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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 310433 matches for " Londo?o C "
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La Autoridad en el caso de una Alianza: Preguntas desde la gestión
Londoo C,Diana;
Pensamiento & Gestión , 2008,
Abstract: authority as a type of power is the characteristic selected by weber ([1922]1997) for describing the business enterprise. the new institutional economics (nie) has recognized authority as the explanation for the existence of the firms because it permits lowering coordination costs if compared with those of the market. today, cooperation agreements or alliances are common and some new institutional economists have considered the costs of structuring the contracts that make them pos- sible but they have left authority behind and with it, the coordination of activities in those alliances where no new firm is constituted. this subject is the one that is considered, and the analysis of one case is the source for the different questions asked. in the case studied, two parallel authority structures leave areas in which authority becomes diffuse and coordination debilitates.
La Autoridad en el caso de una Alianza: Preguntas desde la gestión
Diana Londoo C
Pensamiento & Gestión , 2008,
Abstract: La Autoridad como un tipo de poder es la característica seleccionada por Weber ([1922]1997) para describir la empresa capitalista y ésta ha sido reconocida por la economía neoinstitucional como explicación para la existencia de las firmas dada su capacidad para la disminución de costos de coordinación si se compara con los del mercado. Hoy son frecuentes los acuerdos de cooperación, y si bien se ha indagado sobre los costos de estructurar el contrato que los propician, se ha obviado el tema de la autoridad como base de la coordinación, la cual se queda sin sustento en esos tipos de acuerdos en los que no se crea una nueva empresa. Al rededor del tema se plantean preguntas apoyadas en el caso de una alianza en la que dos estructuras paralelas dejan espacios en los cuales la autoridad se desdibuja y se debilita la coordinación. Authority as a type of power is the characteristic selected by Weber ([1922]1997) for describing the business enterprise. The New Institutional Economics (NIE) has recognized authority as the explanation for the existence of the firms because it permits lowering coordination costs if compared with those of the market. Today, cooperation agreements or alliances are common and some New Institutional Economists have considered the costs of structuring the contracts that make them pos- sible but they have left authority behind and with it, the coordination of activities in those alliances where no new firm is constituted. This subject is the one that is considered, and the analysis of one case is the source for the different questions asked. In the case studied, two parallel authority structures leave areas in which authority becomes diffuse and coordination debilitates.
Papel de las metodologías de ense?anza del proceso lectoescritural en la educación superior
Cuadernos de Contabilidad , 2009,
Abstract: the purpose of this paper is to analyze the different teaching strategies implemented by teachers in higher education to teach the processes behind the activities of reading and writing and to ponder which ones work properly in order to share them via an educational and didactic replica. the perspective of our reflections is a cognitive one, since this field of knowledge, apart from presenting an important methodological and categorical horizon, also reflects on the activities of reading and writing as incomplete processes in permanent need of revision and discussion. this paper goes through the following steps; first, we focus on identifying the different voices that define reading and writing as a social practice, both understood as a collection of actions, operations, and ideologies materialized in objects, texts, and exchanges of diverse nature. with that, we would like to underscore that reading and writing, apart from reacting to a particular context and history, both activities and skills have deep political implications vis-à-vis education and personal development. second, we attempt to get together successful strategies to show others, who are now starting to work in this field, that it is possible to establish a methodological road to better understand and teach both skills. finally, we want to incite the university's academic community to the construction of collaborative work networks that fosters dialogue among peers and boost the need for the creation of new spaces for reflection and action.
South American Climatology and Impacts of El Ni?o in NCEP’s CFSR Data
Timothy Paul Eichler,Ana C. Londoo
Advances in Meteorology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/492630
Abstract: Understanding regional climate variability is necessary in order to assess the impacts of climate change. Until recently, the best methods for evaluating regional climate variability were via observation networks and coarse-gridded reanalysis datasets. However, the recent development of high-resolution reanalysis datasets offers an opportunity to better evaluate the climatologically diverse continent of South America. This study compares NCEP’s CFS reanalysis dataset with NCEP’s coarser-resolution reanalysis II dataset to determine if CFS reanalysis improves our ability to represent the regional climate of South America. Our results show several regional differences between the CFSR and Re2 data, especially in areas of large topographical gradients. A comparison with the University of Delaware and TRMM precipitation datasets lends credence to some of these differences, such as heavier precipitation associated with anomalous 925?hPa westerlies over northwestern Peru and Ecuador during El Ni?o. However, our results also stress that caution is advised when using reanalysis data to assess regional climate variability, especially in areas of large topographical gradient such as the Andes. Our results establish a baseline to better study climate change, especially given the release of IPCC AR5 model simulations. 1. Introduction Representing summer climatology in South America is complicated by the diversity of its topographical features. As noted by Garreaud et al. [1], the Andes act as a climatological barrier separating arid conditions to the west in the Peru-Bolivian Atacama Desert from wet conditions to the east in the Amazon Basin. The aridity in the Atacama Desert is related to the position of the southeastern Pacific subtropical high, which causes large-scale subsidence [2, 3]. The ability of the Andes to block tropospheric flow also results in a rain shadow in the Altiplano [4]. The precipitation that does occur in the area is confined mostly to austral summer (DJF) and is driven by diurnal convection and the westward transport of moisture from the interior of the continent [5–7]. With the recent implementation of high-resolution reanalysis datasets, it would be interesting to assess their ability to simulate South American climatology. This study compares the high-resolution CFSR data with coarse-grid reanalysis II (hereafter referred to as Re2) applied to South American climatology and interannual variability. The high-resolution reanalysis data will also allow us to detect features not seen in the coarse resolution data such as the climatological
ENSO Impacts on Lomas Formation in South Coastal Peru: Implications for the Pliocene?
