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Researching gender: the challenge of global diversity today
Longman, Chia
Afrika Focus , 2010,
Abstract: The text of this paper is based on a lecture given at the symposium of the Ghent African Platform “Researching Gender in/on Africa” at Ghent University in December 2009. It addresses some general challenges faced by ‘gender studies’ as an autonomous field versus ‘gender research’ as an integrated topic within mainstream disciplines in academia. Gender studies have sometimes superseded ‘women’s studies’ and expanded to cover the terrain of study of various forms of diversity including men’s and transgender studies. We will show that the ‘mainstreaming’ of gender in public policy at local, national and transnational levels is a development which may potentially lead to the loss of a – feminist – political edge. Secondly, while gender studies with their emphasis on socially constructed gender as opposed to biological essentialist understandings of ‘sex’ appear to face the challenge of a popular ‘new biological determinism’, it is shown that the binary model of sex/gender in fact has been criticised for some time now from within feminist theory and gender research. This is (selectively) illustrated with research from four disciplines, including the work of African gender studies scholars, i.e. feminist philosophy, social sciences (in particularsocio-cultural anthropology), history and biology itself. This then shows how the accusation that gender studies would be ‘socially deterministic’ without attending to bodily matters or materiality is unfounded. Finally, it is argued that there is still a need for gender studies to become more culturally diverse, more global and transnational in its outlook, by becoming more deeply attuned to the way gender intersects with other forms of difference and taking into account postcolonial critiques of western feminist paternalism, without falling into the trap of cultural relativism.
Microbial manipulation as primary therapy for Crohn's disease
Randy S Longman,Arun Swaminath
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2012, DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v19.i10.1513
Abstract: While antimicrobials are clinically effective in preventing post-operative recurrence, the role for antibiotics in primary therapy for Crohn’s disease (CD) remains unclear. The recent multicenter phase 2 trial by Prantera et al received wide attention because it demonstrated an increase in the week 12 remission rate in patients with moderately active CD treated with rifaximin and renewed interest in microbial manipulation as primary therapy for CD. In this commentary, we discuss aspects of durability, immune cell polarization, and safety of microbial manipulation as primary therapy for CD.
Editorial: Gender and Religiosity in Multicultural Societies
Chia Longman,Eva Midden,Nella van den Brandt
Religion and Gender , 2012,
Abstract:
Regulation of PP2AC Carboxylmethylation and Cellular Localisation by Inhibitory Class G-Protein Coupled Receptors in Cardiomyocytes
Michael R. Longman, Antonella Ranieri, Metin Avkiran, Andrew K. Snabaitis
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0086234
Abstract: The enzymatic activity of the type 2A protein phosphatase (PP2A) holoenzyme, a major serine/threonine phosphatase in the heart, is conferred by its catalytic subunit (PP2AC). PP2AC activity and subcellular localisation can be regulated by reversible carboxylmethylation of its C-terminal leucine309 (leu309) residue. Previous studies have shown that the stimulation of adenosine type 1 receptors (A1.Rs) induces PP2AC carboxylmethylation and altered subcellular distribution in adult rat ventricular myocytes (ARVM). In the current study, we show that the enzymatic components that regulate the carboxylmethylation status of PP2AC, leucine carboxylmethyltransferase-1 (LCMT-1) and phosphatase methylesterase-1 (PME-1) are abundantly expressed in, and almost entirely localised in the cytoplasm of ARVM. The stimulation of Gi-coupled A1.Rs with N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), and of other Gi-coupled receptors such as muscarinic M2 receptors (stimulated with carbachol) and angiotensin II AT2 receptors (stimulated with CGP42112) in ARVM, induced PP2AC carboxylmethylation at leu309 in a concentration-dependent manner. Exposure of ARVM to 10 μM CPA increased the cellular association between PP2AC and its methyltransferase LCMT-1, but not its esterase PME-1. Stimulation of A1.Rs with 10 μM CPA increased the phosphorylation of protein kinase B at ser473, which was abolished by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 (20 μM), thereby confirming that PI3K activity is upregulated in response to A1.R stimulation by CPA in ARVM. A1.R-induced PP2AC translocation to the particulate fraction was abrogated by adenoviral expression of the alpha subunit (Gαt1) coupled to the transducin G-protein coupled receptor. A similar inhibitory effect on A1.R-induced PP2AC translocation was also seen with LY294002 (20 μM). These data suggest that in ARVM, A1.R-induced PP2AC translocation to the particulate fraction occurs through a GiPCR-Gβγ-PI3K mediated intracellular signalling pathway, which may involve elevated PP2AC carboxylmethylation at leu309.
