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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3489 matches for " Louise Gilbert "
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A Combinatorial Analysis of Tree-Like Sentences  [PDF]
Gilbert Labelle, Louise Laforest
Open Journal of Discrete Mathematics (OJDM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojdm.2015.53004
Abstract: A sentence over a finite alphabet A, is a finite sequence of non-empty words over A. More generally, we define a graphical sentence over A by attaching a non-empty word over A to each arrow and each loop of a connected directed graph (digraph, for short). Each word is written according to the direction of its corresponding arrow or loop. Graphical sentences can be used to encode sets of sentences in a compact way: the readable sentences of a graphical sentence being the sentences corresponding to directed paths in the digraph. We apply combinatorial equations on enriched trees and rooted trees, in the context of combinatorial species and Pólya theories, to analyze parameters in classes of tree-like sentences. These are graphical sentences constructed on tree-like digraphs.
Congenital melanocytic nevus of the oral mucosa: report of a rare pigmented lesion and review of the literature
Melanie Louise Gilbert,Weddad Hanna,Danny Ghazarian,Dean Dover
Clinics and Practice , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/cp.2011.e17
Abstract: Oral pigmented lesions are uncommon and congenital melanocytic nevi are especially rare. We report a case of a patient with multiple congenital melanocytic nevi including a palatal lesion. This is reported to add to the scant literature that exists on this subject. Prognosis and management are discussed.
Array CGH Phylogeny: How accurate are Comparative Genomic Hybridization-based trees?
Luz B Gilbert, Takao Kasuga, N Louise Glass, John W Taylor
BMC Genomics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-12-487
Abstract: Array ratio data for Neurospora and related species were normalized with loess, robust spline, and linear ratio based methods, and then used to construct Neighbor-Joining and parsimony trees. These trees were compared to published phylogenetic analyses for Neurospora based on multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA). For the Neurospora dataset, the best combination of methods resulted in recovery of the MLSA tree topology less than half the time. Our reanalysis of a yeast dataset found that trees identical to established phylogeny were recovered only by pruning taxa - including the reference taxon - from the analysis.Our results indicate that CGH data can be problematic for phylogenetic analysis. Success fluctuates based on the methods utilized to construct the tree and the taxa included. Selective pruning of the taxa improves the results - an impractical approach for normal phylogenetic analysis. From the more successful methods we make suggestions on the normalization and post-normalization methods that work best in estimating genetic distance between taxa.Microarray-based Comparative Genomic Hybridization (Array CGH) for two-color array platforms uses DNA samples from a reference individual and a test individual, each labelled with a different fluorescent dye, and competitively hybridizes them to an array composed of immobilized DNA fragments based on genomic sequence of the reference individual [1-4]. Array CGH produces abundant information about genetic distance for all genes between pairs of individuals. This ability to estimate genetic distance for all genes in one assay has made array CGH an attractive tool for phylogenetic analysis. Several studies have used array CGH to compare bacterial species [5-10], and in one case both human and bovine data [11], to deduce evolutionary relationships from cluster analysis. Other studies, also mostly in bacterial systems, applied distance and parsimony tree-building techniques to construct phylogenies from microarray data [1
Fatigue in fibromyalgia: a conceptual model informed by patient interviews
Louise Humphrey, Rob Arbuckle, Philip Mease, David A Williams, Bente Samsoe, Claire Gilbert
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2474-11-216
