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OALib Journal期刊

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L’école de Bologne passée au crible
Francesca Lui
CeROArt : Conservation, Exposition, Restauration d'Objets d'Art , 2012,
Abstract: Dès 1796, Bologne, la deuxième capitale de l’état de l’église, est bouleversée par l’occupation napoléonienne, qui aura beaucoup de conséquences sur l’imposant patrimoine artistique de la ville. Plusieurs documents d’archives témoignent des mesures de sauvegarde et de restauration de ce précieux patrimoine prises par l’Académie Clémentine, chargée de sa conservation. By 1796, Bologna, the second capital of the Papal State, was unsettled by the events of the Napoleonic occupation, which had many implications for the impressive artistic heritage of the town. Several archival records document the measures taken in the city to protect and restore its precious heritage by the Accademia Clementina, appointed to watch over it.
Screening for Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Hock-Foong Lui
International Journal of Hepatology , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/363151
Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most serious complications of chronic liver disease and is the third most lethal cancer worldwide. Symptoms emerge very late in the course of its natural history with an attendant poor outcome. Screening is of paramount importance in a successful strategy to treat hepatocellular carcinoma. A successful screening program rests the availability of an at-risk population, reliable diagnostics tests that are able to diagnose a condition at a stage where effective, and relatively simple and acceptable treatments are available. In hepatocellular carcinoma, all patients with liver cirrhosis or chronic hepatitis B virus infection are at risk. Six monthly ultrasound and alpha-foetoprotein determination form the backbone of the screening program. Newer modalities and tests show promise but have not supplanted the standard tests.
Recently published papers: Heavyweight problems in the intensive care unit?
Lui G Forni
Critical Care , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/cc7138
Abstract: Thou seest I have more flesh than another man, and therefore more frailty.(William Shakespeare)The imbalance between the haves and the have nots is no more striking than when one considers nutrition. Obesity is an increasing problem in most of the western world with approaching 300 million people being classified as obese, whereas starvation affects almost one-half of the global population. Indeed, the obesity epidemic is highlighted here in the United Kingdom, where over the period between 1980 and 1997 the obesity rates in adults trebled [1]. As a consequence we are often faced with the management of such patients in our intensive care units (ICUs) and their inherent problems. Obese patients are viewed as more complex to manage for a variety of reasons: they are difficult to intubate, difficult to ventilate, difficult to wean, difficult to move – the list goes on. And on. But are these generalisations justified in the majority of cases? Two studies reported recently in Intensive Care Medicine add more weight to the arguments against such views [2,3].In the study by Sakr and colleagues, the European observational Sepsis Occurrence in Acutely Ill Patients study database was interrogated to examine the effect of body mass index (BMI) on morbidity and mortality outcomes [2]. Patients were stratified as underweight (BMI < 18.5), normal weight (BMI 18.5 to 24.9), overweight (BMI 25 to 29.9), obese (BMI 30 to 39.9) and very obese (BMI ≥ 40). BMI data were available from 91% of the cohort, with 53.9% being classed as overweight or greater and 2.8% classed as very obese. The results make interesting reading. There was no association between increased mortality and obesity. There was, however, an increase in morbidity with a trend towards longer length of stay, both in the ICU and in the hospital, between the normal weight groups and the very obese patients. Similarly, those patients with higher BMI showed an increase in ICU-acquired infections. The authors do point out the
Recently published papers: Delivery, volume and outcome – what is best for our patient?
