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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2184 matches for " Lucy Andrews Donkor "
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Establishment of an In Vitro Assay for Assessing the Effects of Drugs on the Liver Stages of Plasmodium vivax Malaria
Rana Chattopadhyay,Soundarapandian Velmurugan,Chinnamma Chakiath,Lucy Andrews Donkor,Wilbur Milhous,John W. Barnwell,William E. Collins,Stephen L. Hoffman
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0014275
Abstract: Plasmodium vivax (Pv) is the second most important human malaria parasite. Recent data indicate that the impact of Pv malaria on the health and economies of the developing world has been dramatically underestimated. Pv has a unique feature in its life cycle. Uninucleate sporozoites (spz), after invasion of human hepatocytes, either proceed to develop into tens of thousands of merozoites within the infected hepatocytes or remain as dormant forms called hypnozoites, which cause relapses of malaria months to several years after the primary infection. Elimination of malaria caused by Pv will be facilitated by developing a safe, highly effective drug that eliminates Pv liver stages, including hypnozoites. Identification and development of such a drug would be facilitated by the development of a medium to high throughput assay for screening drugs against Pv liver stages. We undertook the present pilot study to (1) assess the feasibility of producing large quantities of purified, vialed, cryopreserved Pv sporozoites and (2) establish a system for culturing the liver stages of Pv in order to assess the effects of drugs on the liver stages of Pv. We used primaquine (PQ) to establish this assay model, because PQ is the only licensed drug known to clear all Pv hepatocyte stages, including hypnozoites, and the effect of PQ on Pv hepatocyte stage development in vitro has not previously been reported. We report that we have established the capacity to reproducibly infect hepatoma cells with purified, cyropreserved Pv spz from the same lot, quantitate the primary outcome variable of infected hepatoma cells and demonstrate the inhibitory activity of primaquine on the infected hepatoma cells. We have also identified small parasite forms that may be hypnozoites. These data provide the foundation for finalizing a medium throughput, high content assay to identify new drugs for the elimination of all Pv liver stages.
A study of 112 cases of tongue-tie at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital
P Donkor
Ghana Medical Journal , 2004,
The Comparative Instructional Effectiveness of Print-Based and Video-Based Instructional Materials for Teaching Practical Skills at a Distance
Francis Donkor
International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning , 2010,
Abstract: Print-based instructional materials have been more popular than any other medium for teaching practical skills during the delivery of technical and vocational education and training via distance learning. However, the approach has its shortcomings and in recent times alternatives have been sought. The comparative instructional effectiveness of one such alternative is the focus of this paper. The study sought to examine the instructional effectiveness of video-based instructional materials vis-à-vis traditional print-based instructional materials for teaching distance learners of a Block-Laying and Concreting practical skills programme. An experimental design was used and participants were randomly assigned to two treatment groups: Users of video-based instructional materials or users of print-based instructional materials. A researcher-designed performance test and an achievement test of 20 multiple-choice items were used to collect data from 34 participants who used print-based instructional materials and 35 participants who used video-based instructional materials to learn practical skills. The instruments were based on the instructional objectives of lessons on mortar and wall finish. Pilot test data for the achievement test yielded Cronbach’s alpha of 0.84. Descriptive statistics and t-test at a 0.05 level of significance were used to analyse the data. The results indicated that the two instructional materials were pedagogically equivalent in terms of theoretical knowledge acquired. Practical skills acquired, however, were significantly higher among users of video-based instructional materials. Finally, users of video-based instructional materials displayed significantly superior craftsmanship.
ssessment of Learner Acceptance and Satisfaction with Video-Based Instructional Materials for Teaching Practical Skills at a Distance
Francis Donkor
International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning , 2011,
Abstract: As video-based instructional materials become available to distance learners to learn practical skills at a distance, it is important to assess the instructional effectiveness of these materials and to understand how students respond to them. This paper is the second part of a larger exploratory study that assessed the instructional effectiveness of video-based instructional materials for teaching distance learners practical skills in block-laying and concreting and how learners respond to these instructional materials. Specifically, this paper aims to assess learners’ acceptance and satisfaction with the materials. It also aims to determine whether levels of learner satisfaction and acceptance differ according to study centres. Data were collected from 71 respondents at three study centres using a self-completion questionnaire comprising 17 Likert-type items. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, ANOVA, and Scheffe’s post hoc test at a 0.05 level of significance. Learners appeared positive about their learning experiences with the use of video-based instructional materials to learn practical skills at a distance as they rated highly all the items assessing their acceptance and satisfaction. Results of item-by-item ANOVA regarding learner acceptance indicated that the respondents, categorized according to study centres, exhibited similar levels of acceptance for nine of the ten items. For learner satisfaction, there were no statistically significant differences for six of the seven items. Thus, learners of different study centres exhibited about the same level of acceptance and satisfaction.
