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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 202398 matches for " Louis N. Awad "
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Do Improvements in Balance Relate to Improvements in Long-Distance Walking Function after Stroke?
Louis N. Awad,Darcy S. Reisman,Stuart A. Binder-Macleod
Stroke Research and Treatment , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/646230
Abstract: Stroke survivors identify a reduced capacity to walk farther distances as a factor limiting their engagement at home and in community. Previous observational studies have shown that measures of balance ability and balance self-efficacy are strong predictors of long-distance walking function after stroke. Consequently, recommendations to target balance during rehabilitation have been put forth. The purpose of this study was to determine if the changes in balance and long-distance walking function observed following a 12-week poststroke walking rehabilitation program were related. For thirty-one subjects with hemiparesis after stroke, this investigation explored the cross-sectional (i.e., before training) and longitudinal (i.e., changes due to intervention) relationships between measures of standing balance, walking balance, and balance self-efficacy versus long-distance walking function as measured via the 6-minute walk test (6MWT). A regression model containing all three balance variables accounted for 60.8% of the variance in 6MWT performance ( ; ; ); however, only dynamic balance (FGA) was an independent predictor ( ) of 6MWT distance. Interestingly, changes in balance were unrelated to changes in the distance walked (each correlation coefficient , ). For persons after stroke similar to those studied, improving balance may not be sufficient to improve long-distance walking function. 1. Introduction The recovery of walking function is an ultimate goal of rehabilitation after stroke [1]. Indeed, for a majority of stroke survivors, impairments in their ability to walk farther limit their participation at home and in the community [2]. Unfortunately, current therapies are generally unable to improve the majority of subjects’ capacity for community ambulation [3]. Moreover, walking deficits that contribute to reduced endurance and speed persist following rehabilitation [4–6]. A better understanding of the changes underlying improvements in long-distance walking function following walking rehabilitation would inform future efforts and define specific targets for gait intervention. Recent observational studies have shown balance to be a powerful predictor of poststroke walking function [7–13] and a variable related to quality of life after stroke [14]. Specifically, individuals with better balance abilities typically present with better walking function. Based on such findings, recommendations to target balance during poststroke rehabilitation are commonly put forth. However, basing interventions on the results of cross-sectional studies may not be
Optimizing the Preparation Conditions of Bi-2223 Superconducting Phase Using PbO and PbO2  [PDF]
N. H. Mohammed, Ramadan Awad, A. I. Abou-Aly, I. H. Ibrahim, M. S. Hassan
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2012.34033
Abstract: In this work, superconducting samples of type (Bi1.8Pb0.4)Sr1.9Ca2.1Cu3O10+δ were prepared, with Pb0.4 composed of Pb0.2 2+ and Pb0.24+ , at different sintering temperatures ranging from 835℃to 855℃. The prepared samples were characterized using x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and differential scanning calorimetery (DSC). The superconducting properties were investigated using electrical resistivity and transport critical current density. Our results showed that the sample prepared at sintering temperature 845?C has the optimum value of superconducting transition temperature Tc and transport critical current density Jc.
Exploring Teaching Training Using Metaphors among Arab Students in Israel  [PDF]
Khawla Zoabi, Yaser Awad
Creative Education (CE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2012.32034
Abstract: Many studies reveal that personal insights and growth can be followed through the study of narratives and metaphors in the field of education. Yet, there is a striking lack of studies in education that analyzes students’ metaphors regarding teacher-training practicum as a continuous process, and there is a lack of such studies in various cultural contexts. This paper describes how Arab teacher-training students described their impressions of their practical experience through personal stories entirely based in metaphoric language. The study was carried out in a multiple case study format, in which the cases are the stories of the students. The stories were written in Arabic the mother tongue of the students. This paper contributed to the body of knowledge available about student teachers’ practical experiences in two ways: first, by providing a detailed understanding of how students perceive their practicum; and second, since knowledge through metaphors can provide direction in structuring training courses for student teaching in accordance with student insights and by addressing their needs, such an understanding will be useful to teachers and instructors and can guide them in providing training that is relevant, rational, and supportive.
Factors Affecting Electricity Demand in Jordan  [PDF]
Mohammad Awad Momani
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2013.51007

