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Everolimus Associated with Activated Vitamin D for Post-Transplant Increase Epstein-Barr-Virus Load Treatment. Two Case Reports  [PDF]
Luciano Moscarelli, Giulia Antognoli
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2012.37119
Abstract:

Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is an uncommon but life-threatening complication of solid-organ and blood stem-cell transplants. It is caused by an uncontrolled expansion of B lymphocytes infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). It responds poorly to therapy, including reduction of immunosuppression, interferon, antivirals or chemotherapy. Therefore the optimal strategy for management is currently focused on prevention. Some centers have already introduced chemoprophylaxis and/or preemptive strategies using EBV viral load as a surveillance. Some experimental studies suggest that mTOR inhibitors inhibits growth of human EBV-transformed B lymphocytes and vitamin D had an immune response to EBV. We report two cases of an increased of blood BKV viral load after renal transplantation that were successfully treated with everolimus in association with calcitriol. This report suggests that everolimus associated with calcitriol could be an effective and safe treatment for the prevention of PTLD in transplant recipients.

Epidemic Propagation: An Automaton Model as the Continuous SIR Model  [PDF]
Luciano Misici, Filippo Santarelli
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/am.2013.410A3011
Abstract:

The use of the SIR model to predict the time evolution of an epidemic is very frequent and has spatial information about its propagation which may be very useful to contrast its spread. In this paper we take a particular cellular automaton model that well reproduces the time evolution of the disease given by the SIR model; setting the automaton is generally an annoying problem because we need to run a lot of simulations, compare them to the solution of the SIR model and, finally, decide the parameters to use. In order to make this procedure easier, we will show a fast method that, in input, requires the parameters of the SIR continuous model that we want to reproduce, whereas, in output, it yields the parameters to use in the cellular automaton model. The problem of computing the most suitable parameters for the reticular model is reduced to the problem of finding the roots of a polynomial Equation.

Properties and Structure of Microcrystalline Chitosan and Hydroxyapatite Composites  [PDF]
Luciano Pighinelli, Magdalena Kucharska
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology (JBNB) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2014.52015
Abstract:

The skeletal system in the human body is very important, provides support and gives shape to the body and provides a network between all soft tissues. The most common problems in hard tissues are bone fractures, defects or diseases which needed to be treated. The developments in artificial bone area seem to solve most of the hard tissue problems, on the other hand artificial bones themselves may cause other problems and in many cases they do not have sufficient mechanical properties and/or good biocompatibility. The importance of chitosan and its derivatives like microcrystalline chitosan has grown significantly over the last two decades due to its renewable and biodegradable source, and also because of the increase in the knowledge of its functionality in the technological and biomedical applications. The excellent biocompability, biofunctionality, and non-antigenic property make the chitosan and its derivatives as a microcrystalline chitosan an ideal material for tissue regeneration. To improve the suitability of chitosan for bone tissue engineering, the composites of MCCh and hydroxyapatite were studied. In the present work the characterization of the MCCh and composites with HAp in form of films and sponges, is based on physico-chemical tests, morphology, structure, particle size of HAp powder and distribution in the polymer matrix. The compositions with film and sponge shape are derived from the junction of two different materials, containing organic and inorganic substances. All sponge preparations, with HAp/MCCh have a well-shaped 3-dimensional structure, which could be used as implants in orthopedic surgery for a scaffolds base for medical applications.

Properties of Microcrystalline Chitosan-Calcium Phosphate Complex Composite  [PDF]
Luciano Pighinelli, Magdalena Kucharska
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology (JBNB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2013.44A003
Abstract:

Nature itself uses materials like, cellulose to provide the structure of plants, chitin as the exoskeleton of several insects and molluscs, collagen for mechanical support in connective tissues and so on. At present, the socioeconomic situation of the modern world has raised the interest in renewable materials being used in regenerative medicine. The composition of MCCh/?-TCP complex in sponge shape is derived from the junction of two or more different materials, containing organic and inorganic materials, including bioactivity and biodegradability as a characteristic. The chemical characteristics of MCCh/?-TCP complex composites showed that both of the components organic and inorganic exist in the material. All sponge preparations, with MCCh/?-TCP have a well-shaped 3-dimentional structure, a highly porous and interconnected and homogenous pore structure to ensure a biological environment conducive to cell attachment and proliferation as well as tissue growth, providing the passage of nutrient flow. These materials can be used in future for medical applications as a base for scaffolds production and as implants in regenerative medicine.