Lui G Forni
Critical Care , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/cc6082
Abstract: "Nothing is permanent but change"Heraclitus, circa 500 BCFor those of us practicing in the United Kingdom, the National Health Service is approaching its 60th birthday and, far from being pensioned off, there is much political will to change the way healthcare is being delivered in a radical fashion. This reinvention of the National Health Service is being applied across the board, including the critical care arena, and an often-used phrase is that of 'reconfiguration' of services. This will probably lead, in time, to fewer critical care units in England and to more patients being transferred between hospitals.Two papers published in Critical Care Medicine therefore make interesting reading for those of us swept up in this maelstrom. Golestanian and colleagues performed a cohort observational study examining the effects of interhospital transfers on resource utilisation and outcomes at a tertiary care referral centre in the USA [1]. They compared patients transferred from other hospitals with those admitted 'in-house' from the A&E department or the wards. The patients transferred had higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation III scores (60.5 versus 49.7), higher intensive care unit (ICU) mortality (14% versus 8%) and higher hospital mortality (22% versus 14%). The length of stay was also longer in terms of both ICU bed days and hospital bed days. These results are in keeping with several other studies [2,3]. When stratified by disease severity using the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation III model, however, the crude mortality differences were less striking, with no statistical differences observed. What did remain significantly different was the cost of treatment. On average, a patient transferred to the ICU from outside the institution cost about $10,000 more per admission. Somewhat surprisingly, this difference was principally confined to the group with the lowest predicted mortality – the reasons for which remain unclear. Does this mean t
Recently published papers: changing practices in the modern intensive care unit
Lui G Forni
Critical Care , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/cc2169
Abstract: Sir Francis Bacon, 1561–1626One always reviews the journals in January with some trepidation. Wading through the instructions for authors (a problem not encountered with the electronic press!), one is worried that the scientific literature may need resuscitating from the post-holiday somnolence. Fortunately, 2003 has been greeted with a fanfare of important papers in the critical care press, not least in the shape of some well conducted observational studies. Those involved in the intensive care arena often find themselves making difficult decisions, including that of cessation of therapy or, indeed, whether to admit a particular patient to the intensive care unit (ICU). The latter dilemma often causes much debate between clinicians. Two studies were published in Critical Care Medicine that may help in determining patient selection.The study by Benoit and coworkers [1] attempted to assess outcome and early prognostic indicators in a global population of patients with haematological malignancies following admission to intensive care. This is a group of patients in which resistance among intensivists to admission is often encountered, despite the undoubted improvements in treatment of both solid tumours and haematological malignancies. This study from Belgium examined 124 consecutive critically ill patients admitted to the ICU over a 3.5-year period. The overall ICU mortality rate was 42%. The in-hospital mortality rate was 54% and the 6-month mortality rate was 66%. This somewhat flies in the face of other studies, which have suggested mortality rates of 75–85% in patients with haematological malignancies who require mechanical ventilation.The usual statistical models of multivariable logistic regression analysis were applied to the data and four variables were independently associated with outcome. It is worth noting that no patient with oliguria survived, but oliguria was not included in the multivariable analysis. Leukopenia, use of vasopressors and an elevated ur
Working memory and inattentive behaviour in a community sample of children
Mariko Lui, Rosemary Tannock
Behavioral and Brain Functions , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1744-9081-3-12
Abstract: Children completed 2 clinical (laboratory-based) measures of WM (auditory-verbal and visual-spatial) and a measure of real-life WM, designed specifically for this study, while their parents completed questionnaires about their child's inattentive behaviour and other areas of functioning.Findings indicated that poorer performance on WM tasks predicted inattentive behaviour.These results are consistent with previous research linking WM deficits and poor attention in ADHD and normal populations. The present findings support a controlled attention model of WM.Working memory (WM) is a cognitive processing resource of limited capacity that allows the temporary storage of information while simultaneously processing the same or other information. Performance on WM measures correlates with performance on higher-order cognitive tasks involving reading comprehension, reasoning, and complex learning [1]. A well-known model of WM is Baddeley and Hitch's model [2,3], in which WM is comprised of two separate systems for the temporary storage of verbal information ('phonological loop') and visual-spatial information ('visuo-spatial sketchpad') and a 'central executive' as a control mechanism that manipulates the information in active storage in order to perform complex cognitive tasks. Many other theoretical perspectives on WM exist [4], but one area of general agreement is the distinction between processes involving storage (e.g., short-term memory; STM) and those involving greater cognitive control (e.g., central executive).The controlled attention view of WM, proposed by Engle and his colleagues [5], is another model of WM that consists of STM and executive-attention components (consistent with Baddeley and Hitch's storage and central executive). However, instead of emphasizing how large the STM store or WM capacity (i.e., how much WM can hold), the controlled attention perspective views information maintenance in the presence of interference as a critical control function of WM
Entre crentes e pag?os: ensino religioso em S?o Paulo
Lui, Janayna de Alencar;
Cadernos de Pesquisa , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-15742007000200006
Abstract: the article seeks to reflect upon the strategies pursued by the actors involved in the process of introducing religious education in public schools in the state of s?o paulo, focusing the relationships instituted within the field under study. by analyzing the interpretation of the national education guidelines (act n. 9.394/96) and the subsequent changes in its article 33 by act n. 947/97, some issues in volving the selection of curricular contents as well as teachers' training and formation appear as hints to understand the positioning of the groups in volved. the participation on those groups, such as the religious education council of s?o paulo, the association of religious teachers of s?o paulo, the s?o paulo state education secretariat and the state education council, allows understanding the constitution of this disputed field as consequence of the adoption of this discipline in public schools.
