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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5603 matches for " Luca Giacomelli "
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Biomaterials for the programming of cell growth in oral tissues: The possible role of APA
Marco Salerno,Luca Giacomelli,Claudio Larosa
Bioinformation , 2011,
Abstract: Examples of programmed tissue response after the interaction of cells with biomaterials are a hot topic in current dental research. We propose here the use of anodic porous alumina (APA) for the programming of cell growth in oral tissues. In particular, APA may trigger cell growth by the controlled release of specific growth factors and/or ions. Moreover, APA may be used as a scaffold to promote generation of new tissue, due to the high interconnectivity of pores and the high surface roughness displayed by this material.
Proteomics as it pertains to oral pathologies and dental research
Francesco Chiappelli,Ugo Covani,Luca Giacomelli
Bioinformation , 2011,
Abstract: Genomics has promised to change the practice of dentistry. Since the complete sequencing of the Human Genome, the development of mass-scale research tools in this field, such as DNA microarrays, has greatly improved [1]. Recent studies have employed microarray technology to monitor gene expression in periodontal patients, strain diversity of oral microflora implied in periodontitis, and the effect of oral microflora on the expression of chemokine genes [2-7]. Similar studies have been conducted also in other diseases, such as oral lichen planus (OLP) [8].However, if compared with other areas of medicine, the progresses in oral pathology achieved using purely genomic approaches have been overall limited [9]. Other “-omics” disciplines, such as proteomics and metabolomics, should therefore be applied to achieve a more comprehensive view of the molecular mechanisms underlying oral disorders [1]. To date, some proteomic studies have been conducted in the field of oral pathology, and have led to the identification of risk factors and therapeutic targets at a molecular level [10, 11].Further advances in the application of proteomics to dental research and oral pathology appear in any case advocated. These include, but are not limited to, the identification of other molecules and molecular pathways involved in oral diseases, the limitation of the inflammatory response after dental procedures, and the possible programming of cellular and tissue response upon the placement of restorative materials or implants.This special issue of Bioinformation presents some new insights in this challenging and stimulating field, authored by some leading scientists working in this area.
Atomic force microscopy in vitro study of surface roughness and fractal character of a dental restoration composite after air-polishing
Marco Salerno, Luca Giacomelli, Giacomo Derchi, Niranjan Patra, Alberto Diaspro
BioMedical Engineering OnLine , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1475-925x-9-59
Abstract: Abrasive powders of sodium bicarbonate and glycine, combined at different treatment times (5, 10 and 30 s) and distances (2 and 7 mm), have been tested. The resulting root mean square roughness of the surfaces has been measured by means of atomic force microscopy, and the data have been analyzed statistically to assess the significance. Additionally, a fractal analysis of the samples surfaces has been carried out.The minimum surface roughening was obtained by air-polishing with glycine powder for 5 s, at either of the considered distances, which resulted in a mean roughness of ~300 nm on a 30 × 30 μm2 surface area, whereas in the other cases it was in the range of 400-750 nm. Both untreated surfaces and surfaces treated with the maximum roughening conditions exhibited a fractal character, with comparable dimension in the 2.4-2.7 range, whereas this was not the case for the surfaces treated with the minimum roughening conditions.For the dental practitioner it is of interest to learn that use of glycine in air polishing generates the least surface roughening on the considered restorative material, and thus is expected to provide the lowest rate of bacterial biofilm growth and dental plaque formation. Furthermore, the least roughening behaviour identified has been correlated with the disappearance of the surface fractal character, which could represent an integrative method for screening the air polishing treatment efficacy.Dental caries is the most widespread disease, since it affects about 95% of the world population at some point during their lives [1]. Caries follow bacterial plaque formation, which arises after the increase in surface area accessible for bacterial adhesion due to the surface roughness associated with defects or damage of the dental structures [2-5]. In fact, the predominant role of surface roughness for bacterial adhesion with respect to other cofactors such as surface energy has already been clarified in the literature [6].Traditional hand instru
Relationship between human oral lichen planus and oral squamous cell carcinoma at a genomic level: a datamining study
Luca Giacomelli,Ugo Covani,Giacomo Chiappe,Antonio Barone
Bioinformation , 2009,
Abstract: The leader gene approach is a data mining method based on the systematic search for genes involved in a specific process and their ranking according to the number of interconnections with the other genes identified. The genes with the strongest interconnections are termed leader genes, since they may be supposed to play an important role in the process. The potential of malignant progression of OLP to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is still not completely clear. In this study, the leader gene approach is applied to investigate the association between OLP and OSCC at a molecular level. Results were integrated with those obtained in an experimental analysis (see paper 1 of this series). Genes involved in OLP and OSCC were identified by systematic queries to dedicated databases. Interconnections among identified genes were calculated and given a confidence value using STRING database. Leader genes were identified by clustering genes according to their interconnections. This theoretical analysis shows that OLP and OSCC share two leader genes: TP53 and CDKN1A, involved in the PI3K signalling events mediated by AKT pathway. This finding and those obtained in the experimental analysis suggest the possible involvement of some key genes/proteins LCK, PIK3CA, BIRC5, TP53 and CDKN1A in the malignant progression from OLP to OSCC. Moreover, these findings support the role of some molecular pathways, namely IL2 signalling events mediated by PI3K, PI3K signalling events mediated by AKT, and, possibly, Aurora A signalling in the association between OLP and OSCC.