Abstract: Open-ended interviews were conducted with 40 individuals with FM (US [n = 20], Germany [n = 10] and France [n = 10]). Transcripts were analyzed using qualitative methods based upon grounded theory to identify key themes and concepts.Participants were mostly female (70%) with a mean age of 48.7 years (range: 25-79). Thirty-one individuals (i.e., 77.5%) spontaneously described experiencing tiredness/lack of energy/fatigue due to FM. Participants discussed FM fatigue as being more severe, constant/persistent and unpredictable than normal tiredness. The conceptual model depicts the key elements of fatigue in FM from a patient perspective. This includes: an overwhelming feeling of tiredness (n = 17, 42.5%), not relieved by resting/sleeping (n = 15, 37.5%), not proportional to effort exerted (n = 25, 62.5%), associated with a feeling of weakness/heaviness (n = 20, 50%), interferes with motivation (n = 22, 55%), interferes with desired activities (n = 27, 67.5%), prolongs tasks (n = 15, 37.5%), and makes it difficult to concentrate (n = 21, 52.5%), think clearly (n = 12, 30%) or remember things (n = 9, 22.5%).The majority of individuals with FM who participated in this study experience fatigue and describe it as more severe than normal tiredness.Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic disorder characterised by widespread pain and tenderness [1,2], with an estimated prevalence in adults ranging from 0.5-10% worldwide [3-9] with a predominance among females [10]. In addition to chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain, symptoms of fatigue, sleep disorders, headaches, memory or concentration problems, mood disturbances, and stiffness are also commonly associated with FM [1,2,4,11].Previous focus groups found that, in addition to pain and sleep disturbance, fatigue was perceived by patients to be one of the three most bothersome symptoms of FM [11]. A Delphi study by 23 FM expert clinicians identified fatigue as being the second most important domain to measure (after pain), and it was
Improvements in Immune Function and Activation with 48-Week Darunavir/Ritonavir-Based Therapy: GRACE Substudy
Christos Tsoukas,Louise Gilbert,Trevor Lewis,George Hatzakis,Ron Falcon,Joseph Mrus
ISRN AIDS , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/358294
Abstract: Objective. During the course of HIV infection, progressive immune deficiency occurs. The aim of this prospective substudy was to evaluate the recovery of functional immunity in a subset of patients from the GRACE (Gender, Race, And Clinical Experience) study treated with a DRV/r-based regimen. Methods. The recovery of functional immunity with a darunavir/ritonavir-based regimen was assessed in a subset of treatment-experienced, HIV-1 infected patients from the GRACE study. Results. 19/32 patients (59%) enrolled in the substudy were virologically suppressed (<50 copies/mL). In these patients, median (range) CD4+ cell count increased from 222 (2, 398) cells/mm3 at baseline to 398 (119, 812) cells/mm3 at Week 48. CD8+% decreased significantly from baseline to Week 48 ( ). Proliferation of CD4+ lymphocytes in response to CD3+/CD28+, phytohemagglutinin, and pokeweed was significantly increased ( ) by Week 12. Proliferation in response to Candida and tetanus was significantly increased by Week 48 ( and , resp.). Staphylococcal enterotoxin B-stimulated tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-2 in CD4+ cells was significantly increased by Week 12 ( ) and Week 48 ( ), respectively. Conclusions. Darunavir/ritonavir-based therapy demonstrated improvements in CD4+ cell recovery and association with progressive functional immune recovery over 48 weeks. This trial is registered with NCT00381303. 1. Introduction During the course of HIV-1 infection, multifactorial T-lymphocyte (T-cell)-mediated mechanisms contribute to the progressive loss of host immune function [1–5]. In infected individuals, immune dysregulation occurs early and is characterized by a decrease in CD4+ cell count, a concurrent rise in CD8+ cells, a progressive decline in the CD4+/CD8+ ratio, and defective thymocyte proliferation [6]. During late-stage disease, loss of T-cell homeostasis also occurs [7, 8]. T cells are chronically activated throughout the course of HIV infection, as indicated by an increase in the expression of the antigens Ki67, CD38, and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR, with CD38 recognized as the most reliable marker of immune activation [1–3, 5, 9]. Immune activation provides the virus with a steady pool of target cells and has been linked with increased polyclonal T-cell proliferation and turnover, as well as increases in the apoptotic marker CD95 [10–13] and activation-induced cell death [12, 14–16]. Concomitant with the decline of CD4 cells in the peripheral blood, the frequency of the CD4+ CD28 null subset increases with disease progression and eventual progression to
Modeling Time in Medical Education Research: The Potential of New Flexible Parametric Methods of Survival Analysis  [PDF]
Gilbert Reibnegger
Creative Education (CE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2012.326139