Testing the hypothesis of the Earth's magnetosphere behaving like an avalanching system
A. T. Y. Lui
Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics (NPG) , 2004,
Abstract: The global auroral dissipation power as observed by the imager on the Polar spacecraft is used as a proxy for the power dissipation of the Earth's magnetosphere to examine whether or not the magnetosphere is an avalanching system. It is found that the probability density distributions for the area and power of auroral activity sites have a power law component within a finite scale range, suggestive of a scale-free nature in this finite-size system. This property is robust, prevailing with variations in the threshold used to define auroral activity sites and in the strength of the external driver, namely, the solar wind. The statistical characteristics on the temporal evolution of auroral sites are then examined, which leads to a criterion that can be used to predict about 42min in advance the total energy dissipation during the lifetime of an auroral activity site. The scale-free characteristics of auroral activity appears to be an intrinsic feature of the magnetosphere based on a comparison of the probability density distribution in the total auroral brightness power with that of the solar wind power input parameters in the same period as the auroral observations. These results are consistent with the hypothesis of the magnetosphere behaving like an avalanching system.
Time development of electric fields and currents in space plasmas
A. T. Y. Lui
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2006,
Abstract: Two different approaches, referred to as Bu and Ej, can be used to examine the time development of electric fields and currents in space plasmas based on the fundamental laws of physics. From the Bu approach, the required equation involves the generalized Ohm's law with some simplifying assumptions. From the Ej approach, the required equation can be derived from the equation of particle motion, coupled self-consistently with Maxwell's equation, and the definition of electric current density. Recently, some strong statements against the Ej approach have been made. In this paper, we evaluate these statements by discussing (1) some limitations of the Bu approach in solving the time development of electric fields and currents, (2) the procedure in calculating self-consistently the time development of the electric current in space plasmas without taking the curl of the magnetic field in some cases, and (3) the dependency of the time development of magnetic field on electric current. It is concluded that the Ej approach can be useful to understand some magnetospheric problems. In particular, statements about the change of electric current are valid theoretical explanations of change in magnetic field during substorms.
RanGTPase: A Key Regulator of Nucleocytoplasmic Trafficking
Ki Lui,Ying Huang
Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology , 2009,
Abstract: RanGTPase belongs to the Ras superfamily of small GTPases. It possesses a distinctive acidic C-terminal DEDDDL motif and predominantly localizes to the nucleus. RanGTPase is known to regulate nucleocytoplasmic trafficking as well as mitotic spindle and nuclear envelope formation. Ran-directed nucleocytoplasmic trafficking is an energy-dependent directional process that also depends on nuclear import or export signals. Ran-directed nucleocytoplasmic trafficking is also facilitated by several cellular components, including RanGTPase, karyopherins, NTF2 and nucleoporins. GTP-bound Ran is asymmetrically distributed in the nucleus, while GDP-bound Ran is predominantly cytoplasmic. Controlled by RanGEF and RanGAP, RanGTPase cycles between the GDP- and GTP-bound states enabling it to shuttle cargoes in an accurate spatial and temporal manner. RanGTPase plays a role in the nuclear import in such a way that GTP-bound Ran dissociates importin:cargo complex in the nucleus and recycles importin back to cytoplasm. Likewise, RanGTPase plays a role in the nuclear export in such a way that nuclear GTP-bound Ran triggers the aggregation of Ran:exportin:cargo trimeric complex which is then transported to cytoplasm while hydrolysis of RanGTP to RanGDP releases the export cargoes in cytoplasm. RanGTPase has been reported to be essential for cell viability and its over-expression is linked to tumorigenesis. Thus, RanGTPase plays a crucial role in regulating key cellular events and alterations in its expression may lead to cancer development and/or progression.
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