The JAK2V617F Mutation Seen in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms (MPNs) Occurs in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Implications of a Pilot Study  [PDF]
Emil Kuriakose, Elena Lascu, Y. Lynn Wang, Stefani Gjoni, Nicholas C. P. Cross, Ruth Baumann, Kerilee Tam, Ellen Scherl, Randy S. Longman, Richard T. Silver
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2013.412A1003
Abstract:

Patients with IBD frequently have hematologic abnormalities suggestive of JAK2 mutated MPNs, but are traditionally classified as reactive processes. Haplotype 46/1 is a well-characterized genetic predisposition, common to both inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). In view of this shared genetic predisposition, we measured the frequency of the JAK2V617F mutation in IBD patients with thrombocytosis or erythrocytosis, in order to ascertain whether a higher than expected proportion of these patients may in fact have underlying MPNs. 1121 patients were identified with an active diagnosis of Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis, of which 474 had either thrombocytosis or erythrocytosis. Patients with abnormal counts were tested for the JAK2V617F mutation during routine follow-up visits. Interim analysis of first 23 patients tested was performed to assess whether the JAK2V617F positivity rate was statistically significant compared with known expected frequencies in a comparable control population. Of 23 patients, 13 patients had thrombocytosis and 10 had erythrocytosis. Three patients with thrombocytosis (23%), and 1 patient with erythrocytosis (10%), tested positive for JAK2V617F, exceeding the expected thresholds for statistical significance. In patients with IBD and thrombocytosis or erythrocytosis, a meaningful proportion may harbor an undiagnosed MPN, as indicated by clonal abnormalities such as JAK2V617F. These findings imply the need for increased testing of these patients for clonal hematologic abnormalities, and importantly, if found, suggest the need for therapeutic strategies with drugs, such as JAK2 inhibitors, in patients with both MPN and IBD.

Switching from premixed insulin to glargine-based insulin regimen improves glycaemic control in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes: a retrospective primary care-based analysis
Peter Sharplin, Jason Gordon, John R Peters, Anthony P Tetlow, Andrea J Longman, Philip McEwan
Cardiovascular Diabetology , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2840-8-9
Abstract: Data for this retrospective observational analysis were extracted from a UK GP database (The Health Improvement Network). Patients were required to have at least 12 months of available data, before and after, switching from premix to a glargine-based regimen. The principal analysis was the change in HbA1c after 12 months of treatment with glargine; secondary analyses included change in weight, bolus usage and total daily insulin dose. Inconsistent reporting of hypoglycemic episodes precludes reliable assessment of this outcome. Multivariate analyses were used to adjust for baseline characteristics and confounding variables.Both cohorts showed significant reduction in mean HbA1c 12 months after the switch: by -0.67% (p < 0.001) in the type 1 cohort and by -0.53% (p < 0.001) in the type 2 cohort (adjusted data). The size of HbA1c improvement was positively correlated with baseline HbA1c; patients with a baseline HbA1c ≥ 10% had the greatest mean reduction in HbA1c, by -1.7% (p < 0.001) and -1.2% (p < 0.001), respectively. The proportion of patients receiving co-bolus prescriptions increased in the type 1 (mean 24.6% to 95.1%, p < 0.001) and type 2 (mean 16.2% to 73.9%, p < 0.001) cohorts. There was no significant change in weight in either cohort. Total mean insulin use increased in type 2 diabetes patients (from 0.67 ± 1.35 U/Kg to 0.88 ± 1.33 U/Kg, p < 0.001) with a slight decrease in type 1 diabetes patients (from 1.04 ± 2.51 U/Kg to 0.98 ± 2.58 U/Kg, p < 0.001).In everyday practice, patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled by premix insulins experienced significant improvement in glycaemic control over 12 months after switching to a glargine-based insulin regimen. These findings support the use of a basal-bolus glargine-based regimen in patients poorly controlled on premix.Achieving the recommended target for glycaemic control (glycated haemoglobin [HbA1c] 6.5% to 7.0%) [1-7] in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes is essential for reduci
Improved glycaemic control by switching from insulin NPH to insulin glargine: a retrospective observational study
Peter Sharplin, Jason Gordon, John R Peters, Anthony P Tetlow, Andrea J Longman, Philip McEwan
Cardiovascular Diabetology , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2840-8-3
Abstract: Data for this retrospective observational study were extracted from a UK primary care database (The Health Improvement Network). Patients were required to have at least 12 months of data before and after switching from NPH to glargine. The principal analysis was the change in HbA1c after 12 months treatment with glargine; secondary analyses included change in weight and total daily insulin dose. Inconsistent reporting of hypoglycemic episodes precludes reliable reporting of this outcome. Multivariate analyses were used to adjust for baseline characteristics and confounding variables.After adjustment, both diabetic cohorts showed statistically significant reductions in mean HbA1c 12 months after the switch, by 0.38% (p < 0.001) in type 1 patients and 0.31% (p < 0.001) in type 2 patients. Improvement in HbA1c was positively correlated with baseline HbA1c; patients with baseline HbA1c ≥ 8% had reductions of 0.57% (p < 0.001) and 0.47% (p < 0.001), respectively. There was no significant change in weight or total daily insulin dose while on glargine. The majority of patients received a basal-bolus regimen prior to and after the switch (mean 79.3% before and 77.2% after switch in type 1 patients, and 80.4% and 76.8%, respectively in type 2 patients, p > 0.05).In routine clinical practice, switching from NPH to glargine provides the opportunity for improving glycaemic control in diabetes patients inadequately controlled by NPH.Tight glycaemic control is a mandatory component of diabetes care given proven beneficial effects on the risk of vascular complications [1,2]. Current UK, European and US guidelines [3-9] recommend a target for glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) between 6.5% and 7.5%. Insulin represents the cornerstone of care for achieving this target in patients with type 1 diabetes, and is also indicated in type 2 diabetes patients with suboptimal glycaemic control despite increasingly aggressive therapy with oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) in addition to lifestyle chang