Geometrical and topological foundations of theoretical physics: from gauge theories to string program
Luciano Boi
International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences , 2004, DOI: 10.1155/s0161171204304400
Abstract: We study the role of geometrical and topological concepts in the recent developments of theoretical physics, notably in non-Abelian gauge theories and superstring theory, and further we show the great significance of these concepts for a deeper understanding of the dynamical laws of physics. This work aims to demonstrate that the global topological properties of the manifold's model of spacetime play a major role in quantum field theory and that, therefore, several physical quantum effects arise from the nonlocal metrical and topological structure of this manifold. We mathematically argue the need for building new structures of space with different topology. This means, in particular, that the “hidden” symmetries of fundamental physics can be related to the phenomenon of topological change of certain classes of (presumably) nonsmooth manifolds.
We Must Find the Problem in the Intrinsic Mechanisms of Both Media and Medical Research
Luciano Benedetti
PLOS Medicine , 2005, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0020364
Abstract:
From Data to Semantic Information
Luciano Floridi
Entropy , 2003, DOI: 10.3390/e5020125
Abstract: There is no consensus yet on the definition of semantic information. This paper contributes to the current debate by criticising and revising the Standard Definition of semantic Information (SDI) as meaningful data, in favour of the Dretske-Grice approach: meaningful and well-formed data constitute semantic information only if they also qualify as contingently truthful. After a brief introduction, SDI is criticised for providing necessary but insufficient conditions for the definition of semantic information. SDI is incorrect because truth-values do not supervene on semantic information, and misinformation (that is, false semantic information) is not a type of semantic information, but pseudo-information, that is not semantic information at all. This is shown by arguing that none of the reasons for interpreting misinformation as a type of semantic information is convincing, whilst there are compelling reasons to treat it as pseudo-information. As a consequence, SDI is revised to include a necessary truth-condition. The last section summarises the main results of the paper and indicates the important implications of the revised definition for the analysis of the deflationary theories of truth, the standard definition of knowledge and the classic, quantitative theory of semantic information.
Tsallis-Based Nonextensive Analysis of the Southern California Seismicity
Luciano Telesca
Entropy , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/e13071267
Abstract: Nonextensive statistics has been becoming a very useful tool to describe the complexity of dynamic systems. Recently, analysis of the magnitude distribution of earthquakes has been increasingly used in the context of nonextensivity. In the present paper, the nonextensive analysis of the southern California earthquake catalog was performed. The results show that the nonextensivity parameter q lies in the same range as obtained for other different seismic areas, thus suggesting a sort of universal character in the nonextensive interpretation of seismicity.
Mitral valve prolapse associated with celiac artery stenosis: a new ultrasonographic syndrome?
Luciano Arcari
Cardiovascular Ultrasound , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1476-7120-2-28
Abstract: 1560 (41%) out of 3780 consecutive patients undergoing echocardiographic assessment of MVP, had Doppler sonography of the celiac tract to detect CAS.CAS was found in 57 (3.7%) subjects (23 males and 34 females) none of whom complained of symptoms related to visceral ischemia. MVP was observed in 47 (82.4%) subjects with and 118 (7.9%) without CAS (p < 0.001). The agreement between MVP and CAS was 39% (95% CI 32–49%). PSV (Peak Systolic Velocity) was the only predictor of CAS in MPV patients (OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.08–0.69) as selected in a multivariate logistic model.CAS and MVP seem to be significantly associated in patients undergoing consecutive ultrasonographic screening.Celiac artery stenosis (CAS) may be caused by atherosclerotic degeneration, as observed in different vascular districts, or by extrinsic compression (ECCA) usually exerted by an abnormally developed arched ligament of the diaphragm [1-7]. ECCA may cause abdominal or epigastric pain triggered by meals (angina abdominis), a syndrome called Celiac Artery Compression Syndrome (CACS) [1,2]. Resolution of symptoms after surgical resection of the arched ligament has been frequently reported. However, some aspects, such as the vascular etiology of symptoms, are still controversial, as the improvements observed after surgery may be attributed to the concurrent destruction of the celiac ganglion rather than to the severance of the arched ligament.Mitral Valve Prolapse (MVP) is the most common valvular disorder, with a prevalence of about 6–7% in the general population [8,9]. It consists of systolic displacement of one or both valvular leaflets into the left atrium, with or without mitral regurgitation. Patients with MVP may also be affected by other cardiac anomalies, such as prolapse of the aortic valve and/or of the tricuspid valve, ostium secundum interatrial sect defect, atrio-ventricular left accesses, and/or extra-cardiac anomalies, such as pectus excavatum and loss of the physiological curvature of the
O Modelo de Thirlwall com varia??es nas elasticidades
Nakabashi, Luciano;
Economia e Sociedade , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-06182007000100005
Abstract: capital flows are expected to be important in the process of economic growth for several reasons. one of them is their importance in relaxing the balance of payments constraints as envisaged by thirlwall?s law, which states that when economic growth takes place, the level of imports also grows. consequently, there is an increase in the export level or in the volume of capital inflows as imposed by the balance of payment constraints. the goal of the present paper is to investigate how capital flows have stimulated the brazilian economy by means of thirlwall?s model in the 1947-2000 period of time, taking into consideration that income elasticity of imports changes over time.
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