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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 12 matches for " Loukia Aketi "
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Trends in Tuberculosis Epidemiology among Children in the Democratic Republic of Congo  [PDF]
Aketi Loukia, Shiku Diayisu Joseph, Kashongwe Zacharie, Lay Gertrude, Kibadi Kapay, Kayembe Kalambay Patrick
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2016.44026
Abstract: Setting: The epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) among children in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is not well known. Objective: This study aimed to describe the trends in TB epidemiology among children in the DRC and to compare these trends in children and adults. Design: Data from the National TB program, the WHO Global TB Report, and a demographic survey of health in the DRC were retrospectively analyzed. The study period was from 1995 to 2014. The notification rate, absolute incidence and incidence rate of TB per 100,000 population were reported. Results: In 2014, 12,785 (12.6% of adult cases) TB cases were reported in children and 101,303 in adults. Among children, 3438 (26.89%) had PTB+; 2828 (22.11%) had PTB; and 6519 (50.98%) had extrapulmonary TB (EPTB). Children under 5 years had a lower reported prevalence of TB (184 cases). The incidence rate per 100,000 population was 10 in children and 181 in adults. The TB incidence decreased between 2010 (11.47) and 2014 (10.46). The proportion of children in overall cases of PTB+ was 4% to 5% in all districts. Conclusion: Caring for childhood TB remains a challenge in the DRC. Improved diagnostic procedures and effective training of providers who care for childhood TB are needed.
Maternal Knowledge of Tuberculosis and Bacillus Calmette Guerin Vaccination in Pediatric Health Services in Kinshasa  [PDF]
Loukia Aketi, Joseph Shiku Diayisu, Zacharie Kashongwe, Grace Nkabikueni, Patrick Kayembe Kalambay, Jean-Marie Kayembe
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2017.51004
Abstract: Introduction: To participate effectively in the fight against tuberculosis (TB), mothers need to have a good knowledge of TB and its prevention. The objective of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of mothers about TB and Bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG). Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey performed from September to December 2015 in 4 health care facilities of Kinshasa. It concerned mothers of children who received BCG vaccine. The frequencies and chi-square of Pearson were used to report results. Results: A total of 380 couples of the children and their mothers were recruited. The median age of children was 16 months (ranges: 6 days to 59 months); 224 (58.9%) of them received BCG during the period recommended; 62 (16.3%) experienced a side effect. There was a significant association (p = 0.00) between sides effects and the delayed vaccination. The average age of the mothers was 29.3 ± 6.4 years; 352 (92.6%) had heard about TB; 28 (7.4%) never heard about it; 168 (44.2%) knew that TB is a contagious disease; only 111 (29.2%) knew the mode of transmission; 87 (22.9%) did not know any signs of TB, and 54 (14.2%) knew about prevention with the BCG vaccine. Factors significantly associated with the mothers’ lack of knowledge were a low level of education (p = 0.01), young age (p = 0.02), and place of residence (p = 0.04). Conclusion: There is an urgent need to improve the education of the population, particularly those who lives in poor conditions and who are uneducated.
Towards Modern Greek Consciousness
Loukia Droulia
Historical Review , 2008,
Abstract: This paper deals with the subject of Modern Greek consciousness which can be said epigrammatically to have its starting point in the Provisional Constitution of Greece ratified by the Assembly of Epidaurus in January 1822. For it was then necessary that two crucial questions be answered, namely who were to be considered as citizens of the new state about to be created and what regions it covered. The attempt to find answers to these questions necessarily led to the re-examination of the Greek nation's historical course over the millenia. For this purpose the terms that express the concepts which register the self-definition of a human group and their use over time, are here examined as well as the links that formed the connection between the groups of Greek-speaking Orthodox Christians who, as a result of historical circumstances, had until then been geographically scattered. One solid link was the unbroken use of their common language; the "ancestral culture" was the other definitive element which had a continuous though uneven presence throughout the centuries. Finally the "place", having preserved the same geographical name, "Hellas", through the centuries although its borders were certainly unclear, now took on a weighty significance as regards the conscious identification of the historical land with the new state that the Greeks were struggling to create in the nineteenth century. These and other factors contributed to the acceptance by the Greek nation of the nomenclature Ellines, Ellada which were unanimously adopted during the Greek war of Independence, instead of the terms Graikoi, Romioi, Graikia.
Lack of LDL Receptor Enhances Amyloid Deposition and Decreases Glial Response in an Alzheimer's Disease Mouse Model
Loukia Katsouri,Spiros Georgopoulos
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0021880
Abstract: Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), a cholesterol carrier associated with atherosclerosis, is a major risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) regulates ApoE levels in the periphery and in the central nervous system. LDLR has been identified on astrocytes and a number of studies show that it modulates amyloid deposition in AD transgenic mice. However these findings are controversial on whether LDLR deletion is beneficial or detrimental on the AD-like phenotype of the transgenic mice.