Timothy Paul Eichler,Ana C. Londoo
Advances in Meteorology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/175947
Abstract: Lomas formations in southern Peru are related to moisture availability due to frequent incursions of fog in austral winter. Due to warming of coastal waters of southern Peru during El Ni?o, lomas formations are enhanced via greater moisture availability for fog and drizzle. Our study evaluates the modern climatological record in austral winter to determine if there are differences in moisture availability between El Ni?o and La Ni?a for fog formation. Our results show anomalous northwesterly onshore flow, warmer than normal sea-surface temperatures, and an increase in precipitable water in El Ni?o, favoring lomas formations due to advection fog with higher moisture content. On the other hand, La Ni?a also favors frequent advection fog, with less moisture content due to strong onshore flow over relatively cool SSTs. Since lomas may represent fragments of a continuous vegetation belt that existed during the Pliocene, a permanent El Ni?o favoring vigorous vegetation production along the south Peruvian coast due to incursions of fog with high precipitable water may have occurred in this period. However, the possibility of normal El Ni?o variability superimposed on a warmer climatology producing fog with higher moisture content in both El Ni?o and La Ni?a conditions cannot be discounted. 1. Introduction An aspect of the local climate in the arid, coastal regions of southern Peru is the appearance of vegetation oasis areas known as lomas [1–3]. The modern-day existence of lomas may represent remnants of a continuous vegetation belt along the coast of South America during the Pliocene (e.g., [4]). The existence of lomas is tied to advective fog from the South Pacific [5]. An increase in vegetation in lomas areas may be related to greater water availability for fog during El Ni?o (e.g., [6, 7]). Paradoxically, Manrique et al. [7] indicate that despite a lower frequency of fog during El Ni?o, a greater amount of fog and water collection occurred over southern Peru and northern Chile during the 1997-1998 El Ni?o [8]. Manrique et al. [7] further state that it was not possible to separate increases in water content due to austral summer drizzle from austral winter fog. However, Manrique et al. [7] suggest that El Ni?o induced precipitation increases in austral summer may be a short-term response. Therefore, long-term climate response of lomas formation due to El Ni?o may be due to greater moisture availability from fog advecting from warmer sea-surface temperature (SST) windward of the coast of southern Peru. Given the potential linkage of enhanced lomas formation
Clinical and laboratory features of hepatocellular carcinoma
María C. Londoo,Andrés Cárdenas
Iatreia , 2007,
Abstract: The clinical presentation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) differs between patients in developing countries (African and Chinese populations) from those in industrialized countries. In industrialized countries, HCC co-exists with symptomatic cirrhosis in 80% of cases and clinical manifestations are usually related to those of the underlying disease. On the other hand, patients from developing countries have HCC and cirrhosis in approximately 40% of cases. Underlying cirrhosis in many cases is not advanced and does not produce any symptoms or associated symptoms are masked by those of the tumor (right upper quadrant pain, mass in the upper abdomen, weight loss and weakness). In a subset of patients, there are no clinical manifestations as HCC may occur in the context of hepatitis B infection without cirrhosis. Clinical Manifestations In Western countries, nearly 35% percent of patients with HCC are asymptomatic. Some of the most common clinical manifestations include: abdominal pain (53-58% of patients), especially in epigastrium or right upper quadrant, abdominal mass (30%), weight loss, malaise, anorexia, cachexia, jaundice or fever. Physical Exam Physical findings vary with the stage of disease. The patient may exhibit slight or moderate wasting when first seen. In patients with cirrhosis, typical stigmata of chronic liver disease may be present. In advanced stages of HCC the liver may be enlarged and there is significant tenderness. An arterial bruit may be heard over the liver. Jaundice is unusual at first presentation and, when present, is mild; it commonly appears or deepens with progression of the disease. A low to moderate, intermittent or remittent fever may be present. Unusual Presentations Obstructive jaundice: is the initial presentation in 1-12% of cases. It is due to compression of the major intrahepatic bile duct by the tumor, invasion of HCC into the lumen of intrahepatic bile ducts, infiltration of the wall of bile ducts causing obliteration of the lumen, hemobilia, or free-floating tumor plugs into the biliary tree. Acute abdomen: is a life-threatening complication caused by rupture of the tumor causing intraperito bleeding. It occurs in later stages of the tumor and is a frequent cause of death. Obstruction of splanchnic veins: tumor may invade the portal vein, hepatic veins and inferior vena cava, resulting in portal hypertension (with ascites and variceal bleeding), Budd-Chiari syndrome and pitting edema of lower limbs. Paraneop
Management of biliary complications after orthotopic liver transplantation: The role of endoscopy
Maria C Londoo, Domingo Balderramo, Andrés Cárdenas
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2008,
Abstract: Biliary complications are significant causes of morbidity and mortality after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). The estimated incidence of biliary complications after OLT ranges between 10%-25%, however, these numbers continue to decline due to improvement in surgical techniques. The most common biliary complications are strictures (both anastomotic and non-anastomotic) and bile leaks. Most of these problems can be appropriately managed with endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC). Other complications such as bile duct stones, bile casts, sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, and hemobilia, are less frequent and also can be managed with ERC. This article will review the risk factors, diagnosis, and endoscopic management of the most common biliary complications after OLT.