Immune surveillance of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NpC)
Oluwadayo O Oluwadara,Andre Barkhordarian,Luca Giacomelli,Xenia Brant
Bioinformation , 2011,
Abstract: In the U.S., nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NpC) kills >7,600 each year. Deaths are predominantly among adult men, and in most cases, early detection and treatment can save lives. Despite the annual spending of approximately 3.2 billion dollars on head and neck cancer research, NpC remains a neglected disease since its fatality rates are among the lowest nation wide. The relative survival rates from NpC have not improved in the U.S. in the last 20 years. Infection with Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) is an important co-factor in the etiology of NpC. In other regions of the word (e.g., South-East Asia, Latin America), EBV infection and NpC-related prevalence and mortality are substantially higher and more alarming. Epidemiological data indicate high prevalence of EBV infection and increased risk for NpC among Central and South American and Asian immigrants in the U.S., and also predict a sharp increase in NpC incidence in the next decade. To face this emerging threat, it is important to develop and validate novel modes of detection and intervention for NpC. To this end, we characterized the proteomic signature of NpC, and of the tumor infiltrating lymphocytes of the CD8+, activated (CD38+, mTOR+) and regulatory immune cell (FoxP3+) phenotype. Paraffinized biopsies were processed, and tissue microarrays constructed and tested by immunohistochemistry and tri-immunohistofluorescence for a battery of signaling markers, including AKT and PI3K, in conjunction with EBV status and ANKRD11, an NpC susceptibility biomarker. Microphotographs, analyzed and quantified by confocal microscopy and fractal analysis, suggest new avenues for immunotherapies of NpC.
The role of the microenvironment in tumor immune surveillance
Oluwadayo Oluwadara,Luca Giacomelli,Xenia Brant,Russell Christensen4
Bioinformation , 2011,
Abstract: The evidence appears compelling that the microenvironment, and associated biological cellular and molecular factors, may contribute to the progression of a variety of tumors. The effects of the microenvironment may directly influence the plasticity of T cell lineages, which was recently discussed (O’Shea & Paul, 2010 ). To review the putative role of the microenvironment in modulating the commitment of tumor immune surveillance, we use the model of oral premalignant lesions.
OPAL and More
G. Giacomelli,P. Giacomelli
Physics , 2009,
Abstract: We shall summarize some of the research activities performed in collaboration with Ben Shen in the OPAL experiment at LEP and in the CMS experiment at the LHC. And we shall recall the LEP legacy to particle physics in general and to the Standard Model in particular. Short recollections are made in other fields in which Ben was interested, in particular in Astroparticle Physics.
Science,technology and society
G. Giacomelli,R. Giacomelli
Physics , 2005,
Abstract: We shall discuss some aspects of science and technology, their increasing role in the society, the fast advances in modern science, the apparent decrease of interest of the young generation in basic sciences, the importance of proper science popularization for better public education and awareness in scientific fields.
Hadron-hadron and hadron-nuclei collisions at high energies
G. Giacomelli,R. Giacomelli
Physics , 2000,
Abstract: A brief review is made of the present situation of hadron-hadron and hadron-nuclei total elastic and inelastic cross sections at high energies
The LEP Legacy
Giorgio Giacomelli,Roberto Giacomelli
Physics , 2005,
Abstract: In this lecture we shall summarize the scientific legacy of LEP, in particular in connection with the Standard Model of Particle Physics; we shall also discuss some historical and sociological aspects of the experimentation at LEP.
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