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HIV as a chronic disease considerations for service planning in resource-poor settings
Lucy Reynolds
Globalization and Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1744-8603-7-35
Abstract: In 2009, an estimated 33.3 million [31.4 million-35.3 million] people were living with HIV, according to UNAIDS[1]. With successful antiretroviral treatment, life expectancy for people living with HIV (PLHIV) can be restored to near normal: thus HIV has latterly been transformed into a manageable chronic illness, compatible with fairly good health, lifestyle and economic participation. Most countries now have from a few to many thousands of their population maintained with chronic HIV infection on antiretroviral treatment (ART). This situation already causes some significant challenges, which will increase as the ongoing spread of HIV adds to the caseload. Much has been written about the need to introduce and scale-up antiretroviral treatment to prevent deaths from AIDS. Much less has been said about planning for the situation when PLHIV have been stabilised on treatment so that their immunity is largely restored and they can resume familial and social roles, although a number of important medical and social issues emerge at this stage. This paper aims to raise awareness of some of the key questions for health ministries and governments.As HIV prevalence continues to rise through the roll-out of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) to minimise mortality, there will be escalating stress on health provision. Once HAART has transformed HIV from an acute to a chronic illness, patients must be supported in adhering to treatment so that they do not accumulate resistant virus which can once again impair immunity and result in acute illness from opportunistic infections. Further, because chronic HIV infection results in various forms of organ damage, and because PLHIV are as vulnerable to unconnected illnesses as other people, it is also essential to ensure their access to general health facilities. The main barrier is the attitude of health workers: they may be afraid of HIV infection, and may stigmatise patients known or thought to carry it. Irrational fears and d
Organised crime and the efforts to combat it: a concern for public health
Lucy Reynolds, Martin McKee
Globalization and Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1744-8603-6-21
Abstract: The conceptualisation of health determinants has expanded greatly over recent decades, moving upstream from the causes of ill health, such as smoking or obesity, to the "causes of the causes" [1]. This has been accompanied by a recognition of the health consequences of policies in other sectors, now cast as "Health in all policies"[2] and operationalised in health impact assessment [3]. These changes have led to a burgeoning literature on the health consequences of upstream determinants such as transport, environmental, and agricultural policies. This broader view has paid too little attention to one important area of government policy, that relating to income generation by criminal organisations. What attention has been paid has, rightly, addressed the alleviation of suffering among those affected but it has yet to move upstream to address the phenomenon of organised crime and the disease burden it generates.Furthermore, where the public health community has become engaged, it has been by groups working in silos isolated from each other, such as those concerned about the victims of trafficking or the effects of cigarette smuggling, but not addressing the fact that many of those these apparently disparate activities are controlled by the same people. We contend that organised crime is a neglected contributor to avoidable ill health that deserves greater attention from public health professionals.Organized crime was characterised, in 1994, as:"group organization to commit crime; hierarchical links or personal relationships which permit leaders to control the group: violence, intimidation and corruption used to earn profits or control territories or markets; laundering of illicit proceeds both in furtherance of criminal activity and to infiltrate the legitimate economy; the potential for expansion into any new activities and beyond national borders; and cooperation with other organized transnational criminal groups." [4]It is increasingly global. Although links betwee
Essential Maternal and Newborn Care Skills Training for Midwives: Their Impact on Reducing Maternal and Neonatal Mortalities in Kenya  [PDF]
Lucy Gitonga
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2016.61009
Abstract: Continuing professional development (CPD) continues to gain acceptance as a model for health care professionals to engage in lifelong learning. Little is known about how CPD participants put the experience and the new knowledge into practice and whether it has impact on patient care outcomes. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of CPD of Midwives on Essential Maternal and Newborn care skills on maternal and neonatal mortality in Embu County, Kenya. The study was an interventional non-randomized pretest post test study design of midwives from the participants of the 2010 ministry of health training on essential maternal and newborn care skills. Sixty (60) midwives working in maternity unit of Embu level five hospitals were targeted. The study was carried out in two phases. Phase one involved environmental scanning of the factors that support good performance in the workplace using a questionnaire. Phase two involved evaluation of the impact by testing a hypotheses using data collected by use of questionnaires, evaluation checklist and chart audit. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis and presented using percentages and frequency tables. Chi-square test and correlation analysis were used to show the association between variables, which are midwives essential maternal and newborn care skills and maternal and neonatal mortality. A chi-square χ2 = 14.143, df = 9 and a coefficient = 0.357. This coefficient is less than p-value at Alpha 0.05 and therefore is not significant, proving that the essential maternal and neonatal care skills do not contribute to reduction in mortalities as such two variables are almost independent of each other, whether one exists does not necessitate the existence of another nor does it reduce maternal and neonatal mortalities in Kenya.
Positive Psychology in the Elementary Classroom: The Influence of Strengths-Based Approaches on Children’s Self-Efficacy  [PDF]
Rod Galloway, Bronwyn Reynolds
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.39003