1) The paper examines the relationship between electricity demand and climate/non-climate related factors using statistical regression analysis. 2) It focuses on the environmental, demographic, policy (energy pricing) and technological factors as the main factors affecting the consumption pattern in Jordan. 3) The paper also presents the variations occurred in the electricity demand over the period 1994-2008. The variations that are observed during the period of study are: Shifting of the peak load occurrence from evening to morning period, Modification in the annual daily load curve especially in winter season, Variation in relationship between space temperature and demand especially in winter, and dramatic increase in electric generation after year 2003. The shift in peak load from evening to morning period is mainly due to technological factor as a result of wide use of the air conditions in houses, services and government offices for cooling in summer instead of ordinary air fans. The variations in consumption pattern between 2000 and 2007 are mainly associated with economic, social and demographic factors. The high demand at lower space temperature is governed by introducing new appliances for heating in winter as a result of low electricity pricing comparing with gasoline price. The dramatic increase in electric generation after 2003 is probably due to demographic factors as a result of high growth of population after the Gulf war II. 4) The correlation between the daily maximum loads in morning and evening periods with the differential temperature (ΔT) above 20?C threshold in summer and below 15?C threshold in winter, shows pronounced changes in 2007 compared with year 2000. The regression tests show that a decrease of 1?C below 15?C threshold in winter 1) increases the morning demand by only 2 MW/?C in 2000 and 16.7 MW/?C in 2007, 2) decreases the evening peak by ?2.6 MW/1?C in 2000 and increases the evening peak by 22.9 MW/1?C in 2007. Results show that the demographic, technological, environmental and national energy pricing factors play a vital rule in consumption pattern in Jordan. Moreover, the paper reveals that planners and decision makers should be careful when applying new tariff in the developing countries such as Jordan.

Analysis and Tectonic Implication of DEM-Derived Structural Lineaments, Sinai Peninsula, Egypt  [PDF]
Tarek Awad Seleem
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2013.41016

Sinai Peninsula has fascinating geologic setting and is displaying a diversity of structural lineaments that have greatly influenced the distribution of natural resources and hazards. Shaded relief images derived from SRTM-DEM mosaics were used for the identification, extraction, and mapping of these structural lineaments. Statistical parameters particularly, azimuth frequency, lineament intersection, lengths, and density distribution were analyzed using SPSS software. Two additional new statistical indices; Lineament Relative Abundance Index (LRAI) and Lineament Majority-Minority Index (LMMI) were applied. Moreover, the distribution of the different statistical parameters was illustrated as contour maps through GIS environment. Basically, two dominant clusters; NW-SE and NNE-SSW trends were detected. These trends are related to major fracture systems that are characterized by extensive mean lengths and high proportion values. Furthermore, the northern and central parts of Sinai Peninsula have lower density and intersection of structural lineaments that gradually increase towards the southern part. However, the northern part of Sinai displays wider areas of majority zones than the southern part. This could be attributed to the lower density of lineaments and little tendency for multiple lineament populations. The majority zones are usually associated with NE and NW-SE in the northern part of Sinai, whereas the majority zones are of less abundance in the central and southern parts of Sinai due to the multiple orientations of lineament populations which reduce the tendency for majority. Eventually, the results of the present work could be applicable in the different geologic and environmental aspects that are based on a good understanding of the genetic and spatial relationships of fracture systems. These aspects encompass geodynamics, exploration for mineralization and groundwater, in addition to the mitigation of natural hazards such as flush flooding and earthquakes.

Human Detection by Robotic Urban Search and Rescue Using Image Processing and Neural Networks  [PDF]
Fahed Awad, Rufaida Shamroukh
International Journal of Intelligence Science (IJIS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijis.2014.42006

This paper proposes a new approach for detecting human survivors in destructed environments using an autonomous robot. The proposed system uses a passive infrared sensor to detect the existence of living humans and a low-cost camera to acquire snapshots of the scene. The images are fed into a feed-forward neural network, trained to detect the existence of a human body or part of it within an obstructed environment. This approach requires a relatively small number of images to be acquired and processed during the rescue operation, which considerably reduces the cost of image processing, data transmission, and power consumption. The results of the conducted experiments demonstrated that this system has the potential to achieve high performance in detecting living humans in obstructed environments relatively quickly and cost-effectively. The detection accuracy ranged between 79% and 91% depending on a number of factors such as the body position, the light intensity, and the relative color matching between the body and the surrounding environment.

