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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 401246 matches for " Lorie M. Liebrock "
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Efficacious End User Measures—Part 1: Relative Class Size and End User Problem Domains
E. Earl Eiland,Lorie M. Liebrock
Advances in Artificial Intelligence , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/427958
Abstract:
Efficacious End User Measures—Part 1: Relative Class Size and End User Problem Domains
E. Earl Eiland,Lorie M. Liebrock
Advances in Artificial Intelligence , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/427958
Abstract: Biological and medical endeavors are beginning to realize the benefits of artificial intelligence and machine learning. However, classification, prediction, and diagnostic (CPD) errors can cause significant losses, even loss of life. Hence, end users are best served when they have performance information relevant to their needs, this paper’s focus. Relative class size (rCS) is commonly recognized as a confounding factor in CPD evaluation. Unfortunately, rCS-invariant measures are not easily mapped to end user conditions. We determine a cause of rCS invariance, joint probability table (JPT) normalization. JPT normalization means that more end user efficacious measures can be used without sacrificing invariance. An important revelation is that without data normalization, the Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) and information coefficient (IC) are not relative class size invariants; this is a potential source of confusion, as we found not all reports using MCC or IC normalize their data. We derive MCC rCS-invariant expression. JPT normalization can be extended to allow JPT rCS to be set to any desired value (JPT tuning). This makes sensitivity analysis feasible, a benefit to both applied researchers and practitioners (end users). We apply our findings to two published CPD studies to illustrate how end users benefit. 1. Introduction Biological compounds and systems can be complex, making them difficult to analyze and challenging to understand. This has slowed applying biological and medical advances in the field. Recently, artificial intelligence and machine learning, being particularly effective classification, prediction and diagnostic (CPD) tools, have sped applied research and product development. CPD can be described as the act of comparing observations to models, then deciding whether or not the observations fit the model. Based on some predetermined criterion or criteria, a decision is made regarding class membership ( or ). In many domains, class affiliation is not the end result, rather it is used to determine subsequent activities. Examples include medical diagnoses, bioinformatics, intrusion detection, information retrieval, and patent classification. The list is virtually endless. Incorrect CPD output can lead to frustration, financial loss, and even death; correct CPD output is important. Hence, a number of CPD algorithms have been developed and the field continues to be active. Characterizing CPD effectiveness, then, is necessary. For example, CPD tool developers need to know how their particular modification affects CPD performance, and
Trustworthy 100-Year Digital Objects: Durable Encoding for When It's Too Late to Ask
H. M. Gladney,R. A. Lorie
Computer Science , 2004,
Abstract: How can an author store digital information so that it will be reliably useful, even years later when he is no longer available to answer questions? Methods that might work are not good enough; what is preserved today should be reliably useful whenever someone wants it. Prior proposals fail because they confound saved data with irrelevant details of today's information technology--details that are difficult to define, extract, and save completely and accurately. We use a virtual machine to represent and eventually to render any data whatsoever. We focus on a case of intermediate difficulty--an executable procedure--and identify a variant for every other data type. This solution might be more elaborate than needed to render some text, image, audio, or video data. Simple data can be preserved as representations using well-known standards. We sketch practical methods for files ranging from simple structures to those containing computer programs, treating simple cases here and deferring complex cases for future work. Enough of the complete solution is known to enable practical aggressive preservation programs today.
Improvements to Evidence Summaries: An Evidence Based Approach (Editorial)
Lorie Kloda
Evidence Based Library and Information Practice , 2012,
Abstract:
Asking the Right Question
Lorie Kloda
Evidence Based Library and Information Practice , 2008,
Abstract:
On Historical Contextualisation: Some Critical Socio-Legal Reflections
Lorie Charlesworth
Crimes and Misdemeanours : Deviance and the Law in Historical Perspective , 2007,
Abstract: This article examines the relationship of historico-legal studies to the wider context of socio-legal studies. It issues a challenge to rethink the nature and role of legal history in the light of socio-legal theory and the extent to which it out to be used by legal scholars. The discussion explores the benefits to socio-legal studies of interdisciplinarity. It suggests that historical reconstructions that contextualise the law should be properly acknowledged as a subgenre at least of the socio-legal movement, not simply perceived as an add-on methodology.
Undergraduate Students Do Not Understand Some Library Jargon Typically Used in Library Instruction. A review of: Hutcherson, Norman B. “Library Jargon: Student Recognition of Terms and Concepts Commonly Used by Librarians in the Classroom.” College and Research Libraries 65.4 (July 2004): 349‐54.