Despite the positive psychology movement being relatively young and academic research is still building in this area, there is growing confidence that identifying and developing children’s strengths could have profound long-term learning benefits. The intended outcome of this investigation is to contribute to the knowledge base about learning success when children’s emerging preferences, passions and abilities are recognized and developed. This paper explores the foundations of strengths-based approaches for education and presents the findings of a case study that suggests strengths-based approaches have a positive effect on student self-efficacy.

Boobs Out! A Perspective on Fashion, Sexuality and Equality  [PDF]
Sarah E. Reynolds
Art and Design Review (ADR) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/adr.2017.52009
Abstract: Society is facing many challenges currently with uncertainty about the implications for the economy (including the fashion industry) and equality of issues such as Brexit and the rise of the Right. This article takes the opportunity to survey current fashion trends and take stock of potential equality issues. This article discusses key trends in dress length, cut and footwear, and also how the big cleavage is such a key look currently. The key look for any young woman in the west currently who wants to look fashionable is “Boobs Out!”. We also discuss how women are wily and can use their bodies, including the revealing of lots of cleavage, to exert a powerful influence over men. This article discusses some of the safety issues relating to women’s outfits and how further research is required into these aspects. Progress and remaining challenges with regard to gender equality in fashion, for example the pressure to wear high heels, is also discussed.
Role of sphingosine kinases and sphingosine 1-phosphate in mediating adipogenesis  [PDF]
Lucy D. Mastrandrea
Journal of Diabetes Mellitus (JDM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jdm.2013.32009

Recent Background: Development of obesity involves promotion of preadipocyte differrentiation. This study investigated the role that sphingosine kinases (SPHK) and ceramide-derived sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) play in adipocyte terminal differentiation. Materials and Methods: The mouse 3T3-L1 cell line was used as a model for adipogenesis. Cells were harvested at specific time points after initation of differentiation, and SPHK activity was measured. 3T3-L1 cells were treated with S1P and expression of early adipogenesis transcription markers was measured by real time PCR. The expression of S1P-receptors (S1PRs) during differentiation was measured. Results: SPHK activity is induced when 3T3-L1 cells are treated with insulin, dexamethasone, and isobutylmethylxanthine to induce differentiation. SPHK1 is active in preadipocytes and early in the differentiation process. Both SPHK1 and SPHK2 isozymes contribute to activity in differentiated adipocytes. Inhibition of SPHK1 attenuates adipocyte differentiation; however, extracellular S1P does not rescue the effect of SPHK1 inhibition on adipogenesis. Although treatment of preadipocytes with S1P induced message expression of the early adipogenesis transcription factor CC AAT/ binding proteinalpha, continued treatment did not fully support the development of differentiated adipocytes. Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptors (S1PRs) are expressed in preadipocytes and message expression declines markedly during adipocyte differentiation. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that the contribution of SPHK and S1P to adipogenesis is mediated primarily through biphasic activation of SPHK1 and 2 with extracellular S1P and S1PRs playing little role during preadipocyte differentiation.