Abstract: Time – the duration of a certain process or the timing of a specified event – plays a central role in many situations in medical research. Waiting time analysis (“survival analysis”) is a field of statistics providing the tools for solving the unique problems of such studies. In particular, waiting time analysis correctly handles the typical positively skewed distributions of waiting times as well as censored observations on study subjects for whom the target event does not occur before data collection ends. For decades, non-parametric Kaplan-Meier analysis and semiparametric Cox regression despite some inherent limitations have dominated waiting time analysis in medical contexts, while parametric models, although in principle offering important theoretical advantages, were scarcely applied in practice because of lacking flexibility. Recently, however, new flexible parametric methods (Royston-Parmar models) became available offering exciting new research potential. Surprisingly, although medical education research deals with a range of typical problems suited for waiting time analysis, the methods were rarely used in the past. By re-analyzing data from a previous investigation on study dropout of medical students, this is the first study demonstrating the usefulness and practical applications of waiting time analysis with special emphasis on Royston-Parmar models in a medical education research environment.
The Canadian Policy on the Protection of Foreign Investment and the Canada-China Bilateral Investment Treaty  [PDF]
Gilbert Gagné
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2019.103021
Abstract: For a trading nation such as Canada, access to foreign markets has long been a key concern. In 2012, the Canadian government concluded a bilateral investment treaty (BIT) with China, so as to better protect Canada’s investments in this big expanding market. China’s communist regime, coupled with the importance of the country, has seemingly caused the Canada-China BIT to differ from the Canadian BIT model, both in terms of substantive provisions and the investor-state dispute settlement mechanism. Drawing on a legal-political analytical approach, the article: 1) looks at some key provisions on investment protection in the Canada-China BIT and 2) discusses the ways in which this BIT marks a departure in Canadian foreign investment policy. It also considers disagreements among legal scholars and commentators as to the implications of these differences, particularly with respect to the non-reciprocal character of the BIT to China’s advantage.
An interactive 3D viewer of molecules compatible with the suite of ANTHEPROT programs  [PDF]
Gilbert Deléage
Journal of Biophysical Chemistry (JBPC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jbpc.2012.31004
Abstract: In this paper, I will describe a completely new 3D module which can be called from within the well known ANTHEPROT program devoted to protein sequences analysis. This module allows fully interactive handling of high-quality 3D structures with various modes of representation (CA sticks, wireframe, ball and sticks, spacefill mod-els as well as surface, ribbons, Ramachandran plots). Alternatively, ANTHEPROT 3D can be used as an external program fully independant from the global package. It is available from the download page of the web site (http://antheprot-pbil.ibcp.fr/). More than 2800 downloads last year were recorded since the program was delivered.
Mathematical Platonism and the Nature of Infinity  [PDF]
Gilbert B. C?té
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2013.33056
Abstract: An analysis of the counter-intuitive properties of infinity as understood differently in mathematics, classical physics and quantum physics allows the consideration of various paradoxes under a new light (e.g. Zeno’s dichotomy, Torricelli’s trumpet, and the weirdness of quantum physics). It provides strong support for the reality of abstractness and mathematical Platonism, and a plausible reason why there is something rather than nothing in the concrete universe. The conclusions are far reaching for science and philosophy.
Triple-Aspect Monism and the Ontology of Quantum Particles  [PDF]
Gilbert B. C?té
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2013.34066
Abstract: An analysis of the physical implications of abstractness reveals the reality of three interconnected modes of existence: abstract, virtual and concrete. This triple-aspect monism clarifies the ontological status of subatomic quantum particles. It also provides a non-spooky solution to the weirdness of quantum physics and a new outlook for the mind-body problem. The ontological implications are profound for both physics and philosophy.
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