Abstract:
Stem cell expansion and differentiation is the foundation of emerging cell therapy technologies. The potential applications of human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) are wide ranging, but a normal cytogenetic profile is important to avoid the risk of tumor formation in clinical trials. FDA approved clinical trials are being planned and conducted for hNPC transplantation into the brain or spinal cord for various neurodegenerative disorders. Although human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are known to show recurrent chromosomal abnormalities involving 12 and 17, no studies have revealed chromosomal abnormalities in cultured hNPCs. Therefore, we investigated frequently occurring chromosomal abnormalities in 21 independent fetal-derived hNPC lines and the possible mechanisms triggering such aberrations.

Abstract:
We study the properties of a one-dimensional (1D) gas of fermions trapped in a lattice by means of the density matrix renormalization group method, focusing on the case of unequal spin populations, and strong attractive interaction. In the low density regime, the system phase-separates into a well defined superconducting core and a fully polarized metallic cloud surrounding it. We argue that the superconducting phase corresponds to a 1D analogue of the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) state, with a quasi-condensate of tightly bound bosonic pairs with a finite center-of-mass momentum that scales linearly with the magnetization. In the large density limit, the system allows for four phases: in the core, we either find a Fock state of localized pairs or a metallic shell with free spin-down fermions moving in a fully filled background of spin-up fermions. As the magnetization increases, the Fock state disappears to give room for a metallic phase, with a partially polarized superconducting FFLO shell and a fully polarized metallic cloud surrounding the core.

Abstract:
We study the pair correlations of a spin-imbalanced two-leg ladder with attractive interactions, using the density matrix renormalization group method (DMRG). We identify regions in the phase diagram spanned by the chemical potential and the magnetic field that can harbor Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO)-like physics. Results for the pair structure factor, exhibiting multiple pairing wave-vectors, substantiate the presence of FFLO-like correlations. We further discuss phase separation scenarios induced by a harmonic trap, which differ from the case of isolated chains.

Abstract:
Motivated by recent experiments with ultra-cold quantum gases in optical lattices we study the decay of the staggered moment in the one-dimensional Fermi-Hubbard model starting from a perfect Neel state using exact diagonalization and the iTEBD method. This extends previous work in which the same problem has been addressed for pure spin Hamiltonians. As a main result, we show that the relaxation dynamics of the double occupancy and of the staggered moment are different. The former is controlled by the nearest-neighbor tunneling rate while the latter is much slower and strongly dependent on the interaction strength, indicating that spin excitations are important. This difference in characteristic energy scales for the fast charge dynamics and the much slower spin dynamics is also reflected in the real-time evolution of nearest-neighbor density and spin correlations. A very interesting time dependence emerges in the von Neumann entropy, which at short times increases linearly with a slope proportional to the tunneling matrix element while the long-time growth of entanglement is controlled by spin excitations. Our predictions for the different relaxation dynamics of the staggered moment and the double occupancy should be observable in state-of-the art optical lattice experiments. We further compare time averages of the double occupancy to both the expectation values in the canonical and diagonal ensemble, which quantitatively disagree with each other on finite systems. We relate the question of thermalization to the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis.

Abstract:
We study the phase diagram of a frustrated spin-1/2 ferromagnetic chain with anisotropic exchange interactions in an external magnetic field, using the density matrix renormalization group method. We show that an easy-axis anisotropy enhances the tendency towards multimagnon bound states, while an easy-plane anisotropy favors chirally ordered phases. In particular, a moderate easy-plane anisotropy gives rise to a quantum phase transition at intermediate magnetization. We argue that this transition is related to the finite-field phase transition experimentally observed in the spin-1/2 compound LiCuVO_4.

Abstract:
We study the spin and heat conductivity of dimerized spin-1/2 chains in homogeneous magnetic fields at finite temperatures. At zero temperature, the model undergoes two field-induced quantum phase transitions from a dimerized, into a Luttinger, and finally into a fully polarized phase. We search for signatures of these transitions in the spin and heat conductivities. Using exact diagonalization, we calculate the Drude weights, the frequency dependence of the conductivities, and the corresponding integrated spectral weights. As a main result, we demonstrate that both the spin and heat conductivity are enhanced in the gapless phase and most notably at low frequencies. In the case of the thermal conductivity, however, the field-induced increase seen in the bare transport coefficients is suppressed by magnetothermal effects, caused by the coupling of the heat and spin current in finite magnetic fields. Our results complement recent magnetic transport experiments on spin ladder materials with sufficiently small exchange couplings allowing access to the field-induced transitions.

Abstract:
We calculate the density profiles of a trapped spin-imbalanced Fermi gas with attractive interactions in a one-dimensional optical lattice, using both the local density approximation (LDA) and density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) simulations. Based on the exact equation of state obtained by Bethe ansatz, LDA predicts that the gas phase-separates into shells with a partially polarized core and fully paired wings, where the latter occurs below a critical spin polarization. This behavior is also seen in numerically exact DMRG calculations at sufficiently large particle numbers. Unlike the continuum case, we show that the critical polarization is a non monotonic function of the interaction strength and vanishes in the limit of large interactions.

Abstract:
We present numerical results for the spin and thermal conductivity of one-dimensional (1D) quantum spin systems. We contrast the properties of integrable models such as the spin-1/2 XXZ chain against nonintegrable ones such as frustrated and dimerized chains. The thermal conductivity of the XXZ chain is ballistic at finite temperatures, while in the nonintegrable models, this quantity is argued to vanish. For the case of frustrated and dimerized chains, we discuss the frequency dependence of the transport coefficients. Finally, we give an overview over related theoretical work on intrinsic and extrinsic scattering mechanisms of quasi-1D spin systems.

Abstract:
Using the time-dependent density matrix renormalization group method and exact diagonalization, we study the non-equilibrium dynamics of the one-dimensional Fermi-Hubbard model following a quantum quench or a ramp of the onsite interaction strength. For quenches from the non-interacting to the attractive regime, we investigate the dynamical emergence of Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) correlations, which at finite spin polarizations are the dominant two-body correlations in the ground state, and their signatures in the pair quasi-momentum distribution function. We observe that the post-quench double occupancy exhibits a maximum as the interaction strength becomes of the order of the bandwidth. Finally, we study quenches and ramps from attractive to repulsive interactions, which imprint FFLO correlations onto repulsively bound pairs. We show that a quite short ramp time is sufficient to wipe out the characteristic FFLO features in the post-quench pair momentum distribution functions.

Abstract:
We study the spin and thermal conductivity of spin-1/2 ladders at finite temperature. This is relevant for experiments with quantum magnets. Using a state-of-the-art density matrix renormalization group algorithm, we compute the current autocorrelation functions on the real-time axis and then carry out a Fourier integral to extract the frequency dependence of the corresponding conductivities. The finite-time error is analyzed carefully. We first investigate the limiting case of spin-1/2 XXZ chains, for which our analysis suggests non-zero dc-conductivities in all interacting cases irrespective of the presence or absence of spin Drude weights. For ladders, we observe that all models studied are normal conductors with no ballistic contribution. Nonetheless, only the high-temperature spin conductivity of XX ladders has a simple diffusive, Drude-like form, while Heisenberg ladders exhibit a more complicated low-frequency behavior. We compute the dc spin conductivity down to temperatures of the order of T~0.5J, where J is the exchange coupling along the legs of the ladder. We further extract mean-free paths and discuss our results in relation to thermal conductivity measurements on quantum magnets.