Modeling of Soft Tissues Interacting with Fluid (Blood or Air) Using the Immersed Finite Element Method  [PDF]
Lucy T. Zhang
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2014.73018

This paper presents some biomedical applications that involve fluid-structure interactions which are simulated using the Immersed Finite Element Method (IFEM). Here, we first review the original and enhanced IFEM methods that are suitable to model incompressible or compressible fluid that can have densities that are significantly lower than the solid, such as air. Then, three biomedical applications are studied using the IFEM. Each of the applications may require a specific set of IFEM formulation for its respective numerical stability and accuracy due to the disparities between the fluid and the solid. We show that these biomedical applications require a fully-coupled and stable numerical technique in order to produce meaningful results.

Perceptions and Use of Herbal Remedies among Patients with Diabetes Mellitus in Murang’a North District, Kenya  [PDF]
Joshua Mwangi, Lucy Gitonga
Open Journal of Clinical Diagnostics (OJCD) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojcd.2014.43024
Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease with a world wide distribution. Use of herbal remedies has been on increase with World Health Organization estimating that 80 percent of the world’s population presently uses some form of herbal medicine for some aspect of primary health care. Objectives of this study were therefore to determine the perceptions people with diabetes mellitus have towards herbal remedies, to determine the extent to which they use herbal remedies and also to establish whether there is any association between the perceptions people have on herbal remedies and use of herbal remedies. The study was carried out in Murang’a District, in Mathioya and Kangema Constituencies where five community health units were purposively selected to participate in the study based on their level of establishment in community health strategy. Data was collected using interview schedules. SPSS was used for data analysis. Significant findings from this study were: a significant number of the respondents (15%) were diagnosed with diabetes mellitus when already admitted in the wards prior to which period they had no idea that they were diabetic, over 86% of those interviewed were given information on diabetes management on diagnosis and they attend hospital clinics for follow-up regularly and therefore this means that the reason for seeking alternative modes of treatment is not due to lack of information on diabetes but due to other reasons, 12.4% of those interviewed admitted using herbal remedies as part of their management of diabetes. Recommendations made following the study were: the government of Kenya through Ministry of Health should encourage rigorous screening of clients and population in general for diabetes to ensure diabetes is diagnosed early and put under appropriate management and that the government of Kenya through Ministry of Health should put up a campaign educating diabetic patients on the potential dangers associated with combining herbal remedies with contemporary medicines due to their interactions.
Remote Sensing Study of Glacial Change in the Northern Patagonian Icefield  [PDF]
Lucy Dixon, Shrinidhi Ambinakudige
Advances in Remote Sensing (ARS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ars.2015.44022
Abstract: The Patagonian Icefield has the largest temperate ice mass in the southern hemisphere. Using remote sensing techniques, this study analyzed multi-decadal glacial retreat and expansion of glacier lakes in Northern Patagonia. Glacial boundaries and glacier lake boundaries for 1979, 1985, 2000, and 2013 were delineated from Chilean topographic maps and Landsat satellite images. Aster stereo images were used to measure mass balance from 2007 to 2012. The highest retreat was observed in San Quintin glacier. The area of glacier lakes increased from 13.49 km2 in 1979 to 65.06 km2 in 2013. Four new glacier lakes formed between 1979 and 2013. Between 2007 and 2012, significant glacial thinning was observed in major glaciers, including HPN1, Pared Norte, Strindberg, Acodado, Nef, San Quintin, Colonia, HPN4, and Benito glaciers. Generally, ablation zones lost more mass than accumulation zones.
Adolescents’ Compulsive Internet Use and Depression: A Longitudinal Study  [PDF]
Einar B. Thorsteinsson, Lucy Davey
Open Journal of Depression (OJD) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojd.2014.31005
Abstract: Background: The present longitudinal study examined predictors of compulsive internet use and depression. Method: Adolescents, 21 males and 20 females, completed online questionnaires with a 12-month interval. Results: Social internet use (i.e., using instant messaging and social networks) was associated with decreased levels of depression. High support satisfaction, use of social networking, and instant messaging contributed to lower changes in compulsive Internet use. Conclusion: The effects of social internet use in combination with different psychosocial factors seem to have more positive effects than negative ones on change in depression and the development of compulsive internet use.

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