Abstract:
The unified gas kinetic scheme (UGKS) of K. Xu et al. [K. Xu and J.-C. Huang, J. Comput. Phys., 229, pp. 7747--7764, 2010], originally developed for multiscale gas dynamics problems, is applied in this paper to a linear kinetic model of radiative transfer theory. While such problems exhibit purely diffusive behavior in the optically thick (or small Knudsen) regime, we prove that UGKS is still asymptotic preserving (AP) in this regime, but for the free transport regime as well. Moreover, this scheme is modified to include a time implicit discretization of the limit diffusion equation, and to correctly capture the solution in case of boundary layers. Contrary to many AP schemes, this method is based on a standard finite volume approach, it does neither use any decomposition of the solution, nor staggered grids. Several numerical tests demonstrate the properties of the scheme.

Abstract:
For accurate simulations of rarefied gas flows around moving obstacles, we propose a cut cell method on Cartesian grids: it allows exact conservation and accurate treatment of boundary conditions. Our approach is designed to treat Cartesian cells and various kind of cut cells by the same algorithm, with no need to identify the specific shape of each cut cell. This makes the implementation quite simple, and allows a direct extension to 3D problems. Such simulations are also made possible by using an adaptive mesh refinement technique and a hybrid parallel implementation. This is illustrated by several test cases, including a 3D unsteady simulation of the Crookes radiometer.

Abstract:
Most of numerical methods for deterministic simulations of rarefied gas flows use the discrete velocity (or discrete ordinate) approximation. In this approach, the kinetic equation is approximated with a global velocity grid. The grid must be large and fine enough to capture all the distribution functions, which is very expensive for high speed flows (like in hypersonic aerodynamics). In this article, we propose to use instead different velocity grids that are local in time and space: these grids dynamically adapt to the width of the distribution functions. The advantages and drawbacks of the method are illustrated in several 1D test cases.

Abstract:
This paper collects the efforts done in our previous works [P. Degond, S. Jin, L. Mieussens, A Smooth Transition Between Kinetic and Hydrodynamic Equations, J. Comp. Phys., 209 (2005) 665--694.],[P.Degond, G. Dimarco, L. Mieussens, A Moving Interface Method for Dynamic Kinetic-fluid Coupling, J. Comp. Phys., Vol. 227, pp. 1176-1208, (2007).],[P. Degond, J.G. Liu, L. Mieussens, Macroscopic Fluid Model with Localized Kinetic Upscaling Effects, SIAM Multi. Model. Sim. 5(3), 940--979 (2006)] to build a robust multiscale kinetic-fluid solver. Our scope is to efficiently solve fluid dynamic problems which present non equilibrium localized regions that can move, merge, appear or disappear in time. The main ingredients of the present work are the followings ones: a fluid model is solved in the whole domain together with a localized kinetic upscaling term that corrects the fluid model wherever it is necessary; this multiscale description of the flow is obtained by using a micro-macro decomposition of the distribution function [P. Degond, J.G. Liu, L. Mieussens, Macroscopic Fluid Model with Localized Kinetic Upscaling Effects, SIAM Multi. Model. Sim. 5(3), 940--979 (2006)]; the dynamic transition between fluid and kinetic descriptions is obtained by using a time and space dependent transition function; to efficiently define the breakdown conditions of fluid models we propose a new criterion based on the distribution function itself. Several numerical examples are presented to validate the method and measure its computational efficiency.

Abstract:
In this paper we revisit the derivation of boundary conditions for the Boltzmann Equation. The interaction between the wall atoms and the gas molecules within a thin surface layer is described by a kinetic equation introduced in [9] and used in [1]. This equation includes a Vlasov term and a linear molecule-phonon collision term and is coupled with the Boltzmann equation describing the evolution of the gas in the bulk flow. Boundary conditions are formally derived from this model by using classical tools of kinetic theory such as scaling and systematic asymptotic expansion. In a first step this method is applied to the simplified case of a flat wall. Then it is extented to walls with nanoscale roughness allowing to obtain more complex scattering patterns related to the morphology of the wall. It is proved that the obtained scattering kernels satisfy the classical imposed properties of non-negativeness, normalization and reciprocity introduced by Cercignani [11].

Abstract:
We present a mathematical analysis of the asymptotic preserving scheme proposed in [M. Lemou and L. Mieussens, SIAM J. Sci. Comput., 31, pp. 334-368, 2008] for linear transport equations in kinetic and diffusive regimes. We prove that the scheme is uniformly stable and accurate with respect to the mean free path of the particles. This property is satisfied under an explicitly given CFL condition. This condition tends to a parabolic CFL condition for small mean free paths, and is close to a convection CFL condition for large mean free paths. Ou r analysis is based on very simple energy estimates.

Abstract:
Most of deterministic solvers for rarefied gas dynamics use discrete velocity (or discrete ordinate) approximations of the distribution function on a Cartesian grid. This grid must be sufficiently large and fine to describe the distribution functions at every space position in the computational domain. For 3-dimensional hypersonic flows, like in re-entry problems, this induces much too dense velocity grids that cannot be practically used, for memory storage requirements. In this article, we present an approach to generate automatically a locally refined velocity grid adapted to a given simulation. This grid contains much less points than a standard Cartesian grid and allows us to make realistic 3-dimensional simulations at a reduced cost, with a comparable accuracy.

Abstract:
We propose an extension of the Fokker-Planck model of the Boltzmann equation to get a correct Prandtl number in the Compressible Navier-Stokes asymptotics. This is obtained by replacing the diffusion coefficient (which is the equilibrium temperature) by a non diagonal temperature tensor, like the Ellipsoidal-Statistical model (ES) is obtained from the Bathnagar-Gross-Krook model (BGK) of the Boltzmann equation. Our model is proved to satisfy the properties of conservation and a H-theorem. A Chapman-Enskog analysis and two numerical tests show that a correct Prandtl number of 2/3 can be obtained.

Abstract:
This paper offers an integrated optimization of mechanisms with genetic algorithm, the principle of which is to use a neural network as a global calculation program and to couple the network with stochastic methods of optimization. In other words, this paper deals with the integrated optimization of mechanisms with genetic algorithms, and, in conclusion, the possible use of neural networks for complex mechanisms or processes.

Abstract:
Formulas of Rodrigues-type for the Macdonald polynomials are presented. They involve creation operators, certain properties of which are proved and other conjectured. The limiting case of the Jack polynomials is discussed.