Frequent hospital admission of older people with chronic disease: a cross-sectional survey with telephone follow-up and data linkage
Longman Jo M,I Rolfe Margaret,Passey Megan D,Heathcote Kathy E
BMC Health Services Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-12-373
Abstract: Background The continued increase in hospital admissions is a significant and complex issue facing health services. There is little research exploring patient perspectives or examining individual admissions among patients with frequent admissions for chronic ambulatory care sensitive (ACS) conditions. This paper aims to describe characteristics of older, rural patients frequently admitted with ACS conditions and identify factors associated with their admissions from the patient perspective. Methods Patients aged 65+ resident in North Coast NSW with three or more admissions for selected ACS chronic conditions within a 12 month period, were invited to participate in a postal survey and follow up telephone call. Survey and telephone data were linked to admission and health service program data. Descriptive statistics were generated for survey respondents; logistic regression models developed to compare characteristics of patients with 3 or with 4+ admissions; and comparisons made between survey respondents and non-respondents. Results Survey respondents (n=102) had a mean age of 77.1 years (range 66–95 years), and a mean of 4.1 admissions within 12 months; 49% had at least three chronic conditions; the majority had low socioeconomic status; one in five (22%) reported some difficulty affording their medication; and 35% lived alone. The majority reported psychological distress with 31% having moderate or severe psychological distress. While all had a GP, only 38% reported having a written GP care plan. 22% of those who needed regular help with daily tasks did not have a close friend or relative who regularly cared for them. Factors independently associated with more frequent (n=4+) relative to less frequent (n=3) admissions included having congestive heart failure (p=0.003), higher social isolation scores (p=0.040) and higher Charlson Comorbidity Index scores (p=0.049). Most respondents (61%) felt there was nothing that could have avoided their most recent admission, although some potential avoidability of admission was described around medication and health behaviours. Respondents were younger and less sick than non-respondents. Conclusions This study provides a detailed description of older patients with multiple chronic conditions and a history of frequent admission in rural Australia. Our results suggest that programs targeting medication use, health behaviours and social isolation may help reduce multiple hospital admissions for chronic disease.
Takayasus arteritis following Crohns disease in a young woman: Any evidence for a common pathogenesis?
Melissa AL Farrant, Justin C Mason, Newton ACS Wong, Robert J Longman
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2008,
Abstract: Takayasu’s arteritis and Crohn’s disease are chronic inflammatory diseases of uncertain aetiology. They rarely occur together, with only twenty nine cases of co-existent Takayasu’s arteritis and Crohn’s disease reported in the literature. In 88% of these cases, Takayasu’s arteritis was diagnosed simultaneously or following a diagnosis of Crohn’s disease. We present a case of a young Caucasian medical student, incidentally found to have bilateral carotid bruits on auscultation by a colleague. Magnetic resonance angiography revealed stenoses of the common carotid arteries with established collaterals, and a diagnosis of Type 1 Takayasu’s arteritis was made. An 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scan revealed no active disease. Nine months later, she presented with a short history of abdominal pain, vomiting and abdominal distension. Barium follow-through and computer tomography revealed a terminal ileal stricture and proximal small bowel dilation. An extended right hemicolectomy was performed and histopathology supported a diagnosis of Crohn’s disease. This case report is presented with a particular focus on the temporal relationship between these two disease processes and explores whether their concurrence is more than just co-incidence.
Sele??o de bacillus spp. para produ??o de esterases e melhoramento de bacillus cereus (c124)
Mendon?a, Analucia Longman;Mariano, Rosa de Lima Ramos;Araújo, Janete Magali de;Cavalcante, Uided Maaze T.;
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology , 1998, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-89131998000100011
Abstract: forty-four bacillus spp. strains obtained from sugar cane derivates and residues, six of them isolated in this work, were tested using tween 80 as substrate (agar-tween 80 medium), in order to determine their esterase activity through the enzymatic index averages. after statistic analysis, b. cereus (c124) strain, which presented better results, was submitted to genetic improvement by treatment with ultraviolet light (uv). the survival curve pointed out 28" as the time necessary to obtain 30% of survivors. fifty survivors and the wild strain c124 were compared in relation to their esterase activity as mentioned previously. the wild strain and the mutant c124uv35, which showed enzymatic index average higher than c124, were characterized in polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis (page). eletrophoretic patterns for total proteins of wild and mutant strain showed different profiles according to number, position and intensity of bands. for esterase, the bands varied only in intensity.
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