Insights into Pneumococcal Pathogenesis and Antibiotic Resistance  [PDF]
Eric S. Donkor, Ebenezer V. Badoe
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2014.410069

Since its discovery in 1891, the pneumococcus has been one of the most extensively studied microbes, and was involved in several historical findings such as the discovery of genetic material that was later shown to be DNA. The pneumococcus is part of the normal bacterial flora of the nasopharynx, but can on occasions progress to sterile sites of the body and cause invasive diseases. There are about one million new invasive pneumococcal infections every year, majority of which occur in the developing world where children <5 years are most affected. The burden of pneumococcal disease is further heightened by the increasing prevalence of multidrug resistance of the organism. The pneumococcus remains a pathogen of immense public health significance and understanding its biology, particularly the pathogenesis and antibiotic resistance is crucial to controlling pneumococcal disease.

Essential Maternal and Newborn Care Skills Training for Midwives: Their Impact on Reducing Maternal and Neonatal Mortalities in Kenya  [PDF]
Lucy Gitonga
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2016.61009
Abstract: Continuing professional development (CPD) continues to gain acceptance as a model for health care professionals to engage in lifelong learning. Little is known about how CPD participants put the experience and the new knowledge into practice and whether it has impact on patient care outcomes. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of CPD of Midwives on Essential Maternal and Newborn care skills on maternal and neonatal mortality in Embu County, Kenya. The study was an interventional non-randomized pretest post test study design of midwives from the participants of the 2010 ministry of health training on essential maternal and newborn care skills. Sixty (60) midwives working in maternity unit of Embu level five hospitals were targeted. The study was carried out in two phases. Phase one involved environmental scanning of the factors that support good performance in the workplace using a questionnaire. Phase two involved evaluation of the impact by testing a hypotheses using data collected by use of questionnaires, evaluation checklist and chart audit. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis and presented using percentages and frequency tables. Chi-square test and correlation analysis were used to show the association between variables, which are midwives essential maternal and newborn care skills and maternal and neonatal mortality. A chi-square χ2 = 14.143, df = 9 and a coefficient = 0.357. This coefficient is less than p-value at Alpha 0.05 and therefore is not significant, proving that the essential maternal and neonatal care skills do not contribute to reduction in mortalities as such two variables are almost independent of each other, whether one exists does not necessitate the existence of another nor does it reduce maternal and neonatal mortalities in Kenya.
Coping Strategies of Women Seeking Infertility Treatment in Southern Ghana
ES Donkor, J Sandall
African Journal of Reproductive Health , 2009,
Abstract: Infertility is a health problem faced by an estimated 15% of women of childbearing age in Ghana. This study explores the coping strategies adopted by 615 women seeking infertility treatment in southern Ghana. Both closed and open-ended questions were used through a survey conducted using face-to-face interviews in three languages at three health sites – a hospital, a health centre and a private clinic. The findings suggest that the majority of the women preferred to keep issues of their fertility problems to themselves. The reason could be due to the associated stigma of infertility. Further, the majority of the women coped through drawing on their Christian faith. Others also coped through the support they received from their husbands, their occupation by way of achieving economic independence, and some avoided situations that reminded them of their infertility problem. The findings should have implications for health personnel as some strategies infertile women use may do more harm than good (Afr J Reprod Health 2009; 13[4]:81-93).
The prevalence of benign oral ulceration among patients attending a dental clinic in Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital
JA Amoateng, P Donkor
Ghana Medical Journal , 2004,
Adoption of Improved Cassava Varieties in Ghana
Victor Owusu,Emmanuel Donkor
Agricultural Journal , 2013, DOI: 10.3923/aj.2012.146.151
Abstract: The study explores the adoption of improved cassava varieties among smallholder farmers in Ghana. The improved cassava varieties introduced to farmers in the study area (Sekyere South district, Ghana) are Bankye hemaa and Bankye afisiafi. The effects of the determinants of the extent of adoption are analysed with the Tobit Model. The empirical results indicate that age and education of the farmer, household size, membership of farmer-based organization, access to credit tend to have positive influence on the extent of adoption of improved cassava varieties by farmers. The age of the farmer and location-level specific effects tend to be negatively related to the extent of adoption of the improved cassava varieties. It is recommended that policy-makers create an enabling environment for farmers to join farmer-based organizations. Farmers must be provided frequent education and training on technology adoption.
Sequencing of Bacterial Genomes: Principles and Insights into Pathogenesis and Development of Antibiotics
Eric S. Donkor
Genes , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/genes4040556
Abstract: The impact of bacterial diseases on public health has become enormous, and is partly due to the increasing trend of antibiotic resistance displayed by bacterial pathogens. Sequencing of bacterial genomes has significantly improved our understanding about the biology of many bacterial pathogens as well as identification of novel antibiotic targets. Since the advent of genome sequencing two decades ago, about 1,800 bacterial genomes have been fully sequenced and these include important aetiological agents such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Vibrio cholerae, Clostridium difficile and Staphylococcus aureus. Very recently, there has been an explosion of bacterial genome data and is due to the development of next generation sequencing technologies, which are evolving so rapidly. Indeed, the field of microbial genomics is advancing at a very fast rate and it is difficult for researchers to be abreast with the new developments. This highlights the need for regular updates in microbial genomics through comprehensive reviews. This review paper seeks to provide an update on bacterial genome sequencing generally, and to analyze insights gained from sequencing in two areas, including bacterial pathogenesis and the development of antibiotics.
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