Augmentation Schemes for Particle MCMC
Paul Fearnhead,Loukia Meligkotsidou
Statistics , 2014,
Abstract: Particle MCMC involves using a particle filter within an MCMC algorithm. For inference of a model which involves an unobserved stochastic process, the standard implementation uses the particle filter to propose new values for the stochastic process, and MCMC moves to propose new values for the parameters. We show how particle MCMC can be generalised beyond this. Our key idea is to introduce new latent variables. We then use the MCMC moves to update the latent variables, and the particle filter to propose new values for the parameters and stochastic process given the latent variables. A generic way of defining these latent variables is to model them as pseudo-observations of the parameters or of the stochastic process. By choosing the amount of information these latent variables have about the parameters and the stochastic process we can often improve the mixing of the particle MCMC algorithm by trading off the Monte Carlo error of the particle filter and the mixing of the MCMC moves. We show that using pseudo-observations within particle MCMC can improve its efficiency in certain scenarios: dealing with initialisation problems of the particle filter; speeding up the mixing of particle Gibbs when there is strong dependence between the parameters and the stochastic process; and enabling further MCMC steps to be used within the particle filter.
Orbital metastasis from cutaneous melanoma
Loukia Tsierkezou,Peter Cikatricis,Parveen Abdullah,Samer Elsherbiny
Eye Reports , 2012, DOI: 10.4081/eye.2012.e4
Abstract: We report a case of a metastatic cutaneous melanoma to the orbit. A 60-year-old Caucasian male presented with a 2-day history of left-sided ocular pain, lid swelling and chemosis. Initially, this was treated as conjunctivitis with no signs of improvement. Four days later, the patient developed left proptosis, mechanical ptosis, left esotropia and diplopia. Computed tomography scan of the orbit demonstrated marked thickening of the lateral rectus muscle. The patient was treated as pseudotumor. Subsequent biopsy revealed malignant cutaneous melanoma. The patient had a history of cutaneous melanoma excised 15 years previously. Further imaging showed advanced metastatic disease in the brain, the lung and the liver. The patient passed away five months after initial presentation. Cutaneous melanoma metastasizing to the orbit has poor prognosis. Patients often have advanced disease at the time of presentation and orbital metastases may be the initial sign. A detailed history is paramount in making timely diagnosis.
Serum Levels of Gelatinase Associated Lipocalin as Indicator of the Inflammatory Status in Coronary Artery Disease
Nikolaos Kafkas,Christos Demponeras,Filitsa Zoubouloglou,Loukia Spanou,Dimitrios Babalis,Konstantinos Makris
International Journal of Inflammation , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/189797
Abstract: Background. Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease and the acute clinical manifestations represent acute on chronic inflammation. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is found in the granules of human neutrophils, with many diverse functions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that levels NGAL in blood may reflect the inflammatory process in various stages of coronary artery disease. Methods. We studied 140 patients, with SA 40, UA 35, NSTEMI 40, and STEMI 25, and 20 healthy controls. Serum NGAL was measured upon admission and before coronary angiography. Results. Significant differences were observed in median serum-NGAL(ng/mL) between patients with SA (79.23 (IQR, 37.50–100.32)), when compared with UA (108.00 (68.34–177.59)), NSTEMI (166.49 (109.24–247.20)), and STEMI (178.63 (111.18–305.92)) patients and controls (50.31 (44.30–69.78)) with significant incremental value from SA to STEMI. We observed a positive and significant correlation between serum-NGAL and hs-CRP (spearman coefficient rho = 0.685, ?? < 0 . 0 0 0 1 ) as well as with neutrophil counts (r = 0.511, ?? < 0 . 0 0 0 1 ). Conclusions. In patients with coronary artery disease serum levels of NGAL increase and reflect the degree of inflammatory process. In patients with acute coronary syndromes, serum levels of NGAL have high negative predictive value and reflecting the inflammatory status could show the severity of coronary clinical syndrome. 1. Introduction Systemic inflammation participates in atherosclerosis evolution from the early development of endothelial dysfunction, to formation of mature atheromatic plaques, to the ultimate endpoint, rupture, and thrombotic complications [1]. Plaque rupture with the formation of an occlusive thrombus is the cause of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) [2]. Inflammatory cells, involving activated neutrophils, are more frequently found in plaques vulnerable to rupture [3]. Neutrophil activation has been reported in unstable angina (UA) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) but not in patients with stable angina (SA) [4–10]. This activation seems to precede myocardial injury in patients with AMI [11]. Therefore biomarkers of neutrophil activation could be of prognostic and even diagnostic importance. Recent studies have shown that gelatinase B also known as matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), an endopeptidase capable of degrading the extracellular matrix, is thought to be associated with atherosclerosis, and plaque rupture [12, 13]. Therefore, MMP-9 is considered to be an important mediator of vascular remodeling
Differential patterns of histone acetylation in inflammatory bowel diseases
Loukia G Tsaprouni, Kazuhiro Ito, Jonathan J Powell, Ian M Adcock, Neville Punchard
Journal of Inflammation , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1476-9255-8-1
