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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4330 matches for " Louis Bherer "
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Physical Exercise and Brain Functions in Older Adults
Louis Bherer,Kirk I. Erickson,Teresa Liu-Ambrose
Journal of Aging Research , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/197326
A Review of the Effects of Physical Activity and Exercise on Cognitive and Brain Functions in Older Adults
Louis Bherer,Kirk I. Erickson,Teresa Liu-Ambrose
Journal of Aging Research , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/657508
Abstract: Studies supporting the notion that physical activity and exercise can help alleviate the negative impact of age on the body and the mind abound. This literature review provides an overview of important findings in this fast growing research domain. Results from cross-sectional, longitudinal, and intervention studies with healthy older adults, frail patients, and persons suffering from mild cognitive impairment and dementia are reviewed and discussed. Together these finding suggest that physical exercise is a promising nonpharmaceutical intervention to prevent age-related cognitive decline and neurodegenerative diseases. 1. Introduction Chronological aging, or senescence, is associated with an increased risk of chronic conditions and diseases such as cognitive impairment, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic syndrome. Due to prolonged life expectancy, age-related diseases have increased in alarming proportions in recent decades [1]. An increasing body of studies have suggested that lifestyle factors have a significant impact on how well people age. For example, Fratiglioni et al. [2] reported that three lifestyle factors can play a significant role in slowing the rate of cognitive decline and preventing dementia: a socially integrated network, cognitive leisure activity, and regular physical activity. In this review and others [3, 4], it is argued that out of these lifestyle factors, physical activity has the most support as protective against the deleterious effects of age on health and cognition. Broadly defined, physical activity refers to activity that is part of one’s daily life involving bodily movements and the use of skeletal muscles. Physical exercise is a subcategory of physical activity that is planned, structured, and purposive to improve specific physical skills or physical fitness. Evidence suggests that physical activity and exercise can to some extent lower the risk of adverse outcomes associated with advancing age. Physical activity maintained throughout life is associated with lower incidence and prevalence of chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular and coronary heart diseases [5, 6]. Recent studies suggest that physical exercise also protects against dementia [7]. Yet, despite this promise, the ways in which physical activity impacts the rate and prevalence of cognitive decline is still under investigation. Furthermore, several open issues call for further research, such as the dose-response relationship, the level of change or protection provided by physical activity, the biological and/or psychological
The Effect of Three Months of Aerobic Training on Stroop Performance in Older Adults
David Predovan,Sarah A. Fraser,Mélanie Renaud,Louis Bherer
Journal of Aging Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/269815
Abstract: Growing evidence supports the use of physical training interventions to improve both physical and cognitive performances in healthy older adults. Few studies have examined the impact of aerobic exercise on Stroop task performance, a measure of executive functions. In the current 3-month aerobic training study, 50 older adults (mean age = 67.96 ± 6.25 years) were randomly assigned to either a three-month physical training group or to a control group (waiting list). Training sessions were 3 times per week for 60 minutes. All participants completed pre- and post-test measures of cognitive performance using the modified Stroop task and physical performance (Rockport one-mile test). Compared to controls, the training group showed significant improvements in physical capacity ( ) and enhanced Stroop performance, but only in the inhibition/switching condition ( ). Furthermore, the increase in aerobic capacity induced by the training regimen correlated negatively with reaction time in the inhibition/switching condition of the Stroop task at posttest ( ; ). Importantly, the reported gains in cognitive performance were observed after only three months of physical training. Taken together, the results suggest that even short-term physical interventions can enhance older adults’ executive functions. 1. Introduction A variety of executive function processes sustained by the prefrontal cortex decline over time [1] (e.g., response preparation [2] and task switching [3]). Recent accounts of executive functions suggest that they rely on distinct basic mechanisms [4], namely, updating (of new information), inhibition (suppressing prepotent responses) and shifting (from one mental set to another), that could be differentially altered as we age. The variability in the trajectories of cognitive decline [5] suggests that compensatory mechanisms [6] and individual factors (i.e., involvement in physical activity and cognitive reserve) [7] could minimize these deficits. Physical activity, defined as any activity that involves bodily movements, is one individual factor that can reduce the impact of aging on executive functions [8, 9]. In goal-directed research, physical activity that was planned, structured, and repetitive improves physical fitness, defined as the ability to function efficiently and effectively in work and leisure activities and to meet unforeseen emergency situations [10]. Theoretically, the “selective improvement” hypothesis [11] argues that aerobic exercise known to increase cardiorespiratory fitness as indexed by direct measures or estimations of (i.e.,
The Effect of Three Months of Aerobic Training on Stroop Performance in Older Adults
David Predovan,Sarah A. Fraser,Mélanie Renaud,Louis Bherer
Journal of Aging Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/269815
The Effect of Three Months of Aerobic Training on Response Preparation in Older Adults
Mélanie Renaud,Fran?ois Maquestiaux,Steve Joncas,Marie-Jeanne Kergoat,Louis Bherer
Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience , 2010, DOI: 10.3389/fnagi.2010.00148
Abstract: This study assessed the effects of an aerobic training program on reaction time tasks that manipulated preparatory intervals (PI) to produce temporal preparation effects using short (1, 3, 5 s) and long (5, 7, 9 s) PI. Older adults were assigned to either a 3-month aerobic training group or to a control group. Individuals in the training group participated in an aerobic training program of three 60-min sessions per week. The control group did not receive any training. Results indicated that 12 weeks of aerobic training induced a significant improvement in cardiorespiratory capacity (VO2max estimate). All participants who completed the aerobic program showed improvement after training in the choice RT task, along with enhanced preparation, such that they maintained preparation over time more efficiently after the training program. Moreover, enhanced ability to use the short PI was observed but only in lower fit individuals. Results of the present study suggest that improving aerobic fitness may enhance attentional control mechanisms in older adults.
