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Settlement System of Belarus. Spatial and Temporal Trends at the End of 20th and the Beginning of the 21st Centuries
Ekaterina A. ANTIPOVA,Liudmila V. FAKEYEVA
Journal of Settlements and Spatial Planning , 2012,
Abstract: Formation factors of Belarus settlement system are analyzed in the article. Spatial and temporal trends in urban and rural settlement system of Belarus for the period of 1979-2009 years are characterized. Spatial and temporal shifts in the distribution of urban and rural population and the structure of urban and rural settlements are detected. The types of rural settlement of Belarus are presented. The features of distribution and demographic development of new Belarusian rural settlements form– agrotowns - are developed.
Experience of Using the Recombinant Human Superoxide Dismutase Drug in Neurological and Ophthalmological Practice  [PDF]
Elena E. Dubinina, Irina V. Churilova, Liudmila V. Lipatova, Liudmila V. Zhuravleva
Open Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (OJMC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojmc.2014.42005
Abstract:
Recsod? has been used for treating epilepsy and ophthalmological disease. Oxidative stress has been demonstrated to be a pathogenic chain of these diseases. Parameters of pro- and antioxidant systems were studied in all the patients treated. Recsod? drug was shown to produce positive effect in all the patients. Improvement of patients’ clinical condition correlated with an increase in antioxidant activities. Antioxidants, in particular, the recombinant human SOD drug, proved to be effective in treatment of some neurological and ophthalmological diseases.
Molecular Markers of Kidney Cancer Progression, Association with Efficiency of Pazopanib Therapy  [PDF]
Liudmila V. Spirina, Evgeny A. Usynin, Irina V. Kondakova, Zahar A. Yurmazov, Elena M. Slonimskaya
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2015.811072
Abstract: Purpose: The aim of the study is to reveal associations between NF-κB, HIF-1alpha, VEGF expres-sions, proteasome and calpain activities with tumor progression in patients with kidney cancers and to find molecular parameters, associated with the effective pazopanib therapy. 93 patients with clear cell kidney cancers are included in investigation. 26 patients with disseminated kidney cancer have the pazopanib therapy. Methods: Transcription factors, VEGF, VEGFR2 and p-m-TOR expression are measured by ELISA kits. Proteasome and calpain activity are determined using specific fluorogenic substrate. Results: It is found the increase of NF-κB, HIF-1 expression in cancer tissues followed the hematogenic metastasis development. Coefficient NF-κB р65/р50 and VEGF expression are increased in cancer tissues with single metastasis and are decreased in cancer tissues with multiple ones. It is observed in the low proteasome activity in metastatic cancer tissues. The partial cancer regression is revealed in 29.6% of patients treated with pazopanib, cancer stabilization—in 61.5% of patients and cancer progression—in 11.5% of patients. The increased level of transcription factors NF-κB, HIF-1, growth factor VEGF and high proteasome activity in cancer tissues before targeted therapy are associated with the effective treatment. It is obtained the significant decrease of investigated markers after pazopanib application in metastatic kidney cancer patients. Conclusion: Coefficient NF-κB р65/р50, VEGF expression and proteases activities are the potential prognostic molecular markers of hematogenic metastasis development in kidney cancers. NF-κB, HIF-1 and VEGF levels can be considered as additional molecular markers predicting the effective pazopanib therapy.