Politeness in Business Writing: The Effects of Ethnicity and Relating Factors on Email Communication  [PDF]
Mohammad Awad AlAfnan
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2014.42022

This study investigated politeness in workplace emails that were written in a Malaysian educational institute. It examined the use of politeness strategies in relation to the ethnicity of the communicators, power relations and social distance. Previous research on Malaysian workplace emails revealed that Malaysians usually use the direct imperative or declarative politeness strategies in emails. This study however, revealed that the Malaysian employees (i.e., Malay, Chinese Malaysians, Indian Malaysians) mainly used the indirect positive and negative politeness strategies. This is the case to establish rapport and connect with the recipient on the personal level. The study also revealed that social distance played a more significant role than power imbalance as Malaysians, in general, seemed more polite to distant colleagues than they were to close colleagues.

Sound, Waves and Communication: Students’ Achievements and Motivation in Learning a STEM-Oriented Program  [PDF]
Nayif Awad, Moshe Barak
Creative Education (CE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2014.523220
Abstract: In this article, we present the case of developing an interdisciplinary curriculum for learning science and technology, its implementation in junior high schools and evaluation of students’ achievements and attitude. The 30-hour course (15 two-hour sessions) includes subjects such as sound and waves, conversion of sound to electrical signal, amplification, sampling, and analog to digital conversion. Beyond teachers’ short presentations, the students are engaged in problem solving and project-based learning, with strong emphasis on using information and computer technologies (ICT) tools such as simulation and sound editing software. One could see that the course design was guided by the following principles: contextual learning, integrated learning of science, technology and computer sciences; extensive use of information and computer technologies (ICT); and combining teacher’s instruction with project based learning. The research aimed at exploring students’ achievements and motivation to learn science, technology and computers. The participants in the pilot study were 40 junior high-school students in 7th grade (age 13). In the near future, the course will be updated and run once again among junior high school students and student teachers in a regional college. Data collection tools include: achievement tests, attitude questionnaires, interviews with teachers and students, and analysis of the students’ assignments and projects. The findings indicate that the students manage to handle the subject fairly well and have good achievements in the final exam. The learners also succeeded in developing final projects in sound and communication systems, “The human ear” and “Bluetooth”, and presented their projects to the parents.
Some Construction Methods of A-Optimum Chemical Balance Weighing Designs  [PDF]
Rashmi Awad, Shakti Banerjee
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2014.213136
Abstract: Some new construction methods of the optimum chemical balance weighing designs and pairwise efficiency and variance balanced designs are proposed, which are based on the incidence matrices of the known symmetric balanced incomplete block designs. Also the conditions under which the constructed chemical balance weighing designs become A-optimal are also been given.
Quality of Nursing Courses as Perceived by Students: Relationship with Their Academic Achievement in Palestine College of Nursing  [PDF]
Yousif Mahmoud Awad
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2015.51005
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the Bachelor Science of Nursing (BSN), student’s perceptions of the quality of nursing courses taught at Palestine College of Nursing (PCN), which were fundamentals of nursing course, adult nursing course, pediatric nursing course, maternity nursing course, community nursing course, mental health and psychiatric nursing course and nursing management and leadership course, and its relationship with their academic achievement. The Palestine College of Nursing is governmental and Ministry of Health (MOH) affiliated. The sample included 467 nursing students registered in the college who studied the previously mentioned nursing courses. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire developed by the researcher, and guided by literature. That was to assess the included nine quality dimensions of the nursing courses as perceived by the students. Content validity and reliability tests were done for the tool. The study revealed that the total students’ perceptions of the quality of all nurses courses were within average quality level (80.42%). The nursing management course and community health nursing course were of the first two ranks of high quality level (84.54%, and 84.48%, respectively), where mental health and psychiatric nursing course, fundamentals of nursing course, adult health nursing course, pediatric nursing course and maternity health nursing course were the next ranks of average quality level. The study revealed that students’ perceptions of seven dimensions from nine were with average quality level (80.50%). The first rank was the “teacher/instructor characteristics and attributes”, dimension of high quality level (84.44%), while the last rank was “teaching methodology” dimension of average quality level (77.54%). There was a positive relationship between students’ achievement and the courses’ quality dimensions, pertaining objectives of the course, contents of the course, teacher/instructor competencies, teacher characteristics, teaching methodology, students/teacher interaction and course evaluation. The study recommended improving the quality of nursing courses for better level and to improve the quality of some dimensions like using different teaching strategies, the quality of clinical settings, and improve the quality of nursing instructors in some clinical areas. Finally the researcher recommend for further studies about concerning quality in nursing education.
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