bose Hubbard Model is established as the contractions of the algebra $u(2)$ underlying the dynamics of the $XXZ$ Heisenberg model.

Abstract:
In recent years quantum statistical mechanics have benefited of cultural interchanges with quantum information science. There is a bulk of evidence that quantifying the entanglement allows a fine analysis of many relevant properties of many-body quantum systems. Here we review the relation between entanglement and the various type of magnetic order occurring in interacting spin systems.

Abstract:
We consider several models of interacting bosons in a one dimensional lattice. Some of them are not integrable like the Bose-Hubbard others are integrable. At low density all of these models can be described by the Bose gas with delta interaction. The lattice corrections corresponding to the different models are contrasted.

Abstract:
We construct models describing interaction between a spin $s$ and a single bosonic mode using a quantum inverse scattering procedure. The boundary conditions are generically twisted by generic matrices with both diagonal and off-diagonal entries. The exact solution is obtained by mapping the transfer matrix of the spin-boson system to an auxiliary problem of a spin-$j$ coupled to the spin-$s$ with general twist of the boundary condition. The corresponding auxiliary transfer matrix is diagonalized by a variation of the method of $Q$-matrices of Baxter. The exact solution of our problem is obtained applying certain large-$j$ limit to $su(2)_j$, transforming it into the bosonic algebra.

Abstract:
We evaluate correlation functions of the BCS model for finite number of particles. The integrability of the Hamiltonian relates it with the Gaudin algebra ${\cal G}[sl(2)]$. Therefore, a theorem that Sklyanin proved for the Gaudin model, can be applied. Several diagonal and off-diagonal correlators are calculated. The finite size scaling behavior of the pairing correlation function is studied.

Abstract:
We review the exact treatment of the pairing correlation functions in the canonical ensemble. The key for the calculations has been provided by relating the discrete BCS model to known integrable theories corresponding to the so called Gaudin magnets with suitable boundary terms. In the present case the correlation functions can be accessed beyond the formal level, allowing the description of the cross-over from few electrons to the thermodynamic limit. In particular, we summarize the results on the finite size scaling behavior of the canonical pairing clarifying some puzzles emerged in the past. Some recent developments and applications are outlined.

Abstract:
We discuss the thermal entanglement close to a quantum phase transition by analyzing the concurrence for one dimensional models in the quantum Ising universality class. We demonstrate that the entanglement sensitivity to thermal and to quantum fluctuations obeys universal $T\neq 0$--scaling behaviour. We show that the entanglement, together with its criticality, exhibits a peculiar universal crossover behaviour.

Abstract:
We develop a time-dependent mean field approach, within the time-dependent variational principle, to describe the Superfluid-Insulator quantum phase transition. We construct the zero temperature phase diagram both of the Bose-Hubbard model (BHM), and of a spin-S Heisenberg model (SHM) with the XXZ anisotropy. The phase diagram of the BHM indicates a phase transition from a Mott insulator to a compressibile superfluid phase, and shows the expected lobe-like structure. The SHM phase diagram displays a quantum phase transition between a paramagnetic and a canted phases showing as well a lobe-like structure. We show how the BHM and Quantum Phase model (QPM) can be rigorously derived from the SHM. Based on such results, the phase boundaries of the SHM are mapped to the BHM ones, while the phase diagram of the QPM is related to that of the SHM. The QPM's phase diagram obtained through the application of our approach to the SHM, describes the known onset of the macroscopic phase coherence from the Coulomb blockade regime for increasing Josephson coupling constant. The BHM and the QPM phase diagrams are in good agreement with Quantum Monte Carlo results, and with the third order strong coupling perturbative expansion.

Abstract:
We calculate exactly matrix elements between states that are not eigenstates of the quantum XY model for general anisotropy. Such quantities therefore describe non equilibrium properties of the system; the Hamiltonian does not contain any time dependence. These matrix elements are expressed as a sum of Pfaffians. For single particle excitations on the ground state the Pfaffians in the sum simplify to determinants.

Abstract:
The progress achieved in micro-fabricating potential for cold atoms has defined a new field in quantum technology - Atomtronics - where a variety of 'atom circuits' of very different spatial shapes and depth have been devised for atom manipulation, with a precision that nowadays is approaching that of lithographic techniques. Atomtronic setups are characterized by enhanced flexibility and control of the fundamental mechanisms underlying their functionalities and by the reduced decoherence rate that is typical of cold-atom systems. Such an approach is expected to be instrumental for the realization of quantum devices of a radically new type and, at the same time, to enlarge the scope of cold atom quantum simulators. In this article we give a short overview of the field and draw a roadmap for potential future directions.