Kinetics and mechanisms of glucose absorption in the rat small intestine under physiological conditions  [PDF]
Andrei A. Gruzdkov, Liudmila V. Gromova, Nadezhda M. Grefner, Yan Yu. Komissarchik
Journal of Biophysical Chemistry (JBPC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jbpc.2012.32021
Abstract: Previous studies have shown two components of glucose absorption in the small intestine: a secondary active transport through SGLT1, and unsaturated component, recently attributed mainly to the facilitated diffusion through GLUT2, but the relationship between these two components under physiological conditions remains controversial. In chronic experiments on nonanesthetized rats we investigated for the first time the kinetics of maltose hydrolysis and glucose absorption in the isolated loop of the small intestine in a wide range of maltose and glucose concentrations (25 ÷ 200 mmol/l glucose). The processes were simulated on mathematical models which took into account the current views about mechanisms of hydrolysis and transport of nutrients and geometric characteristics of the intestinal surface. The results of chronic experiments and mathematical simulation have shown that under the close to physiological conditions the glucose transport mediated by SGLT1 is the main mechanism of its absorption in comparison with the unsaturated component. This was demonstrated not only at low, but also at high substrate concentrations. We conclude that correct evaluation of the relative contribution of different mechanisms in glucose transport through the intestinal epithelium requires taking into account the geometric specificities of its surface.
Evaluation of Biological Effects of Nanosystems of Directed Transport in Experiments in Vivo and Their Application Possibilities in Anti-Tumor Therapy  [PDF]
Vasyl F. Chekhun, Lesia A. Naleskina, Liudmila Z. Polishchuk, Igor M. Todor, Dmytro V. Demash, Natalia Yu. Lukianova
Advances in Nanoparticles (ANP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/anp.2013.22023
Abstract:

The aim of the investigations was to evaluate benefits of the directed transport system - a nanocomposite, based on cisplatin and magnetite combined with local action of constant magnetic field on the tumor, in experiments in vivo in animals with transplantable Guerin

Interrelation of Chemical Elements Content in Plants underConditions of Primary Soil Formation  [PDF]
Vladimir Mukhomorov, Liudmila Anikina
Open Journal of Soil Science (OJSS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2011.11001
Abstract: It is presented the results of a long-term and intensive experiment, which models the processes of primary soil formation under controlled agro-ecosystems. The influence of mineral substrate transformation is analyzed on the content of chemical elements in plants tomato, and wheat. For the first time have been established dynamic synergistic and antagonistic interrelations between the chemical elements in a various bodies of the plant (roots, reproductive bodies, stems, and leaves). Using methods of the theory of information was revealed dynamics of collective state of chemical elements in the plants. It is shown that the collective states of the chemical elements which defined by the information function is strictly differentiated for different plant bodies, and have hierarchic order. We analyzed the following chemical elements Si, Al, Fe, Mg, Ca, K, P, S, Cl, Na, Mn, Zn.
Occupational diseases in Murmansk Oblast: 1980–2010
Alexey A. Dudarev,Liudmila V. Talykova,Jon ?yvind Odland
International Journal of Circumpolar Health , 2013, DOI: 10.3402/ijch.v72i0.20468
Abstract: Background. Official statistics tend to underestimate the incidence of occupational disease (OD) nationally and regionally in Russia. Objectives. The general aim was to obtain an accurate estimate of ODs in Murmansk Oblast in 1980–2010 and to determine the rate of specific types of ODs among cohorts of workers who had been exposed to the hazardous factors causing the disease. Materials and methods. Data were retrieved from the Murmansk Oblast ODs database for the oblast and 2 enterprises – Apatite JSC and Kolskaya MSC – which contributed to more than half of the ODs in the oblast in 1980–2010. The total number of ODs and 5 specific categories (musculoskeletal, respiratory, nervous diseases, hearing loss and vibration disease) were analysed. Results. The total rate of ODs among workers of main shops in both enterprises who were actually exposed to harmful factors were extremely high: the rate for Apatite JSC was 25 times higher than in Russia and 15 times higher than in Murmansk Oblast, while the rate for Kolskaya MSC was about 30 and 20 times greater than in Russia and in Murmansk Oblast, respectively; in the 2000s the difference reached 100–150 times. The rise in reported ODs in both enterprises corresponded to the time when intensive medical examinations were conducted by the Kola Research Laboratory for Occupational Health (KRLOH) in Kirovsk. A similar pattern was also observed for the sub-categories of musculoskeletal, respiratory, nervous diseases, hearing loss and vibration disease. It is likely that the true burden of OD is even higher due to misdiagnosis, reluctance of workers concerned about job security to present for care and the lack of reliable information on working conditions needed to establish a causal link between disease and occupational exposure. Conclusions. As with many other regions across Russia, ODs in Murmansk Oblast are grossly underestimated. Serious problems exist in the Russian occupational health care system and the collection of occupational health statistics that require urgent, fundamental reform.