Modes de vie et politiques municipales : regards sur le milieu périurbain montréalais
Sandra Breux,Laurence Bherer
Articulo : Journal of Urban Research , 2009,
Abstract: à partir d’une lecture critique des travaux d’Alan Walks et d’une enquête de terrain exploratoire menée dans une municipalité du milieu périurbain montréalais, l’objectif de cet article est de démontrer que les frontières municipales sont des marqueurs idéologiques forts, susceptibles d’expliquer les valeurs différentes que l’on associe aux quartiers centraux et aux quartiers suburbains. à ce titre, l’analyse des politiques publiques adoptées par les municipalités de banlieue est un moyen de saisir l’importance de la frontière municipale et des valeurs qu’elle recouvre.
Comment protéger la santé des travailleurs dans un système qui ne repose pas sur les notions d’aptitude et d’inaptitude ? How to protect workers’ health in a system that is not based on the concepts of “capacity” and “incapacity” Cómo proteger la salud de los trabajadores en un sistema que no se basa en los conceptos de aptitud et ineptitud ?
Robert Plante,Luc Bherer,Michel Vézina
Perspectives Interdisciplinaires sur le Travail et la Santé , 2010,
Abstract: Au Québec, en santé au travail, l’approche de santé publique a été privilégiée à l’approche médicale individuelle, parce qu’elle est conséquente aux objectifs de la loi, à savoir la prise en charge par le milieu de ses problèmes et la diminution, voire l’élimination des dangers. Quant aux activités médicales individuelles, elles ne sont réalisées que lorsqu’elles sont légitimes, c’est-à-dire lorsque leur pertinence et leur efficacité sur le plan de la prévention ont été démontrées. Quelques évaluations l’ont confirmé, l’approche par programme des services de santé publique québécois fonctionne en général très bien et elle est efficace. Mieux que l’examen médical de chaque sujet, elle permet de centrer les énergies sur les expositions professionnelles et les composantes de l’organisation du travail susceptibles de provoquer des problèmes. Malgré toutes ses qualités, le système de santé au travail québécois se heurte à de sérieuses résistances institutionnelles et politiques qui ont compromis son développement et mènent progressivement à son essoufflement. In Québec, in occupational health, the public health approach has been favoured over the individual medical approach because it is consistent with the objectives of the law, namely this community taking charge of its problems, and the reduction and even elimination of risk factors. Individual medical activities are limited to cases where the relevance and effectiveness of preventive benefits have been demonstrated. Some evaluative studies have shown that this Québec public health program approach works well in general, and is effective. Compared with the medical examination of each subject, it has a better potential for focusing energies on occupational exposures and on work organizational factors that could cause problems. Despite all its advantages, the Québec occupational health system is facing serious institutional and political resistance that has compromised its development and is gradually leading it to its dysfunction. En Quebec, en salud laboral, el enfoque de salud pública ha favorecido el enfoque médico individual, porque éste es consecuente con los objetivos de la Ley, a saberse : la asunción por parte del medio de sus problemas y la disminución o eliminación de los riesgos. En cuanto a las actividades médicas individuales, estas no son realizadas sino una vez que son legitimas, le que quiere decir que se realizan cuando es demostrada su pertinencia y eficacia en el plano de la prevención. Algunas evaluaciones han confirmado que el enfoque por programa de servicios de salud pública en Quebe
Justifying Tolerance in Liberal Societies: The Need for Public Morality  [PDF]
Louis Tietje
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2012.21002
Abstract: One of the most important assumptions in liberal societies is that citizens should be tolerant of a diversity of values. We are challenged by this assumption to justify restraint when we confront what we oppose, disapprove of, or perceive to be immoral, even if we have the power to suppress perceived immoralities. Based on the work of Elliot Turiel, Jonathan Haidt, and Gerald Gaus, the argument developed in this article is that the best way to address the challenge is to distinguish between public morality and other normative categories such as convention and private morality. Public morality circumscribes what should not be publicly tolerated. Conventional and private immoralities that are not prohibited by public morality should be tolerated.
Logical Difficulty from Combining Counterfactuals in the GHZ-Bell Theorems  [PDF]
Louis Sica
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/am.2013.410A3012

In eliminating the fair sampling assumption, the Greenberger, Horne, Zeilinger (GHZ) theorem is believed to confirm Bell’s historic conclusion that local hidden variables are inconsistent with the results of quantum mechanics. The GHZ theorem depends on predicting the results of sets of measurements of which only one may be performed. In the present paper, the noncommutative aspects of these unperformed measurements are critically examined. Classical examples and the logic of the GHZ construction are analyzed to demonstrate that combined counterfactual results of noncommuting operations are in general logically inconsistent with performed measurement sequences whose results depend on noncommutation. The Bell theorem is also revisited in the light of this result. It is concluded that negative conclusions regarding local hidden variables do not follow from the GHZ and Bell theorems as historically reasoned.

Bell Correlations without Entanglement: A Local Wave Model Using Gaussian-Poisson Statistics and Single Count-Pair Selection  [PDF]
Louis Sica
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/am.2014.518276
Abstract: Based on the violation of Bell inequalities, it has been believed that the derivation of Bell correlations requires a quantum description that depends on entanglement. However, the present paper computes Bell correlations among polarization analyzer output intensities from two spatially separated sets of superposed random wave pairs. To obtain proper Bell correlations, the general statistics must be modified to represent single event pair selection. The correlations between analyzer output components are then in one-to-one correspondence with those computed from the entanglement formalism.
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