Abstract:
CH Loo,1,2 M Basri,2 R Ismail,1 HLN Lau,1 BA Tejo,2 MS Kanthimathi,3 HA Hassan,1 YM Choo11Malaysian Palm Oil Board, Bandar Baru Bangi, 2Department of Chemistry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, 3Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, MalaysiaPurpose: To study the effects of varying lipid concentrations, lipid and oil ratio, and the addition of propylene glycol and lecithin on the long-term physical stability of nanostructured lipid nanocarriers (NLC), skin hydration, and transepidermal water loss.Methods: The various NLC formulations (A1–A5) were prepared and their particle size, zeta potential, viscosity, and stability were analyzed. The formulations were applied on the forearms of the 20 female volunteers (one forearm of each volunteer was left untreated as a control). The subjects stayed for 30 minutes in a conditioned room with their forearms uncovered to let the skin adapt to the temperature (22°C ± 2°C) and humidity (50% ± 2%) of the room. Skin hydration and skin occlusion were recorded at day one (before treatment) and day seven (after treatment). Three measurements for skin hydration and skin occlusion were performed in each testing area.Results: NLC formulations with the highest lipid concentration, highest solid lipid concentration, and additional propylene glycol (formulations A1, A2, and A5) showed higher physical stability than other formulations. The addition of propylene glycol into an NLC system helped to reduce the particle size of the NLC and enhanced its long-term physical stability. All the NLC formulations were found to significantly increase skin hydration compared to the untreated controls within 7 days. All NLC formulations exhibited occlusive properties as they reduced the transepidermal water loss within 7 days. This effect was more pronounced with the addition of propylene glycol or lecithin into an NLC formulation, whereby at least 60% reduction in transepidermal water loss was observed.Conclusion: NLCs with high lipid content, solid lipid content, phospholipid, and lecithin are a highly effective cosmetic delivery system for cosmetic topical applications that are designed to boost skin hydration.Keywords: nanostructured lipid carriers, transepidermal water loss, skin hydration, particle size

Abstract:
t of compositions in nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) on skin hydration and occlusion Original Research (1378) Total Article Views Authors: Loo CH, Basri M, Ismail R, Lau HL, Tejo BA, Kanthimathi MS, Hassan HA, Choo YM Published Date December 2012 Volume 2013:8 Pages 13 - 22 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S35648 Received: 05 July 2012 Accepted: 10 September 2012 Published: 27 December 2012 CH Loo,1,2 M Basri,2 R Ismail,1 HLN Lau,1 BA Tejo,2 MS Kanthimathi,3 HA Hassan,1 YM Choo1 1Malaysian Palm Oil Board, Bandar Baru Bangi, 2Department of Chemistry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, 3Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Purpose: To study the effects of varying lipid concentrations, lipid and oil ratio, and the addition of propylene glycol and lecithin on the long-term physical stability of nanostructured lipid nanocarriers (NLC), skin hydration, and transepidermal water loss. Methods: The various NLC formulations (A1–A5) were prepared and their particle size, zeta potential, viscosity, and stability were analyzed. The formulations were applied on the forearms of the 20 female volunteers (one forearm of each volunteer was left untreated as a control). The subjects stayed for 30 minutes in a conditioned room with their forearms uncovered to let the skin adapt to the temperature (22°C ± 2°C) and humidity (50% ± 2%) of the room. Skin hydration and skin occlusion were recorded at day one (before treatment) and day seven (after treatment). Three measurements for skin hydration and skin occlusion were performed in each testing area. Results: NLC formulations with the highest lipid concentration, highest solid lipid concentration, and additional propylene glycol (formulations A1, A2, and A5) showed higher physical stability than other formulations. The addition of propylene glycol into an NLC system helped to reduce the particle size of the NLC and enhanced its long-term physical stability. All the NLC formulations were found to significantly increase skin hydration compared to the untreated controls within 7 days. All NLC formulations exhibited occlusive properties as they reduced the transepidermal water loss within 7 days. This effect was more pronounced with the addition of propylene glycol or lecithin into an NLC formulation, whereby at least 60% reduction in transepidermal water loss was observed. Conclusion: NLCs with high lipid content, solid lipid content, phospholipid, and lecithin are a highly effective cosmetic delivery system for cosmetic topical applications that are designed to boost skin hydration.

Abstract:
The purpose of this paper is to explore the influence of the national image on the image of its tertiary education among non-nationals and on their choice of location for study. We present a conceptual model of how the image of the nation impacts on the image of tertiary education based upon Ajzen & Fishbein’s (1980) “theory of reasoned action”. With data from China & India, a model is developed from a calibration sample and tested against a validation sample using structural equation modelling. The model fits the data well and shows that a national image for Chic (prestigious, refined, elegant) and Enterprise (innovative, cool, trendy) has a positive influence on the beliefs about, attitudes towards and propensity to consume tertiary education offered by the UK. Our work indicates that there will be mileage in investing not just on the image of education itself, but on the image of the nation in the promotion of international tertiary education.