Estudios Gerenciales , 2010,
Abstract: "beneficencia del valledel cauca " is a state-owned enterprise in charge of exploiting the gambling monopoly in the state. beneficencia del valledel cauca hired the consulting services of cienfi at universidad icesi to conduct a market study and prepare a marketing plan that would serve as basis for bidding for concessions for exploiting the monopoly of the smallbets game in five different zones in valle del cauca state. one of the most important results of this study is the projection of small-bets game?s sales based, among other aspects, on a central tendency measure of the investment per person in a year. this case presents decision-making problem associated with the selection of a central tendency measure and the implications of that decision
Estudios Gerenciales , 2011,
Abstract: this document presents a summary of the results of the characterization and measurement of cultural industries in cali. it also describes the situation of these industries in this city and proposes goals and actors necessary in order for the industry to thrive as a driver of economic development. it was found that cultural industries account for around 1,0% of the city?s gdp and generate 2,7% of all employment. it is a sector with high levels of informality, low levels of exports, and high volatility of production. until recently, this sector lacked public policies oriented towards fostering development.
La hipermocisteinemia un factor de riesgo de enfermedad cardiovascular, fácil de modificar
Alfonso William Córdoba Porras,Beatriz E. Meneses Londoo
Iatreia , 2002,
Abstract: The homicysteine (hcy), is an intermedia metabolity in the transformation of metionine to cysteine. Metabolic elimination of these substance depends on vitamins B6, B12 and folic acid and enzymes such like cistationine -sintase, and metilentetrahidrofolate reductase. The common denominators in heredity deficiency of one fo these enzymes or the ones taking part of the metabolism of the folate or the vitamin B12 are a significant raise of Hcy in blood and cardiovascular diseases. Since these observations, they began to relate the Hcy vith vascular disease. Researches in the last two decades point a moderate raise of Hcy as a risk factor in vascular alterations. This metabolity for mechanisms including activation of some ciagulation factors and inactivation of natural anticoagulants helps the thrombi forming and vascular endothelium damage. The raise of this substance is easy to midify through drug and diet media. Due to this, the Hcy takes part of an analytic parameter of growing use in clinical practice, in cardiovascular diseases patients, in the diagnosis and motitorizing of the response to anemia treatment caused by lack of vitamins B12 and/or folic acid, the value of the risk of having defects of the neural tube or espontaneus abortion, specially in cases where they are repetitive. A homocisteína (hcy), es un metabolito intermediario en la conversión de metionina a cisteína. La eliminación metabólica de esta sustancia es dependiente de las vitaminas B6, B12 y ácido fólico y de enzimas tales como la cistationina -sintasa, metionina sintasa y metilenotetrahidrofolato reductasa. Los denominadores comunes en las deficiencias hereditarias de una de estas enzimas o de las que intervienen en metabolismo del folato o de la vitamina B12 son el aumento severo de Hcy en sangre y las enfermedades cardiovasculares. A partir de estas observaciones, se empezó a relacionar Hcy en sangre y las enfermedades cardiovasculares. A partir de estas observaciones, se empezó a relacionar Hcy con enfermedad vascular. Los estudios de las dos últimas décadas también se alan al aumento moderado de Hcy como un factor de riesgo de alteraciones vasculares. Este metabolito por mecanismo que incluyen activación de algunos factores de la coagulación e inactivación de los anticoagulantes naturales favorece la formación de trombos y el da o del endotelio vascular. El aumento de esta sustancia es fácil de modificar mediante intervención dietética o farmacológica. Por este motivo la Hcy constituye un parámetro analítico de utilización creciente en la práctica clínica, en pacientes con en
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