Lorie A. Kloda
Evidence Based Library and Information Practice , 2006,
Abstract: Objective - To determine students' level of recognition for 28 commonly used terms in library instruction. Design - Survey, multiple-choice questionnaire. Setting - Large state university library in the United States (this is assumed from the author's current affiliation). Subjects - 300 first- and second-year university students enrolled in a library skills course between September 2000 and June 2003. Methods - Two 15-question multiple choice questionnaires were created to verify students' understanding of 28 terms commonly used in library instruction, or "library jargon". Each questionnaire included 12 unique terms and, in order to ensure consistency between questionnare results, three common terms. For each question, a definition was provided and four terms, including the correct one, were offered as possible answers. Four variants of each survey were developed with varied question and answer order. Students who completed a seven-week library skills lab received one of the two questionnares. Lab instructors explained the objective of the survey and the students completed them in 10 to 15 minutes during class time. Of the 300 students enrolled in the lab between September 2000 and June 2003, 297 returned completed questionnaires. The researcher used Microsoft Excel to calculate descriptive statistics, includeing then mean, median, and standard deviation for individual questionnaires as well as combined results. No demographic data were collected. Main results - The mean score for both questionnaires was 62.31% (n= 297). That is, on average, students answered 9.35 out of 15 questions correctly, with a standard deviation of +-4.12. Students were able to recognize library-related terms to varying degrees. Terms identified correctly most often included: plagarism (100%), reference servives (94.60%), research (94.00%), copyright (91.58%), and table of contents (90.50%). Terms identified correctly the least often included: Boolean logic (8.10%), bibliography (14.90%), truncation (27.70%) and precision (31.80%). For the three terms used in both questionnaires, results were similar. Conclusion - The results of this study demonstrate that terms used more widely (e.g. plagarism, copyright) are more often recognized by students compared with terms used less frequently (e.g. Boolean logic, truncation). Also, terms whose meanings are well understood in everyday language, such as citation and authority, may be misunderstood in the context of library instruction. For this reason, it can be assumed that students may be confused when faced with this unfamiliar termino
Skills Gained from University Library Instruction Sessions Are Perceived as Useful Four to Eight Weeks Later. A review of: Wong, Gabrielle, Diana Chan, and Sam Chu. “Assessing the Enduring Impact of Library Instruction Programs.” Journal of Academic Librarianship 32.4 (July 2006): 384‐95.
Lorie A. Kloda
Evidence Based Library and Information Practice , 2007,
Abstract: Objective – To assess the impact of a university library instruction program. Design – Survey questionnaire administered post‐intervention. Setting – A mid‐size science and technology university in Hong Kong. Subjects – Student and staff participants in either course specific or open (elective) library instruction workshops. Methods – Surveys were conducted to measure the perceived effectiveness of the library instruction program, including various types of course specific (CS) and open workshops (OW). Librarians responsible for teaching nominated the sample of workshops for evaluation. Students in all but one CS workshop wereprovided with a 14‐question paper questionnaire in class by their course instructor, while participants in all of the open workshops and one CS workshop received the same questionnaire via e‐mail. The questionnaires were distributed between four to eight weeks following the workshops in order to gauge the “enduring” impact of the instruction. Most questions were closed, forcing participants to choose an answer from a list or select from a 4‐ or 7‐point Likert scale. Comments were also solicited. Results were summarised andanalysed using SPSS software. The CS and OW questionnaires were studied separately to allow for comparisons between groups. Main results – Out of 133 workshops taught in the fall of 2004, 25 were included in the sample: 15 CS and 10 OW. The overallresponse rate was 68%, with 466 participants completing questionnaires. Most participants indicated that the workshops were useful for learning about sources and search methods for finding information quickly. The majority (72.2%) responded that they felt an increase in confidence when conducting library research and slightly more than half (57.9%) agreed the workshops led to an increased interest in using the library. The responses differedsignificantly for the CS and OW groups: OW participants consistently rated the usefulness of the workshops higher than CS participants. In regards to retention of skills, 68.5% of participants responded in the affirmative when asked of they had continued using the skills taught, with rates ranging from 56 to 83% depending on theworkshop. There was little difference in perceived retention between the CS and OW groups. The skills most frequently identified as having been learned included the abilities to “form better search strategies” and “find better Internet resources.” Written feedback included remarks on reducing class size and length, and increasing practice time and the number of handouts. Conclusion – A “delayed perception surve
Use Google Scholar, Scopus and Web of Science for Comprehensive Citation Tracking. A review of: Bakkalbasi, Nisa, Kathleen Bauer, Janis Glover and Lei Wang. “Three Options for Citation Tracking: Google Scholar, Scopus and Web of Science.” Biomedical Digital Libraries 3.7 (2006).