Abstract:
we will provide a rigorous computation for the harmonic oscillator Feynman path integral. The computation will be done without having prior knowledge of the classical path. We will see that properties of classical physics falls out naturally from a purely quantum mechanical point of view. We will assume that the reader is familiar with Nonstandard Analysis.

Abstract:
We will derive a rigorous real time propagator for the Non-relativistic Quantum Mechanic $L^2$ transition probability amplitude and for the Non-relativistic wave function. The propagator will be explicitly given in terms of the time evolution operator. The derivation will be for all self-adjoint nonvector potential Hamiltonians. For systems with potential that carries at most a finite number of singularity and discontinuities, we will show that our propagator can be written in the form of a rigorous real time, time sliced Feynman path integral via improper Riemann integrals. We will also derive the Feynman path integral in Nonstandard Analysis Formulation. Finally, we will compute the propagator for the harmonic oscillator using the Nonstandard Analysis Feynman path integral formuluation; we will compute the propagator without using any knowledge of classical properties of the harmonic oscillator.

Abstract:
Using improper Riemann integrals, we will formulate a rigorous version of the real-time, time-sliced Feynman path integral for the $L^2$ transition probability amplitude. We will do this for nonvector potential Hamiltonians with potential which has at most a finite number of discontinuities and singularities. We will also provide a Nonstandard Analysis version of our formulation.

Abstract:
we will show the existence and uniqueness of a real-time, time-sliced Feynman path integral for quantum systems with vector potential. Our formulation of the path integral will be derived on the $L^2$ transition probability amplitude via improper Riemann integrals. Our formulation will hold for vector potential Hamiltonian for which its potential and vector potential each carries at most a finite number of singularities and discontinuities.

Abstract:
Previously, Bennet and Feynman asked if Heisenberg's uncertainty principle puts a limitation on a quantum computer (Quantum Mechanical Computers, Richard P. Feynman, Foundations of Physics, Vol. 16, No. 6, p597-531, 1986). Feynman's answer was negative. In this paper, we will revisit the same question for the discrete time Fourier transform uncertainty principle. We will show that the discrete time Fourier transform uncertainty principle plays a fundamental role in showing that Shor's type of quantum algorithms has efficient running time and conclude that the discrete time uncertainty principle is an aid in our current formulation and understanding of Shor's type of quantum algorithms. It turns out that for these algorithms, the probability of measuring an element in some set $T$ (at the end of the algorithm) can be written in terms of the time-limiting and band-limiting operators from finite Fourier analysis. Associated with these operators is the finite Fourier transform uncertainty principle. The uncertainty principle provides a lower bound for the above probability. We will derive lower bounds for these types of probabilities in general. We will call these lower bounds quantum algorithm uncertainty principles or QAUP. QAUP are important because they give us some sense of the probability of measuring something desirable. We will use these lower bounds to derive Shor's factoring and discrete log algorithms.

Abstract:
The goals of this paper are to show the following. First, Grover's algorithm can be viewed as a digital approximation to the analog quantum algorithm proposed in "An Analog Analogue of a Digital Quantum Computation", by E. Farhi and S. Gutmann, Phys.Rev. A 57, 2403 - 2406 (1998), quant-ph/9612026. We will call the above analog algorithm the Grover-Farhi-Gutmann or GFG algorithm. Second, the propagator of the GFG algorithm can be written as a sum-over-paths formula and given a sum-over-path interpretation, i.e., a Feynman path sum/integral. We will use nonstandard analysis to do this. Third, in the semi-classical limit $\hbar\to 0$, both the Grover and the GFG algorithms (viewed in the setting of the approximation in this paper) must run instantaneously. Finally, we will end the paper with an open question. In "Semiclassical Shor's Algorithm", by P. Giorda, et al, Phys. Rev.A 70, 032303 (2004), quant-ph/0303037, the authors proposed building semi-classical quantum computers to run Shor's algorithm because the success probability of Shor's algorithm does not change much in the semi-classical limit. We ask the open questions: In the semi-classical limit, does Shor's algorithm have to run instantaneously?

Abstract:
Using nonstandard analysis, we will extend the classical Turing machines into the internal Turing machines. The internal Turing machines have the capability to work with infinite ($*$-finite) number of bits while keeping the finite combinatoric structures of the classical Turing machines. We will show the following. The internal deterministic Turing machines can do in $*$-polynomial time what a classical deterministic Turing machine can do in an arbitrary finite amount of time. Given an element of $\in HALT$ (more precisely, the $*$-embedding of $HALT$), there is an internal deterministic Turing machine which will take $$ as input and halt in the $"yes"$ state. The language ${}^*Halt$ can not be decided by the internal deterministic Turing machines. The internal deterministic Turing machines can be viewed as the asymptotic behavior of finite precision approximation to real number computations. It is possible to use the internal probabilistic Turing machines to simulate finite state quantum mechanics with infinite precision. This simulation suggests that no information can be transmitted instantaneously and at the same time, the Turing machine model can simulate instantaneous collapse of the wave function. The internal deterministic Turing machines are powerful, but if $P \neq NP$, then there are internal problems which the internal deterministic Turing machines can solve but not in $*$-polynomial time.