Regional models of metal production in Western Asia in the Chalcolithic, Early and Middle Bronze Ages
Avilova, Liudmila
Trabajos de Prehistoria , 2008,
Abstract: The objective of this work is the reconstruction and comparative analysis of regional models of metal production in the Chalcolithic, Early and Middle Bronze Ages. The work is based on the statistical analysis of unique computer database on archaeological metal finds from four regions of the Near East: Anatolia, Mesopotamia, the Levant, and Iran. The materials are analysed by four indicators: distribution by the chronological periods, artefacts’ function, proportion of used metals and copper- based alloys. The author presents a series of conclusions concerning the preconditions for the beginnings of metal production in Western Asia and the pioneering role of Iran in its emergence, the important role the piedmont territories played in the development of metal production, the leap-like pattern of production dynamics shown by the periods, and its relation to the spread of a producing economy, long-distance exchange, and the emergence of the early civilizations. El objetivo de este trabajo es la reconstrucción y análisis comparativo de modelos regionales de producción metalúrgica del Calcolítico y la Edad del Bronce Inicial y Media. Se basa en el análisis estadístico de una base de datos única sobre hallazgos metálicos de cuatro regiones del Próximo Oriente: Anatolia, Mesopotamia, el Levante e Irán. Los materiales se analizan atendiendo a cuatro variables: períodos cronológicos, función de los artefactos, proporción de los metales usados y las distintas aleaciones del cobre. La autora aporta una serie de conclusiones respecto a las precondiciones para los inicios de la producción metalúrgica en el Oeste Asiático; sobre el papel pionero de Irán en su aparición; la importancia de los piedemontes en su desarrollo; el patrón no continuo que se observa en las dinámicas de producción por periodos; y su relación con la expansión de la economía de producción, el intercambio a larga distancia y la aparición de las primeras civilizaciones.
Assessing and Increasing the Competitiveness of Republic of Moldova Wine Sector
Liudmila ANTOHI
Annals of Dun?rea de Jos University. Fascicle I : Economics and Applied Informatics , 2011,
Abstract: Competitiveness is the capacity of countries to create an enabling environment for indigenous business development; using low-cost strategies, differentiation, substitution, leading to increased productivity; creating opportunities to penetrate foreign markets and added value through their form; citizens by providing jobs with high pay, increasing the purchasing power; contributing to economic growth and to establish a balanced social environment. Enhancing competitiveness of national economy is one of five strategic priorities of the Republic of Moldova, stated in the draft National Development Plan. The wine industry is one of the most important branches of national economy in Moldova. But for Moldova's wine production to be competitive on the world market, wine industry itself should become a branch of modern, efficient, with high economic efficiency, which will not be achieved without investment and without attracting high quality production.
It ain't over when it's over: The adoption and sustainability of minority protection rules in new EU member states
Liudmila Mikalayeva
European Integration Online Papers , 2009,
Abstract: This paper conducts a multi-value Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) of the formal adoption and sustainability of minority protection rules in four new EU member states (Poland, Romania, Estonia, Latvia) over a twelve-year period including pre- and post-accession phases (1997-2008) and five minority protection related issue areas (non-discrimination, language use, education, citizenship, integration of Roma) based on four conditions (external incentives, government position, veto players, size of minorities), in order to investigate under which external and domestic conditions minority protection and non-discrimination measures are adopted, maintained or revoked in new member states before and after accession to the EU.
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