Lorie A. Kloda
Evidence Based Library and Information Practice , 2007,
Abstract: Objective – To determine whether three competing citation tracking services result in differing citation counts for a known set of articles, and to assess the extent of any differences. Design – Citation analysis, observational study. Setting – Three citation tracking databases: Google Scholar, Scopus and Web of Science. Subjects – Citations from eleven journals each from the disciplines of oncology and condensed matter physics for the years 1993 and 2003. Methods – The researchers selected eleven journals each from the list of journals from Journal Citation Reports 2004 for the categories “Oncology” and “Condensed Matter Physics” using a systematic sampling technique to ensure journals with vary ingimpact factors were included. All references from these 22 journals were retrieved for the years 1993 and 2003 by searching three databases: Web of Science, INSPEC, and PubMed. Only research articles were included for the purpose of the study. From these, a stratified random sample was created to proportionally represent the content of each journal (oncology 1993: 234 references, 2003: 259 references; condensed matter physics 1993: 358 references, 2003: 364 references). In November of 2005, citations counts were obtained for all articles from Web of Science, Scopus and GoogleScholar. Due to the small sample size and skewed distribution of data, non‐parametric tests were conducted to determine whether significant differences existed between sets. Main Results – For 1993, mean citation counts were highest in Web of Science for both oncology (mean = 45.3, SD = 77.4) and condensed matter physics (mean = 22.5, SD= 32.5). For 2003, mean citation counts were higher in Scopus for oncology (mean = 8.9,SD = 12.0), and in Web of Science for condensed matter physics (mean = 3.0, SD =4.0). There was not enough data for the set of citations from Scopus for condensed matter physics for 1993 and it was therefore excluded from analysis. A Friedman test to measure for differences between all remaining groups suggested a significant difference existed, and so pairwise post‐hoc comparisons were performed. The Wilcoxon Signed Ranked tests demonstrated significant differences “in citation counts between all pairs (p < 0.001) except between Google Scholar and Scopus for CM physics 2003 (p = 0.119).”The study also looked at the number of unique references from each database, as well as the proportion of overlap for the 2003 citations. In the area of oncology, there was found to be 31% overlap between databases, with Google Scholar including the most unique references (13%), followed
Despite Barriers, Education Providers, Health Professionals, and Students Perceive ELearning to Be an Effective Method of Education A review of:Childs, Sue, Elizabeth Blenkinsopp, Amanda Hall, and Graham Walton. “Effective E‐Learning for Health Professionals and Students—Barriers and Their Solutions. A Systematic Review of the Literature—Findings from the HeXL Project.” Health Information & Libraries Journal 22.S2 (2005): 20-32.
Lorie A. Kloda
Evidence Based Library and Information Practice , 2006,
Abstract: Objective – To determine barriers or problems and possible solutions related to elearning, and to determine the effectiveness of e‐learning among health professionals and students. Design – Systematic review of qualitative literature, in addition to interviews and questionnaires, to allow for triangulation of the data. Setting – “The HeXL Project: Surmounting the Barriers to NHS E-Learning in the North-East.” The National Health Service (NHS) in the North-East of England, from May 2003 to March 2004. Subjects – A systematic review of 57 qualitative studies on health and e‐learning, phone interviews with 13 managers and trainers, and 149 questionnaires completed by users and non‐users of e‐learning. All participants of the interviews and questionnaires were staff and students of the NHS in the North‐East of England. Methods – The study used three methods to collect data to meet the objectives of the study. For the systematic review, the databases AMED (Allied and Alternative Medicine), ASSIA (Applied Social Sciences), CINAHL (Nursing and Allied Health), ERIC (Education), HMIC (health Management), LISA (Library and Information Sciences), PubMed (Medline), and Web of Science were searched using the terms “e‐learning” or “computer assisted instruction”, and “health”, and “barriers.” Any type of research or comprehensive literature review was selected from the results to be included in analysis. Based on the findings from the systematic review, a semi‐structured interview schedule was developed for use in phone interviews to be conducted with managers or e‐learning trainers. Also based on the systematic review, questionnaires were developed and distributed to users and non‐users of e‐learning. The three methods permitted triangulation of the data. Main results – The search produced 161 results of which 57 met the methodological criteria. The 57 studies categorized elearning barriers and solutions into eight different issues: organizational, economics, hardware, software, support, pedagogical, psychological, and skills. Results from the interviews and questionnaires mirrored those of the systematic review. Barriers to elearning included managing change, lack of skills, costs, absence of face‐to‐face learning, and time commitment. Solutions to the barriers of e‐learning included blended learning, better design, skills training, removal of costs, and improved access to technology. There were, however, some discrepancies between the results from the systematic review and the interviews and questionnaires: barriers due to “lack of access to technology” (29) were n
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