Abstract: The cause of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remains unknown. The main forms of IBD are Crohn's disease and Ulcerative colitis. The main difference between Crohn's disease and UC is the location and nature of the inflammatory changes. Crohn's can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract, from mouth to anus (skip lesions), although a majority of the cases start in the terminal ileum. Ulcerative colitis, in contrast, is restricted to the colon and the rectum [1]. It has been proposed that epithelial abnormalities are the central defect, and that they underlie the development of mucosal inflammation and its chronicity [2]. In some patients IBD can be effectively treated by enemas containing short chain fatty acids (SCFA) such as butyrate, propionate, and acetate [3] in combination with steroid treatment. The molecular mechanisms that lead to this response have not been well characterized.Several rodent models of chronic intestinal inflammation share immunopathologic features with human IBD. The two most widely used models of experimental colitis are, the 2,4,-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) model of intestinal inflammation and the dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced colitis model. DSS-induced colitis resembles ulcerative colitis with regard to its pathologic features. The TNBS induced colitis is an experimental model of intestinal inflammation that most closely resembles the histologic features of Crohn's disease [4,5]. It has recently been reported that distinctive disease-specific cytokine profiles were identified with significant correlations to disease activity and duration of disease in the two models. TNBS colitis exhibits a heightened Th1-Th17 response (increased IL-12 and IL-17) as the disease becomes chronic. In contrast, DSS colitis switches from a Th1-Th17-mediated acute inflammation to a predominant Th2-mediated inflammatory response in the chronic state [6,7].Two recent articles clearly show that the transcription factor NF-B signalling in int
Detection of Helicobacter pylori: A faster urease test can save resources
Andriani Koumi, Theodoros Filippidis, Vassilia Leontara, Loukia Makri, Marios Zenon Panos
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2011,
Abstract: AIM: To investigate whether differences in the rapidity of a positive result for Helicobacter pylori can save resources, by comparing two commercially available urease kits.METHODS: One hundred and eighty-five adults (130 outpatients, 55 inpatients) undergoing gastroscopy were entered prospectively. Patients were divided into two groups: Group 1 (if they were not on PPIs, antibiotics, H2A, bismuth or sucralfate for up to 14 d prior to the endoscopy) and Group 2 (if they were on, or had been on, any of the above medication in the previous 14 d). At endoscopy two sets of biopsies, taken in random order, were placed in the wells of the Campylobacter-like organism (CLO) test (Kimberly-Clark, Utah, USA) and the Quick test (Biohit Plc, Helsinki, Finland). Five additional gastric biopsies were taken for histology/Giemsa and immunohistochemical study. The two urease test slides were read at 2 min, 30 min, 2 h and 24 h. Sensitivity and specificity at 24 h were determined.RESULTS: At 24 h, for all patients, there was no difference in sensitivity (100% vs 97.5%), specificity (99.3%), positive (97.5%) and negative predictive values (100% vs 99.3%) between the CLO and Quick tests, respectively. There was a positive result at 30 min in 17/41 (41.5%) CLO tests, and in 28/40 (70%) Quick tests, P = 0.05. Quick test enabled the prescription of eradication therapy before discharge in all 28/40 patients. Only 12 (30%) follow-up appointments were needed. If the CLO test had been used alone, only 17 (41.5%) prescriptions would have been possible prior to discharge and 24 (58%) follow-up appointments would be needed (P = 0.001). Of 2000 gastroscopies performed annually at our unit, a saving of 123 follow-up appointments (total: 8856 Euros or 11 808 USD) would be achieved if we switched to the Quick test.CONCLUSION: Direct comparison of locally available urease test kits is worthwhile, since the appropriate choice results in a significant saving of resources. Local costs and follow-up protocols will determine the magnitude of these savings.
An Association Study between Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1alpha (HIF-1α) Polymorphisms and Osteonecrosis
Georgia Chachami, Alkmini Kalousi, Loukia Papatheodorou, Aggeliki Lyberopoulou, Vasileios Nasikas, Keiji Tanimoto, George Simos, Konstantinos N. Malizos, Eleni Georgatsou
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0079647
Abstract: Bone hypoxia resulting from impaired blood flow is the final pathway for the development of osteonecrosis (ON). The aim of this study was to evaluate if HIF-1α, the major transcription factor triggered by hypoxia, is genetically implicated in susceptibility to ON. For this we analyzed frequencies of three known HIF-1α polymorphisms: one in exon 2 (C111A) and two in exon 12 (C1772T and G1790A) and their association with ON in a Greek population. Genotype analysis was performed using PCR-RFLP and rare alleles were further confirmed with sequencing. We found that genotype and allele frequency of C1772T and G1790A SNP of HIF-1α (SNPs found in our cohort) were not significantly different in ON patients compared to control patients. Furthermore these SNPs could not be associated with the different subgroups of ON. At the protein level we observed that the corresponding mutations (P582S and A588T, respectively) are not significant for protein function since the activity, expression and localization of the mutant proteins is practically indistinguishable from wt in HEK293 and Saos-2 cells. These results suggest that these missense mutations in the HIF-1α gene are not important for the risk of developing ON.
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