Abstract:
We consider a kinetic model of self-propelled particles with alignment interaction and with precession about the alignment direction. We derive a hydrodynamic system for the local density and velocity orientation of the particles. The system consists of the conservative equation for the local density and a non-conservative equation for the orientation. First, we assume that the alignment interaction is purely local and derive a first order system. However, we show that this system may lose its hyperbolicity. Under the assumption of weakly non-local interaction, we derive diffusive corrections to the first order system which lead to the combination of a heat flow of the harmonic map and Landau-Lifschitz-Gilbert dynamics. In the particular case of zero self-propelling speed, the resulting model reduces to the phenomenological Landau-Lifschitz-Gilbert equations. Therefore the present theory provides a kinetic formulation of classical micromagnetization models and spin dynamics.

Abstract:
Solutions to conservation laws satisfy the monotonicity property: the number of local extrema is a non-increasing function of time, and local maximum/minimum values decrease/increase monotonically in time. This paper investigates this property from a numerical standpoint. We introduce a class of fully discrete in space and time, high order accurate, difference schemes, called generalized monotone schemes. Convergence toward the entropy solution is proven via a new technique of proof, assuming that the initial data has a finite number of extremum values only, and the flux-function is strictly convex. We define discrete paths of extrema by tracking local extremum values in the approximate solution. In the course of the analysis we establish the pointwise convergence of the trace of the solution along a path of extremum. As a corollary, we obtain a proof of convergence for a MUSCL-type scheme being second order accurate away from sonic points and extrema.

Abstract:
Motivated by a phenomenon of phase transition in a model of alignment of self-propelled particles, we obtain a kinetic mean-field equation which is nothing else than the Doi equation (also called Smoluchowski equation) with dipolar potential. In a self-contained article, using only basic tools, we analyze the dynamics of this equation in any dimension. We first prove global well-posedness of this equation, starting with an initial condition in any Sobolev space. We then compute all possible steady-states. There is a threshold for the noise parameter: over this threshold, the only equilibrium is the uniform distribution, and under this threshold, there is also a family of non-isotropic equilibria. We give a rigorous prove of convergence of the solution to a steady-state as time goes to infinity. In particular we show that in the supercritical case, the only initial conditions leading to the uniform distribution in large time are those with vanishing momentum. For any positive value of the noise parameter, and any initial condition, we give rates of convergence towards equilibrium, exponentially for both supercritical and subcritical cases and algebraically for the critical case.

Abstract:
In this paper, we consider particle systems with interaction and Brownian motion. We prove that when the initial data is from the sampling of Chorin's method, i.e., the initial vertices are on lattice points $hi\in \mathbb{R}^d$ with mass $\rho_0(hi) h^d$, where $\rho_0$ is some initial density function, then the regularized empirical measure of the interacting particle system converges in probability to the corresponding mean-field partial differential equation with initial density $\rho_0$, under the Sobolev norm of $L^\infty(L^2)\cap L^2(H^1)$. Our result is true for all those systems when the interacting function is bounded, Lipschitz continuous and satisfies certain regular condition. And if we further regularize the interacting particle system, it also holds for some of the most important systems of which the interacting functions are not. For systems with repulsive Coulomb interaction, this convergence holds globally on any interval $[0,t]$. And for systems with attractive Newton force as interacting function, we have convergence within the largest existence time of the regular solution of the corresponding Keller-Segel equation.

Abstract:
We present a mathematical analysis of the asymptotic preserving scheme proposed in [M. Lemou and L. Mieussens, SIAM J. Sci. Comput., 31, pp. 334-368, 2008] for linear transport equations in kinetic and diffusive regimes. We prove that the scheme is uniformly stable and accurate with respect to the mean free path of the particles. This property is satisfied under an explicitly given CFL condition. This condition tends to a parabolic CFL condition for small mean free paths, and is close to a convection CFL condition for large mean free paths. Ou r analysis is based on very simple energy estimates.

Abstract:
The class of generating functions for completely monotone sequences (moments of finite positive measures on $[0,1]$) has an elegant characterization as the class of Pick functions analytic and positive on $(-\infty,1)$. We establish this and another such characterization and develop a variety of consequences. In particular, we characterize generating functions for moments of convex and concave probability distribution functions on $[0,1]$. Also we provide a simple analytic proof that for any real $p$ and $r$ with $p>0$, the Fuss-Catalan or Raney numbers $\frac{r}{pn+r}\binom{pn+r}{n}$, $n=0,1,\ldots$ are the moments of a probability distribution on some interval $[0,\tau]$ {if and only if} $p\ge1$ and $p\ge r\ge 0$. The same statement holds for the binomial coefficients $\binom{pn+r-1}n$, $n=0,1,\ldots$.

Abstract:
In this paper we study the Euler-Poincar\'{e} equations in $\Bbb R^N$. We prove local existence of weak solutions in $W^{2,p}(\Bbb R^N),$ $p>N$, and local existence of unique classical solutions in $H^k (\Bbb R^N)$, $k>N/2+3$, as well as a blow-up criterion. For the zero dispersion equation($\alpha=0$) we prove a finite time blow-up of the classical solution. We also prove that as the dispersion parameter vanishes, the weak solution converges to a solution of the zero dispersion equation with sharp rate as $\alpha\to0$, provided that the limiting solution belongs to $C([0, T);H^k(\Bbb R^N))$ with $k>N/2 +3$. For the {\em stationary weak solutions} of the Euler-Poincar\'{e} equations we prove a Liouville type theorem. Namely, for $\alpha>0$ any weak solution $\mathbf{u}\in H^1(\Bbb R^N)$ is $\mathbf{u}=0$; for $\alpha=0$ any weak solution $\mathbf{u}\in L^2(\Bbb R^N)$ is $\mathbf{u}=0$.

Abstract:
With great theoretical and practical significance, identifying the node spreading influence of complex network is one of the most promising domains. So far, various topology-based centrality measures have been proposed to identify the node spreading influence in a network. However, the node spreading influence is a result of the interplay between the network topology structure and spreading dynamics. In this paper, we build up the systematic method by combining the network structure and spreading dynamics to identify the node spreading influence. By combining the adjacent matrix $A$ and spreading parameter $\beta$, we theoretical give the node spreading influence with the eigenvector of the largest eigenvalue. Comparing with the Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) model epidemic results for four real networks, our method could identify the node spreading influence more accurately than the ones generated by the degree, K-shell and eigenvector centrality. This work may provide a systematic method for identifying node spreading influence.

Abstract:
Heat conduction process has recently found its application in personalized recommendation [T. Zhou \emph{et al.}, PNAS 107, 4511 (2010)], which is of high diversity but low accuracy. By decreasing the temperatures of small-degree objects, we present an improved algorithm, called biased heat conduction (BHC), which could simultaneously enhance the accuracy and diversity. Extensive experimental analyses demonstrate that the accuracy on MovieLens, Netflix and Delicious datasets could be improved by 43.5%, 55.4% and 19.2% compared with the standard heat conduction algorithm, and the diversity is also increased or approximately unchanged. Further statistical analyses suggest that the present algorithm could simultaneously identify users' mainstream and special tastes, resulting in better performance than the standard heat conduction algorithm. This work provides a creditable way for highly efficient information filtering.